Ziziphus numularia Burm. f.

Ziziphus  numularia Burm. f.

Botanical Name:       Ziziphus numularia Burm. f.Ziziphus numularia Burm.f.

Kingdom:                    Plantae

Order:                         Rosales

Family:                        Rhamnaceae

Genus:                         Ziziphus

Sindhi Name:              Ber

Local Name:               Jharber, Berr

English Name:           Jujube, Chinese apple

Part Used:                  Whole plant

 Description

Ziziphus numularia Burm. f. is a bushy and branched shrub. Young branches are puberulous and grey. Spines are present in unequal pairsand straight. Leaves are dark green and densely pubescent above. Flowers are 3-4 mm in diameter. Fruit is long, 2-seeded, and reddish brown-black when ripen1.

 Occurrence

Z. numularia is widely cultivated in Palestine, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India1.

 Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases

Wounds

  1. Boiled seeds of Ziziphus numularia L. (Chinese apple) is bandaged for the treatment of wounds in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  2. Ground ZiziphusnumuLariaL. (Chinese apple) with leaves of Azadirachtaindica(Neem), burnt leaves of Calotropisporcera(Crown Flower), and B. compestris oil to form paste and applied for the treatment of wound in District Badin (Sindh).
  3. Crushed washing soap is mixed with paste of Z. numularia leaves and jaggery and applied for the treatment of wounds in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  4. Grounded leaves of Z. numularia is mixed with oil and TriticumaestivumL. (Wheat) and bandaged for the treatment of wounds in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  5. Paste of Z. numularialeaves is applied for the treatment of wounds in District Jamshoro (Sindh).
  6. Paste of Z. numularialeaves is mixed with salt and applied for three days for the treatment of wounds in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  7. Paste of Z. numularialeaves is mixed with old honey and applied on wounds for 3-4 days in District Naushehroferoz (Sindh).
  8. Leaves of Acacia nilotica (L.) wild (Gum Arabica) and Z. numulariais toasted slightly and tied warmed on wounds in District Thatta (Sindh).
  9. Ground leaves of Majhandriand Z. numulariato form paste and applied for the treatment of wounds in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  10. Leaves of Z. numulariaare burned to ashes and mixed with oil to form paste and applied for the treatmentof wounds in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Abscess

  1. Paste of groundZ. numularialeaves is applied for the treatment of abscess in District Sukkur (Sindh). This remedy is also used for the treatment of blood blisters and hand cut in District Kambar-shahdadkot (Sindh).
  2. Powdered Curcumin longa (turmeric) is mixed with paste of Z. numlaria and DaturastromoniumL. (Datura) leaves, and flour of Triticumaestivum (Wheat) in equal quantity and applied for the treatment of abscess in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  3. Crushed washing soap is mixed with paste of Z. numularia leaves and applied for the treatment of abscess in Districts Ghotki and Sukkur (Sindh).
  4. Leaves of Z. numularia, Azadirachtaindica(Neem), and DalbergisissooRoxb. (Rose wood), is grounded with herb of Laptadeniapyrotechnica(Forssk.) Decne. (Camel throne) and mixed with oil to from paste and applied topically for the treatment of abscess in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  5. Leaves of Z. numulariaare tied on abscess till they burst in Districts Ghotki, Thatta, and Sukkur (Sindh).
  6. Leaves of Phyla nodiflora(L.) Greene (Frog fruit) and Z. numulariaare grounded to form paste in oil and applied warmed for the treatment of wounds in District Naushehroferoz (Sindh).
  7. Leaves of Z. numularia, Azadirachtaindica(Neem), and Dalbergisissoo (Rose wood) is grounded in Brassica compestrisL. (Mustard) oil and applied on affected areas twice a day for the treatment of abscess in District Naushehroferoz (Sindh).
  8. Paste of Z. numulariaand Dalbergisissoo (Rose wood) leaves is mixed with fuller’s earth and applied topically on affected areas of abscess till they burst and recovers in District Naushehroferoz (Sindh).
  9. Ground leaves of Z.numulariaand mixed withTriticumaestivum(Wheat) flour to form paste and applied topically for the treatment of abscess in District Thatta (Sindh).
  10. Paste of Z. numulariaand Dalbergisissoo (Rose wood) leaves is mixed in flour of Avena sativaL.(Oat)and applied for the treatment of abscess and boils in District Matiari (Sindh).

Ringworm

Ground leaves of Z. numulariawithAllium sativumL.(Garlic) and applied on infected areas for 3-4 days for the treatment of ringworm in District Umerkot (Sindh).

TineaCapititis infection and pyoderma

Paste of ground Z. numularialeaves is applied for the treatment of TineaCapititis infection and ringworm in District Thatta (Sindh). This remedy is also applied for the treatment of pyoderma in Districts Jamshoro and Ghotki (Sindh).

Candida Infection

Soak scrapings of Z. numlaria wood in water for a day, this water is used to take bath for the treatment of Candida infection in District Umerkot (Sindh).

Scabies

  1. Leaves of Z.numulariaand AzadirachtaindicaA. Juss. (Neem) are boiled, fuller’s earth is soaked in this water, mixed with juice of Citrus limonumR. (Lemon) and applied on affected areas for the treatment of scabies in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  2. Leaves of Z. numulariaare boiled and bath is taken with this water for 6-7 days for the treatment of scabies in District Matiari (Sindh).

Pyoderma

Leaves of Z. numulariais used for the treatment of pyoderma in District Sukkur (Sindh).

Blood blister

  1. Paste of Z. numularialeaves is mixed with jaggery, Triticumaestivum(Wheat) flour, and one table spoon warmed oil and applied topically for the treatment of blood blisters in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  2. Leaves of Z. numulariaare ground with seeds of Linumusitatissimum (Flax seeds) to form paste and applied for the treatment of blood blister in District Kambar-shahdadkot (Sindh).
  3. Leaves of Z. numularia are ground with crushed soap, jaggery, and Triticumaestivum(Wheat) in oil to form paste and applied on affected area for the treatment of blood blister in District Kambar-shahdadkot (Sindh).

Eczema

Leaves of Z. numularia and Azadirachtaindica(Neem) are ground to form paste and appliedfor thetreatment of eczema in District Ghotki (Sindh).

Boils and fungal infection

  1. Branches of Z. numulariaare burned and applied for the treatment of boils in District Nawabshah (Sindh).
  2. Paste of ground Z. numularialeaves is applied for the treatment of boils in DistrictsNawabshah, Jamshoro and Badin (Sindh). This remedy is also applied for the treatment of nail and fungal infection in Districts Jamshoro, Umerkot, and Jacobabad (Sindh).
  3. Crushed washing soap is mixed with paste of ground Vigna radiate L. (Red lentils) and Z. numulerialeaves and applied on affected areas for the treatment of boils in District Jamshoro (Sindh).
  4. Ground fruit of Z. numularia (Chinese apple), Triticumaestivum, and Curcuma longa is mixed in oil to form paste and applied for the treatment of boils in District Matiari.
  5. Paste of Z. numularialeaves in yogurt is applied for the treatment of boils in District Matiari (Sindh).
  6. Leaves of Dalbergiasisso (Indian Rose wood),Z.numulariais mixed with CicerarientumL. (Chickpea) flour and water to form paste, this paste is applied topically for the treatment of Boils in District Nausheroferoz (Sindh).

Chicken Pox

Paste of Z. numularia leaves is applied for the treatment of chicken pox in District Matiari (Sindh).

Measles

Crushed washing soap is mixed with paste of Z. numularia leaves, Withania Coagulation Dunal. (Vegetable rennet), jaggery and applied for the treatment of measles in District Ghotki (Sindh).

Prickly Heat

  1. Paste of Z. numularia leaves is mixed with fuller’s earth and used for the treatment of prickly heat in Districts Thatta, Hyderabad, Matiari, andGhotki (Sindh). This remedy is also used for the treatment of pyoderma in District Tando Mohammad Khan (Sindh).
  2. Paste of ground Z. numularialeaves is applied for the treatment of heat rashes in District Nawabshah (Sindh).

Snake Bite

Paste of ground Z. numularia leaves is applied for the treatment of snake bite in Districts Matiari and Hyderabad (Sindh).

Hair fall and Scabies

Boil leaves of Z. numularia, this water is used to wash hairs for the treatment of hair fall in District Tando Mohammad Khan (Sindh). Bath is also taken with this water for a week for the treatment of scabies in Districts Tharparkar and Tando Mohammad Khan (Sindh).

Pustules

Ground leaves of D. sisso, Azadirachtaindica A. Juss. (Neem), Eclipta prostrate L. (False Daisy), and Ziziphus numularia L. (Chinese apple) with Triticumaestivum L. (Wheat) flour, salt, Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric) in Brassica compestrisL. (Mustard) oil. This paste is applied warmed on affected areas for the treatment of pustules in District Ghotki (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

Major constituents of Z. numulariaare numularine A, B, C, M, N, O, P, R, S, and T, zynummin, ziziphine­N,  O,  ­P,  and  ­Q, and frangufoline. Root bark contains cyclopepetide, mucronine D, and amphibine H. Leaves contain ascorbic acid, protein, fixed oil, volatile oil, glycosides, saponin, phenol,fats, and flavonoids2,3,4.

Chemical Structure:

Ziziphus numularia Burm.f.st

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/ Scientific Studies:

Decoction of Z. numularia stem bark is used in diarrhea5. Seeds are recommended in Chinese medicine for strengthening nervous system and recovering from insomnia6. Bark is applied on boils and used in diarrhea and dysentery. Fruit is used in fever. Bar spouts, sugar, and Z. numularia seeds are mixed together and used in vomiting. Leaves and bark are used for dressing for healing wounds. Seeds are used for the treatment of eye diseases and leucorrhea. Fruit act as antidote to antidote to aconite bites4.

Numularine R and S are major constituent of this plant exhibited antibacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria, while frangufoline content is active against both gram-negative and positive bacteria. Bark exhibits significant analgesic, and molluscicidal activities3.

 References:

  • http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=250075386.
  • Khare, C. P. (2007), Indian Medicinal Plants, p. 736-737, Springer Science Publishers,
  • Shah, S. (2013). Pharmacological evaluation of Ziziphusnumularialeaves for phytotoxic and molluscicidal bioassays. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 7(45), 2887-2891.
  • Kumar, S., Garg, V. K., and Sharma, P. K. (2010). A Review of Pharmacologyonline, 2, 565574.
  • Bhattacharjee, S. K. (2004).Handbook of Medicinal Plants, p. 383-384, Pointer Publisher Jaipure 303003 (Raj), India.
  • Daniel, M. (2006).Medicinal Plants Chemistry and Properties, 118, Oxford and IBH Publishers, New Delhi, India.