Trachyspermum ammi L.

Trachyspermum ammi L.

Botanical Name:        Trachyspermum ammi L.Trachyspermumammi L.

Kingdom:                    Plantae

Order:                         Apiales

Family:                       Apiaceace

Genus:                        Carum

Local Name:               Ajwain

Sindhi Name:              Jarn

English Name:            Caraway, Carom

Part Used:                   Whole plant

Description

Trachyspermum ammi L. is a grassy andflowering plant, usually 15-150 cm in height. Leaves are thin and pinnately divided. Stems are branched. Fruits are ovoid, small, brownish, and 2 mm in length. Fruits are long as pedicels1,2.

Occurrence

T. ammi is distributed to Afghanistan, North Africa, India, Middle East, and Pakistan.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases

Scabies:

  1. Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom) powder is mixed with karwa oil and applied topically for a week for the treatment of scabies and ringworm in District Shikarpur(Sindh).
  2. T. ammi are soaked in water and then sieved. This water is taken orally in the morning for the treatment of scabies in District Badin (Sindh).
  3. Terminaliabellirica(Gaertn.)Roxb.(Belliricmyrobalan), T. ammi, Papaversomniferum L. (Opium poppy), FoeniculumvulgareL. (Fennel), Terminalia chebula Retz.(Black myrobalan), and slug of Menthapiperita L. (Peppermint) are crushed to make powder. It is taken orally for the treatment of scabies in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  4. AzadirachtaindicaA. Juss. (Neem) leaves and T. ammi seeds are ground together to make a paste. It is applied topically for the treatment of scabies in District Jacoababad (Sindh).
  5. LallemantiaroyleanaBenth. (Black psyllium) leaves and T. ammi seeds are ground together to make a paste. It is applied topically for the treatment of scabies in District Jacoababad (Sindh).
  6. T. ammi and AlliumsativumL. (Garlic) are ground to make a paste, and taken orally with water daily in District Sanghar (Sindh).

Prickly heat:

Prunusdomestica L. (Plum) and T. ammiare mixed together in water, and taken orally for the treatment of prickly heat in district sukkur (sindh).

Ringworm

  1. T. ammiseeds are mixed in SyzgiumcuminiL. (Black pulm) oil, and applied topically for the treatment of ringworm in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  2. T. ammi, Triticumaestivum L.(Wheat), and Allium cepa L. (Onion) are crushed to make a powder, and applied topically for 3 days for the treatment of ringworm in District Shikarpur(Sindh).
  3. T. ammi leaves are ground to make a paste and applied topically for the treatment of ringworm in District TandoMuahmmad Khan (Sindh).
  4. T. ammi and alum are burnt together, and mixed with water to make paste. It is applied topically for the treatment of ringworm in District Tharparker (Sindh).

Wound

T. ammi, water, Triticumaestivum (Wheat), and Hordeumvulgare L. (Barley) are crushed to make powder, and applied topically twice a day on wounds in District Shikarpur(Sindh).

Pyoderma

  1. Triticumaestivum (Wheat), Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric), T. ammi, jaggary, and Alliumsativum (Garlic) are ground to make a paste, and applied topically for the treatment of pyoderma in District Shikarpur(Sindh).
  2. T. ammiseeds and crystal sugar are crushed and mixed with some water to obtain a paste. It is applied topically for the treatment of pyoderma in District NaushahroFeroz (Sindh).
  3. T. ammiseeds are burnt in oil and applied topically for the treatment of pyoderma in District Sukkur (Sindh).

Hair loss

Some amount of T. ammi, Lens culinaris Med. (Lentil), and PhyllanthusemblicaL. (Gooseberry) are ground, and mixed with Brassica compestrisL. (Mustard) oil to make an oily solution. It is applied on scalp thrice a week for the treatment of hair loss in District Umerkot (Sindh).

Hairfall:

Rope and T. ammiare burnt into ashes. It is then fried in oil to make an oily solution and applied on scalp for making hair strong for the treatment of hairfall in District Mitiari (Sindh).

Phulri;

T.aestivum, Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric), T. ammi, and Brassica campestris L. (Mustard)are ground to make a paste, and applied topically on affected area for the treatment of phulri in District Sukkur(Sindh).

Heel cracking:

T. ammi, LawsoniainermisL. (Henna), and karwa oil are mixed together, and applied on heel daily for healing crack in District Jamshoro (Sindh)

Measles:

  1. CinnamomumzeylanicumGarcin ex Blume (True cinnamon), AmomumsubulatumRoxb. (Black cardamom), and T. ammiare crushed to obtain a powder. One tablespoon of this powder is taken orally with goat milk for one week for the treatment of measles in district ghotki (sindh).
  2. Amomumsubulatum(Black cardamom), T. ammi, Piper nigrum L. (Black pepper), and Foeniculumvulgare (Fennel) are crushed to obtain a powder. It is taken orally with goat milk for one week for the treatment of measles in District Ghotki (Sindh).

Abscess:

T. ammi, Tamarindus indica L. (Tamarind), and WithaniacoagulansDunal. (Vegetable rennet) are crushed, and then mixed with clarified butter, and butter to make a paste. It is applied topically on affected area for the treatment of abscess in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Pustules:

Ground T. ammi, Amomumsubulatum(Black cardamom), and jaggary are mixed with milk. It is applied topically once daily for the treatment of pustules in District NaushahroFeroz (Sindh).

Dandaruff

Leaves of both plant, T. ammiandAzadirachtaindicaA. Juss. (Neem), are ground to make a paste. Oil is added in this paste and applied on scalp for getting rid of dandruff in District Thatta (Sindh).

Hair follicles:

T. ammin burnt in oil and applied on hair follicles in District Thatta (Sindh).

Urticaria:

58 g T. ammi and a pinch of salt is mixed in 58 gbutter oil, and then applied topically on affected area for the treatment of urticaria in District Sanghar (Sindh).

Wound and swelling:

  1. ammiseeds are mixed in Syzgiumcumini(Black pulm) oil or Brassica compestrisL. (mustard) oil, and applied topically for the treatment of wound and swelling in District Larkana (Sindh).

Phulri;

T.aestivum, Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric), T. ammi, and Brassica campestris L. (Mustard)are ground to make a paste, and applied topically on affected area for the treatment of phulri in District Sukkur(Sindh).

Onychomycosis

One tablespoonT. ammiseedsare burnt and tied on affected area for the treatment of onychomycosis in District Sukkur (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

T.ammicontaincarvacrol3, ρ-cymene, α– and β-pinene, thymol, γ-terpinene4,5, carbohydrates, saponins, fat, glucosides, protein, fiber, minerals such as phosphorus, iron, calcium, and nicotinic acid6, elemol, α–cadinol, caryophyllene, limonene, and β-eudesmol7.Seeds contain thymine, cumene,steroptin, and amino acids such as, lysine and threonine8.

Chemical Structure:

Trachyspermumammi L.st

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

T.ammiis used for various gastrointestinal disorders such asabdominal pain, diarrhea, bloating, loss of appetite, fatigue, and respiratory distress6.Fruits are crushed to make a paste that is applied topically for relieving pain of colic. Fruits fomentation is applied externally on the chest for curing asthma11. Seeds are used internally for atomic dyspepsia and cholera. Seed powder mixed with buttermilk is used internally for the removal of phlegm17.

T. ammi has been reported to possessantimicrobial, antilithiasis, antidyspnea,antiseptic, antiplatelet-aggregatory, antiparasitic, amoebiasis expectorant, antitussive9, pro-apoptotic, anti-proliferative3, fumigant10, diuretic11, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant12, antibacterial13, anticholinergic,relaxant14, antihypertensive,antispasmodic,and hepatoprotective effects15. It also has abortion potential and galactogogue properties16.

References

  1. Flora of Pakistan:http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspxflora_id=5&taxon_id=200011856.
  2. Mohagheghzadeh, A., Faridi, P., and Ghasemi, Y. (2007). Carum copticum & Hook., essential oil chemotypes. Food Chemistry100(3), 1217-1219.
  3. Yin, Q. H., Yan, F. X., Zu, X. Y., Wu, Y. H., Wu, X. P., Liao, M. C.,and Zhuang, Y. Z. (2012). Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effect of carvacrol on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG-2. Cytotechnology, 64(1), 43-51.
  4. Nagalakshmi, S., Shankaracharya, N. B., Naik, J. P., and Rao, L. M. (2000). Studies on chemical and technological aspects of ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Syn. Carum copticum Hiern) seeds. Journal of Food Science and Technology (Mysore), 37(3), 277-281.
  5. Masoudi, S., Rustaiyan, A., Ameri, N., Monfared, A., Komeilizadeh, H., Kamalinejad, M., and Jamir-Roodi, J. (2002). Volatile Oils of Carum copticum (L.) CB Clarke in Benth. et Hook, and Semenovia tragioides (Boiss.) Manden. from Iran. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 14(4), 288-289.
  6. Boskabady, M. H., Alitaneh, S., and Alavinezhad, A. (2014). Carum copticum A herbal medicine with various pharmacological effects. BioMed Research International, 2014.
  7. Lockwood, G. B., Asghari, G., and Hakimi, B. (2002). Production of essential oil constituents by cultured cells of Carum copticum Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 17(6), 456-458.
  8. Fazeli-nasab, B., and Fooladvand, Z. (2016). A Review on Iranian Carum copticum (L.): Composition and Biological Activities.
  9. Zarshenas, M. M., Moein, M., Samani, S. M., and Petramfar, P. (2013). An overview on ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi) pharmacological effects; modern and traditional. Journal of Natural Remedies, 14(1), 98-105.
  10. Sahaf, B. Z., and Moharramipour, S. (2008). Fumigant toxicity of Carum copticum and Vitex pseudo-negundo essential oils against eggs, larvae and adults of Callosobruchus maculatus. Journal of Pest Science, 81(4), 213-220.
  11. Chauhan, B., Kumar, G., and Ali, M. (2012). A review on phytochemical constituents and activities of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague fruits. American Journal of PharmTech Research, 2(4), 329-40.
  12. Kazemi, M. (2014). Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Carum copticum Essential Oil. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 17(5), 1040-1045.
  13. Goudarzi, G. R., Saharkhiz, M. J., Sattari, M., and Zomorodian, K. (2010). Antibacterial activity and chemical composition of Ajowan (Carum copticum & Hook) essential oil. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 13, 203-208.
  14. Boskabady, M. H., and Shaikhi, J. (2000). Inhibitory effect of Carum copticum on histamine (H 1) receptors of isolated guinea-pig tracheal chains. Journal of ethnopharmacology69(3), 217-227.
  15. Gilani, A. H., Jabeen, Q., Ghayur, M. N., Janbaz, K. H., and Akhtar, M. S. (2005). Studies on the antihypertensive, antispasmodic, bronchodilator and hepatoprotective activities of the Carum copticum seed extract. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 98(1), 127-135.
  16. Jeet, K., Devi, N., Narender, T., Sunil, T., Shalta, L., and Raneev, T. (2012). Trachyspermum ammi (ajwain): a comprehensive review. International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 3(5), 133-138.
  17. Dwivedi, S., Rahul, M., and Chaturvedi, M. (2012). Phytochemistry, Pharmacological studies and Traditional benefits of Trachyspermumammi (Linn.) Sprague.International Journal Of Pharmacy & Life Sciences. 3(1), 1363-1367.