Triticum aestivum L.

Triticum aestivum L.

Botanical Name:          Triticum aestivum L. Triticum aestivum L.

Kingdom:                      Plantae

Order:                           Poales

Family:                         Poaceae, Graminae

Genus:                          Triticum

Sindhi Name:               Kannak

Local Name:                 Gehun, Gandum

Part Used:                    Seeds, grains

English Name:              Common wheat

 

Description

Triticum aestivum Linn. is an annual grass. Leaves are flat, narrow, long, and broad. Spikes are long, slender, and dorsally compressed. Rachis is tough. Spikelets are 2-5 flowered, slightly overlap, erect, and pressed close to rachis1.

Occurrence

T. aestivumis cultivated in all parts of the World, from theArctic to the tropics.T. aestivum is also native to the Mediterranean region and southwest Asia3.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases

Abscess:

  1. 2 table spoon honey and some water are added in one cup of Triticum aestivumL. (Wheat) flour to make a paste. It is applied topically for the treatment of abscess in District Shikarpur(Sindh). This paste is also applied topically on affected area for the treatment of scabies in District Thatta (Sindh). It is also applied on wounds in District NaushahroFeroz (Sindh).
  2. Salt, Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric) powder, and T. aestivum flour is mixed with oil, and applied topically for the treatment of abscess, pustules, and onchomycosis in Districts Umerkot, Ghotki, and Naushahroferoz.
  3. T. aestivum flour is mixed with goat milk to make a thick paste, and applied for the treatment of abscess in District Khairpur. This paste is also applied on wounds twice a day till recovery in District Mirpurkhas, and for otitis externa in District Ghotki.
  4. Crushed fabric washing soap, T.aestivum flour and Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric) powder are mixed together to make a thick paste. It is used topically for the treatment of abscess in District Khairpur (Sindh).It is also applied on affected area for healing wounds in District Thatta (Sindh). This paste is also used as bandage on nails for the treatment of onychomycosis in DistrictMitiari(Sindh).

Acne

Brassica compestris L. (Mustard) oil, Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric), and T.aestivum flour are mixed together, and applied on acne atleast 2 times a day for 3-4 days in District Sanghar. The same paste is heated and applied on affected area for the treatment of boils and abscess in Districts Jamshoro and Nosheroferoz (Sindh).

Ringworm

  1. Ground jaggary is mixed with T.aestivum flour and then applied on the affected area of ringworm in District Sukkur (Sindh). The same paste is applied for curing abscess, freckles, athlete’s foot in Districts Sukkur, Larkana, and Shikarpur (Sindh). The same remedy is also used for healing wound in Districts Jacobabad and Kamber shahdad Kot (Sindh), for curing boils twice a day till recovery in District Naushahroferoz (Sindh), and for the treatment of pyoderma and injuries in District Kamber shahdad Kot.
  2. T. aestivum flour, jaggery, and Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric) are mixed together to make a thick paste, and used as a bandage for the treatment of ringworm in District Sukkur for the treatment of abscess in District Kahirpur and for curing blood blister in District Kamber Shahdad Kot (Sindh).
  3. T. aestivum flour is mixed with some water to make a paste and applied topically for 5 days for the treatment of ringworm and for healing wound in District Sukkur and Khairpur (Sindh). It is also applied on furuncle in District Jamshoro (Sindh). Paste is applied topically for the treatment of eczema in District Badin (Sindh). It is used topically for fungal infection such as, candida infection and also for the treatment of otitis externa in District Nawabshah (Sindh). It is also used for healing wound in District Thatta (Sindh). It is also used for the treatment of otitiss externa and abscess in District Jacobabad (Sindh). This remedy is also used for curing abscess in District Ghotki, Khairpur, and Kamber shahdad Kot (Sindh), for the treatment of pyoderma in District Khairpur (Sindh), for the treatment of fungal infection (onychomycosis and pityriasis alba) in District Tando Jam (Sindh) and for curing boils in District Kamber Shahdadkot (Sindh).
  4. Trachyspermum ammiL. (Carom), T. aestivum, and Allium cepa L. (Onion) are crushed to make a powder, and applied topically for 3 days for the treatment of ringworm in District Shikarpur (Sindh).
  5. Paste of sugar, Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric) powder, salt, and T. aestivum flour is applied topically for the treatment of ringworm in District Naushahroferoz (Sindh).
  6. T. aestivum oil is applied topically for the treatment of ringworm and fungal infections in District Sukkur (Sindh).

Alopecia

Peel of T. aestivum are burnt and mixed with sindhi oil and applied on scalp for the treatment of alopecia in District Sukkur (Sindh).

Blood blister:

  1. T. aestivum flour is mixed with some water and jaggery powder to make a paste, and applied for 2-3 days on blood blisters in District Kamber Shahdadkot (Sindh).The same remedy is used for the treatment of abscess in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  2. T. aestivum, khad piece*, saop, and jaggery are taken in equal quantities, and crushed to make a powder. This powder is mixed with oil and applied topically for 2-3 days on blood blisters in District Kamber Shahdadkot (Sindh).
  3. T. aestivum flour and salt are mixed together in some water to make a thick paste, and applied on blisters daily in District Kamber Shahdadkot (Sindh).
  4. T. aestivum flour is mixed with crystal sugar and water to make a paste, and applied on blisters in District QamberShahdadkot (Sindh).
  5. T. aestivum flour is mixed with oil to make an oily solution, and applied on blisters in District Kamber Shahdadkot (Sindh).
  6. T. aestivum flour, jaggery, and sweets are mixed together to make a thick paste, and applied on blisters in District Kamber Shahdadkot (Sindh).
  7. T. aestivum flour, jaggery, and salt are mixed in few drops of vegetable oil to make a thick paste, and applied on blisters daily till it burst in District Kamber Shahdadkot (Sindh).
  8. Ziziphus numulariaL. (Chinese apple), soap, jaggery, and T. aestivum are ground together, and mixed with oil to make an ointment. It is applied on blisters in District Kamber Shahdadkot (Sindh).

Wounds

Leaves of plants, P. nodiflora and T. aestivum are ground to make a paste, and applied on wounds in District Kamber Shahdadkot (Sindh).

Abscess:

  1. T. aestivum flour and salt are mixed together in some water to make a thick paste, and applied topically for the treatment of abscess and pyoderma in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  2. T.aestivum, Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric), mithataali*, and Allium sativum(Garlic) are ground to make a paste, and applied topically on affected area for the treatment of abscess in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  3. T. aestivum flour and honey or clarified butter are mixed together in some water to make a thick paste, and applied topically for the treatment of abscess in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  4. Crushed A. cepa, salt, and T.aestivum flour is mixed together, and applied topically for 3-4 days for the treatment of abscess in District Naushsahroferoz (Sindh).
  5. Ziziphus numularia L. (Chinese apple) leaves and T. aestivum flour is mixed with water to make a paste, and applied topically for the treatment of abscess in District Thatta (Sindh).
  6. T. aestivum flour is mixed with Acacia nilotica Wild. (Gum Arabica) to make a paste, and applied topically for the treatment of abscess in District Kamber Shahdad kot (Sindh).
  7. Citrulus colocynthis (L.) Schard and T. aestivum flour is mixed together, and applied topically for the treatment of abscess in District Khairpur(Sindh).
  8. Crushed A.cepa and T. aestivum flour is mixed together, and applied topically for the treatment of abscess in District Khairpur(Sindh).
  9. T. aestivum flour are mixed with Brassica compestris L. (Musturd) oil, and applied topically for the treatment of abscess in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  10. Crushed A. cepa and soap and then mixed with T. aestivum flour, and applied topically for the treatment of abscess in District Khairpur (Sindh).
  11. T. aestivum flour are mixed with jaggery and Brassica compestris L. (Musturd) oil, and applied topically for the treatment of abscess in Districts Khairpur and Sukkur (Sindh).
  12. T. aestivum flour is mixed with jaggery and Plantago ovate L. (Husk psyllium), and applied topically for the treatment of abscess in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  13. Fuller’s earth, Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric) powder, and T. aestivum flour is mixed together, and applied topically for curing abscess in District Badin (Sindh).
  14. Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric) powder and T.aestivum flour is mixed with water, and applied topically for the treatment of abscess in District Shikarpur (Sindh).
  15. T. aestivum flour and salt are mixed together in some water to make a thick paste, and applied topically for the treatment of abscess in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  16. T.aestivum, Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric), T. ammi, and Brassica campestris L. (Mustard)oil are ground to make a paste, and applied topically on affected area for the treatment of abscess and abscess in District Sukkur(Sindh).
  17. T. aestivum flour, salt, honey, and Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric) are mixed together to make a thick paste, and used as a bandage for the treatment of abscess in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  18. aestivum flour, salt, and butter are mixed together to make a thick paste, and applied topically for the treatment of abscess in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  19. T. aestivum flour, salt, soap, and Brasicca campestris L. (Mustard) oil are mixed together to make a thick paste, and applied topically for the treatment of abscess in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  20. C. cretica herb and T. aestivum flower is ground to make paste, and applied topically on abscess in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  21. T. aestivum oil is applied topically on abscess in District Sukkur (sindh).

Prickly heat

  1. aestivum flour, oil, and Phoenix dactylifera L. (Dates) are ground together, and the prepared paste is applied topically on prickly heat in District Sukkur (Sindh).

Wound

  1. A.verage*, Brassica compestris L. (Musturd) oil, sulfur, T. aestivum flour, jaggery, and Allium cepa L. (Onion) are ground together to make a paste. It is applied externally for healing wounds in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  2. T. aestivum, khad piece*, Linum usitatissimum L. (Flex seed), saop, and jaggery are taken in equal quantities, and crushed to make a powder. This powder is mixed with oil and applied on wounds in District Kamber Shahdadkot (Sindh).
  3. Ground jaggery and T.aestivum flour is mixed with T.aestivum oil to make an oily solution. This oil is applied on wound till recovery in Districts Shikarpur and Kamber Shahdadkot(Sindh).
  4. Trachyspermum ammi (Carom) and T. aestivum are crushed to make a powder, and applied topically for healing wound in District Kamber Shahdadkot (Sindh).
  5. Trachyspermum ammi (Carom), water, T.aestivum, and Hordeum vulgare L. (Barley) are crushed to make powder, and applied topically twice a day on wounds in District Shikarpur (Sindh).
  1. Jaggary, Linum usitatissimum L. (Flex seed) seeds, and T. aestivum are ground together to obtain a powder. It is applied on wounds for 3 days in District Shikarpur(Sindh).
  2. T. aestivum flour are mixed with Brassica compestris L. (Musturd) oil and applied on wound in district sukkur.
  3. Salvadora oleiodes Decne. (Salvadora) leaves and T. aestivum flour is mixed with water to make a paste, and applied topically for the treatment of wound in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  4. T. aestivum, crystal sugar, and egg is mixed together to make a paste, and applied topically for 3 days on affected area for healing wounds in District TandoAllahyar (Sindh).

Brown spots on skin:

T.aestivum flour is mixed with water to make a paste and applied on brown spots on skin in District Tando Allah yar (Sindh).

Pyoderma

  1. T.aestivum, Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric), T. ammi, jaggary, and Allium sativum(Garlic) are ground to make a paste, and applied topically on affected area for the treatment of pyoderma in District Shikarpur(Sindh).
  2. Paste of bran of T.aestivum is applied on pyoderma affected area in District Naushsahroferoz (Sindh).
  3. Sugar, salt, and T.aestivum flour is mixed with oil, and applied topically for the treatment of pyoderma in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  4. Sugar, Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric) powder, and T.aestivum flour is mixed with oil, and applied topically for the treatment of pyoderma in District Larkana.
  5. Ziziphus numularia L. (Chinese apple), T.aestivum flour, and salt are ground together to make a paste. It is applied topically for the treatment of pyoderma in District Sukkur(Sindh).

Acne and wound

T. aestivum seed are first chewed and then applied on acne and wounds in District Mitiari (Sindh).

Onychomycosis

Crushed Fabric washing soap, T.aestivum flour, Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric) powder, and clarified butter are mixed together to make a thick paste. It is used as bandage on nails for the treatment of onychomycosis in District Ghotki(Sindh).

Chicken pox and Boils

  1. T.aestivum flour is added in yogurt and mixed together to make a paste. It is applied on boils and chicken pox in District Mitiari(Sindh).
  2. T.aestivum flour, turmeric powder, and clarified butter are mixed together to make a paste. It is applied on boils in DistrictGhotki(Sindh).
  3. T.aestivum flour, sugar, and oil are mixed together to make a paste. It is applied on boils in DistrictMitiari(Sindh). It is also applied on abscess in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  4. Ziziphus numulariaL. (Chinese apple), T.aestivum, oil, and Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric) are ground together to make a paste. It is applied on boils in District Mitiari(Sindh).
  5. Salt, Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric) powder, and T.aestivum flour is mixed with water, and applied topically for the treatment of boils 3 days till burst in shikarpur. Heated on abscess ghotki.

Onychomycosis:

  1. T.aestivum flour is spreaded on nails for the treatment of onychomycosis in District Tando Allah yar (Sindh).
  2. T. aestivum flour, jaggery, and oil are mixed together to make a thick paste, and applied topically for the treatment of onychomycosis in District Kamber Shahdadkot (Sindh).The same remedy is used for the treatment of itching in District Sukkur (Sindh).

Candida infection

T.aestivum flour is mixed with water to make a paste and applied on infection for the treatment of candida infection in District Tando Allah yar (Sindh). This paste is also applied topically for the treatment of eczema in District Tando Jam (Sindh).

Furuncle

Brassica compestrisL. (Mustard) oil, jaggery, and T. aestivum flour are mixed together, and applied on furunclesin District Jamshoro (Sindh).

Acne

  1. T.aestivum flour, honey, and milk are mixed together to make a paste. It is applied for 20 minutes on acne in DistrictJamshoro(Sindh).
  2. T.aestivum, Cicerarientum L. (Chickpea),and Hordeumvulgare (Barley) are crushed to make a powder. It is applied topically twice a day on acne and boils in DistrictJamshoro(Sindh).
  3. T.aestivum and Cicer arientum(Chickpea) are crushed and mixed with water to make a paste. It is applied topically on acne DistrictJamshoro(Sindh).

Fungal infection, skin rashes, and abscess

T. aestivum flour and oil are mixed together to make a paste. It is applied topically for the treatment of fungal infection and abscess in District Khairpur (Sindh). It is also used topically for the treatment of rahes in District QamberShahdadkot (Sindh).

Pustules:

Brassica compestris L. (Mustard) oil, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Neem), Eclipta prostrate L. (False Daisy), Dalbergi sissoo Roxb. (North Indian Rosewood) leaves, salt, Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric), Ziziphus numularia L.( Chinese apple) leaves, and T.aestivum flour are mixed together, and heated. It is then applied on pustules in District Ghotki (Sindh).

Vitiligo

Laptadenia pyrotechnica (Forssk.) Decne. (Camelthron) water and T.aestivum flour is mixed with water to make a paste, and applied topically on white spots for the treatment of vitiligo in District Naushsahroferoz (Sindh).

Scabies

Calotropis porcera W.T. Aiton (Milkweed) milk and T.aestivum flour is mixed with water to make a paste, and applied topically for the treatment of Scabies in District Thatta (Sindh).

Burn:

T. aestivum flour is applied on burnt area in District Tando Muhammad khan..

Athlete’s foot

Allium cepa L. (Onion), Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric) powder, and T.aestivum flour is mixed together and then fried in oil, and applied topically for athelete’s foot in District Umerkot.

Wound and abscess

Triticumaestivum L. (Wheat) flour, jaggery, and salt are mixed together to make a thick paste, and used as a bandage for the treatment of abscess and for healing wound in district sukkur.

Ringworm, eczema and fungal infection:

T. aestivum oil is applied topically on ringworm and eczema in district sukkur.ringworm in ghotki, fungal infection in nf.Fungal infection sukkur.

Scabies

Babur wood is burnt and its extract is mixed with T. aestivumto make a thick paste. It is applied on affected area for the treatment of scabies in district sukkur.

Measles:

T. aestivum flour is mixed with milk and applied topically till recovery for the treatment of measles in District Sukkur (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

constituents of T. aestivumare alkaloids, flavanoids, carbohydrate, saponins, triterpenes, mimosine, phytosterols, tannins, glycosides, fixed oil, fats, phenolic compounds, gum, and mucilages. Leaves contain starch, arabinoxylan, β-glucan, O-glycosylflavone, vitamins, carotene, sulfur, and sodium8. Amino acids such as, threonine, aspartic acid asparagines, proline, glutamine, , arginine, glycine alanine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine and etc have been isolated from this plant.  Muco-polysaccharides, and chlorophyll, bioflavonides like apigenin, quercitin and luteonin, indole compounds, choline and laetrile (amygdalin) (3).

Chemical Structure:

Triticum aestivum L.st

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies:

T. aestivumis used as antiseptic agent and applied on burnt area, dermatosis, leprosy, itching, wound healing, and wart2.Flour prepared by crushing of wheat is used against skin infections such as scalds, itching, and burning eruptions4.Wheat bran is used as an emollient in psoriasis5.Wheat is also used externally for relieving pain, promoting wound healing, and skin regeneration. It can be used for treating verruca and pigmentation7.

T. aestivumproved to be a good anticancer, antiulcer, antioxidant, antiarthritic, antihyperglycemic, antibacterial, and antifungal activities10. It also possessed blood building activity in thalassemia patient3.

References

  1. Kirby, E. J. M. (2002). Botany of the Wheat Plant. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome. Italy.
  2. Kashyapa, S. K. (1992).The Useful Plants of India, p. 653, Publication and Information Directorate, CSI R.DR.K.S KrishanMarg, New Delhi-110012,India.
  3. Singh, N., Verma, P., andPandey, B. R. (2012). Therapeutic potential of organic Triticumaestivum(Wheat grass) in prevention and treatment of chronic diseases: An overview. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, 4(1), 10-14.
  4. Duke, J. A. (2002).Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, p. 765-766, V.II, CRC Press NewYork, Washington, DC. U. S. A.
  5. Nadkarins, K. M. (1954).Indian MateriaMedica, p. 1249-1250. Manglore Publishers, India.
  6. Khare, C. P. (2007).Indian Medicinal Plants, p. 676, Springer Science Publishers, New Delhi-110058, India.
  7. Faming ZhuanliShenqing (2011). CN 101987178 A 20110323, Language: Chinese, Database: CAPLUS.
  8. Resmi, C. R. (2001).Antidiabetic Effect of Herbal Drug in Alloxan Diabetic Rats. Indian Drugs, 38 (6), 3191