Syzgium cumini L.
Botanical Name: Syzygium cumini (L.)
Synonym: Eugenia jambolana Lam
Local Name: Jambul, Jambolan, or Jamun
Sindhi Name: Jamoon
English Name: Black plum tree
Part Used: Stem bark, Fruit and Seed
Syzygium cumini tree is 6-20 m tall. Branchlets are grayish white (when dry) in color. Leaf blade are elliptic leathery, slightly pale in color. Inflorescence is axillary on flowering branches. Flowers are greenish-white in color, branched clusters at stem tips, and are oblong or round in shape. Fruit are ellipsoid to pot-shaped and red to black in color, and single seeded.
Syzgium cumini L. tree is distributed in Indian sub-continent, Pakistan, India, Burma, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka Nepal, and Indonesia.
Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases
- Paste of yougurt and Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (Jambul) oil is used twice a day to cure pyoderma in District Umerkot (Sindh).
- Powder of S. cumini seeds is mixed with Brassica compestris L. (Mustard) oil, this paste is used for curing pyoderma in District Tando Mohammad Khan (Sindh).
Ashes of S. cumini (Jambul) wood are applied on the affected area in District Mitiari (Sindh).
- S. cumini oil is used for the treatment of alopecia in District Jamshoro.
- Powder of Lawsonia inermis L. (Henna) leaves, oil of S. cumini, and Cocus nucifera L. (Coconut) oil are mixed and applied to the affected area of alopecia in District Ghotki (Sindh).
Oil of C. nucifera (Coconut), Brassica compestris L. (Mustard), S. cumini is mixed with the paste of Acorus calamus L. (Sweet flag) and applied on the scalp for the control of dandruff in District Jamshoro(Sindh).
- Oil of S. cumini (Jambul) is mixed with Brassica compestris (Mustard) oil with or without salt is used for the treatment of scabies in District Ghotki (Sindh).
- Oil of S. cumini is applied at the affected area for the treatment of scabies in Districst Naushahroferoz, Sanghar, and Nawabshah (Sindh). Cold oil of S. cumini (Jambul) is applied for curing scabie in District Kamber Shahdad Kot (Sindh).
- Oil of S. cumini with or without salt is applied for curin scabies in District Kamber Shadad Kot (Sindh).
Wound and Ringworm:
- Carum copticum L. (Bishops weed) is mixed with oil of S. cumini and applied on the wound for healing in District Larkana (Sindh). This paste is used for curing ringworm in District Ghotki (Sindh).
- Oil of S. cumini is used for wound healing and for curing ringworm in District Badin (Sindh). It is used for the treatment of vitiligo in District Kamber Shahdad Kot (Sindh).
Main constituents of this plant are rich glucosides, betulinic acid, β-sitosterol, eugenin, ellagic acid, isoquercetin, friedelanol, epi-friedlanol, friedelin, anthocyanins, myrecetin, and kaemferol. Leaves are rich in acylated flavanol glycosides, myricetin, and 3-O-4-acetyl-L-rhamnopyranoside. Seeds have been reported to be rich in flavonoids and polyphenols. Flowers contain acetyl oleanolic acid, eugenol-triterpenoid A and B. Roots contains glycosides, flavonoid, and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside. Fruits found to contain gallic acid, petunidin, malvidin, cyaniding diglycoside, malvidin-3-laminaribioside and delphinidin-3-gentiobioside [2,3].
Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies
Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (jambolan) is widely for the treatment of various diseases such as fruits are used for a cough, dysentery, chronic diarrhea, diabetes, inflammation and as diuretic. Bark is used for curing sore throat, asthma, bronchitis, biliousness, thirst, ulcers and dysentery. Ashes of the leaves are used for strengthening the teeth and gums. Leaves are also reported to exhibited antihyperglycemic anti-allergic, antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-HIV, antileishmanial, antifertility, and anorexigenic activities. [4-6]
- Ayyanar, M., and Subash-Babuz, P. (2012). Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels: A review of its phytochemical constituents and traditional uses. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 240-246.
- Sowjanya, K.M., Swathi, J., Narendra, K., and Krishna Satya, A. (2013). A Review on Phytochemical Constituents and Bioassay of Syzygium cumini.International Journal of Natural Product Science,3(2), 1-11.
- Teixeira, C. C., Weinert1, S. L., Barbosa1, D. C., Ricken, C., Esteves, J. F., Danni Fuch, F. (2004). Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 27(12), 3019-3020.
- Banerjee, A., Dasgupta, N., De, B. (2005). In vitro study of antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini fruit. Food Chemistry, 90(4), 727–733.
- Brito, F. F., Lima, L. A., Ramos, M. F. S., Nakamura, M. J., Cavalher-Machado, S. C., Siani, A. C., Henriques, M. G. M. O., Sampaio, A.L.F. (2007). Pharmacological study of anti-allergic activity of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 40, 105-115.