Botanical Name: Valeriana hardwichii Wall.
Synonym: Valeriana jatamansi Jones.
Sindhi Name: Balchhar
Local Name: Bal-Charr
English Name: Valerian
Part Used: Rhizome or root stock
Valeriana hardwichii Wall. is a large and dichotomously branched herb. Flowers are white in color.1 It is a perennial herb with a thick horizontal root stock. Flower inflorescences in a corymb and is often unisexual. Irregular shape of roots rhizome is quite characteristic.2
Valeriana hardwichii Wall. is native to India, Nepal and China. It is found in Uttara Khand Himalaya from 2400 m to 3000 m.1 It is also found in Kashmir and Bhutan.2, 3 Flowering occurs during June-July and fruiting during September and October 3.
Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases:
Main constituents of Valeriana hardwickii Wall. are sesquiterpenes , valeracetate, methyl linoleate, bornyl acetate and cuparene.7 Oxygenated monoterpenes of the plant contain bornyl acetate and α-Terpinyl acetate.8 The major compounds found in V. hardwickii Wall. are alpha-pinene, camphene, gamma-terpinene, alpha-terpinyl acetate, alpha-longipinene, beta-elemene, alpha-cedrene, alpha-gurjunene, allo-aromadendrene, ar-curcumene, cuparene, kessane, viridiflorol, vulgarone-B, bulnesol, and drimenol.
Root contains 92% oil in them. Major constituents in the root oil are camphene, borneol, trans-anethole and maaliol. The dominant components in the stem and leaf oil are camphene, bornyl acetate and hexahydrofarnesyl acetone.9 Ethanolic extract contains volvalerenol A terpenoid with a 7,12,7 tricyclic ring system.10
Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/ Scientific studies:
Root preparations of Valeriana hardwichii Wall. is used as cosmetic and hair oil.1 In dysmenorrhea, it is used to relieve pain and it is also used in general debility.2 Roots are considered as an antiseptic agent.3 It is sedative and used as a brain tonic.4 It has been traditionally used in treatment of sleep problems, obesity, nervous disorders, snake poisoning, diarrhea and various skin diseases.5, 6
Valeriana hardwickii possesses antidiarrheal and antispasmodic properties.11 It also exhibits sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic and anticonvulsant effects.12, 13
1- Prof. Bhattacharjee, S. K. (2004), Handbook of Medicinal Plants, p. 365, Pointer Publisher Jaipure 303003 (Raj), India.
2- Shri Rao, P. V. N (1992), Selected Medicinal Plants of India, p. 337-339, Tata Publishers Ltd. Bombay-400 025, India.
3- Dhiman, A. K. (2006), Ayurvedic Drug Plants, p. 371-372, Daya Publishers, Delhi-110 035, India.
4- Khare, C. P. (2007), Indian Medicinal Plants, p. 537, Springer Publishers, New Delhi-110058, India
6- Bashir Samra; Memon Raafia; Gilani Anwar H., (2011), From Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : e CAM 2011304960,: Medline.
8- Bos,R., Woerdenbag, H. J., Hendriks, H. H. F., Smith, Wilkstrom, H. V. and J. C. Scheffer (1997). Composition of the essential oil from roots and rhizomes of Valeriana wallichi D. C, J. Flavour Fragr. 12, pp.123-131
9- Das J, Mao AA, Pratap JH, (2011), Volatile Constituents of Valeriana hardwickii Wall. Root Oil from Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalaya, Rec. Nat. Prod.,5(1), 70-73.
10- Samra, B., Memon, R., and Gilani, A. H., (2011), Antispasmodic and Antidiarrheal Activities of Valeriana hardwickii Wall.Rhizome are Putatively Mediated through Calcium Channel Blockade, Hindawi Publishers, 30, 49.
11- H. Wang, C. Tan, X. Bai, Y. Du, and B. Lin, (2006),“Pharmacological studies of anti-diarrhoeal activity of Gentianopsis paludosa,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 105, no. 1-2, pp. 114–117.
12- Cavadas, C., Araujo, I, Cotrim MD, et al. (1995), In vitro study on the interaction of Valeriana officinalis L. extracts and their amino acids on GABAA receptor in rat brain. Arzneimittelforschung; 45:753–755.
13- Yuan, C. S., Mehendale, S., Xiao, Y., Aung, H. H., Xie, J. T., and Ang-Lee, M. K. (2004), The gamma aminobutyric acidergic effects of valerian and valerenic acid on rat brainstem neuronal activity. Anesth Analg; 98:353–358.