Terminalia belerica Roxb.

Terminalia belerica Roxb.

Botanical Name:         Terminalia belerica Roxb. Terminalia belerica Roxb.

Kingdom:                      Plantae

Order:                           Myrtales

Family:                         Combretaceae

Genus:                          Terminalia

Sindhi Name:               Harir

Local Name:                 Bahera, Bari hareer

English Name:              Myrobalan bastard

Part Used:                     Leaves, bark, fruit, and gum


TerminaliabelericaRoxb.is a tall deciduous tree often with buttresses, which is up to 20 m tall and has bluish or ashy-grey bark.Leaves are long and clustered. Flowers are pale green, ill smelling, and arise in simple spikes. Fruit is long, ovoid, brownish-colored, and covered with hairs1,2.


T. belericais native to India and Malaysia and found up to 914 m elevations and along the foothills of Himalaya3.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases:


Terminaliabellirica(Gaertn.) Roxb.(Belliricmyrobalan) and Terminalia chebula Retz. (Black myrobalan) are crushed to make a powder, and taken orally for the treatment of alopecia in District Sukkur (Sindh).


T. bellirica, TrachyspermumammiL. (Carom), Papaversomniferum L. (Opium poppy), Foeniculumvulgare L. (Fennel), Terminalia chebula (Black myrobalan), and slug of Menthapiperita L. (Peppermint) are crushed to make powder. It is taken orally for the treatment of scabies in District Ghotki (Sindh).


T. bellirica, Terminalia chebula (Black myrobalan), and Piper nigrum L. (Black pepper) are crushed to make a powder, and applied topically on boils in District Ghotki (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

Main constituents are bellerericanin, ß-glucogallin, myristic acid, palmotic acid, stearic acid, Vitamin A, B1, B2, and C4.Termilignan, anolignan B10, ethyl gallate, galloyl glucose, chebulaginic acid, phenyllemblin, β-sitosterol, shikimic acid, dehydro-shikimic acid, mannitol, glucose, fructose, and rhamnose are its important constituents5.

Chemical Structure:

Terminalia belerica Roxb.st

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

Fruit powder of T. belericais used as a tonic, laxative, and brain tonic. This plant is useful in piles, leprosy, dropsy, and fever1.Fruit is purgative when half ripened and astringent when fully ripe2. Oil obtained from its fruit is applied on hairs and rheumatic swellings3. This plant is used in allergic eruptions6.

T. belericais reported forantioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiarrhoeal, antidiabetic, analgesic, hyperglycemic, antihypertensive, antisalmonella, antispasmodic, bronchodialatory, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial activities7.


  1. Bhattacharjee, S. K. (2004).Handbook of Medicinal Plants, p. 343, Pointer Publisher, Jaipure 303003 (Raj), India.
  2. Joshi, S. G. (2000).Medicinal Plants, 142-143, Mohan Primlani Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt.Ltd.66 Janpath, New Delhi 110001, India.
  3. Dhiman, A. K. (2006).Ayurvedic Drug Plants, p. 375-64, Daya Publishing House Delhi-110 035, India.
  4. Nadkarni, A. K. (1982).Indian MateriaMedica, Volume 1, 3rd Bombay: Popular Parakashan Publishers Pvt.Ltd;
  5. Saroya, A. S. (2011).Herbalism Phytochemistry and Ethanopharmacology, Science Publishers. 357-361.
  6. Khare, C. P. (2012).Indian Medicinal Plants, p. 652, Springer Science Publisher. Delhi, India.
  7. Motamarri, S. N., Karthikeyan, M., Kannan, M., and Rajasekar, S. (2012). Terminaliabelerica-A phytopharmacological review. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, 3, 96-99.