Solanum melongena Linn

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Botanical name: Solanum melongena Linn.

Synonym:           Solanum indicum Linn.

Family:               Solanaceae

Kingdom:           Plantae

Order:                 Solanales

Genus:                Solanum

Sindhi name:      Vangarh

Local name:        Bengan

English name:     Egg palnt, Brinjal

Part used:            Root, leaves, fruits and seeds

Description:

Solanum melongena L. is a herbaceous prickly, or sometimes unarmed, delicate, tropical perennial plant.1 It grows 40 to 150 cm tall, with large, coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm long and 5 to 10 cm broad. Flowers are white to purple, with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens. The egg-shaped glossy black fruit has white flesh with a meaty texture. The fruit is botanically classified as a berry and contains numerous small, soft seeds which are edible, but have a bitter taste because they contain nicotinoid alkaloids.

Occurrence:

Solanum melongena L. is native to subcontinent and it is cultivated almost throughout the India.1 It has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory.5, 6

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases:

Wrinkles and acne are treated by applying heated brinjal on skin regularly.

Constituents:

Methanolic and aqueous extracts of Solanum melongena L. have alkaloids, saponins, steroids, tannins, phenolics, flavonoids, proteins and carbohydrates.10 This plant also contains 4α-methylsterols, vanillin, isoscopeletin, ethyl caffeate, trans-ferulic acid and p-aminobenzaldehyde, along with four phenolic amides-N-trans-feruloyltyramine, N-trans-p-coumaroyltyramine, N-trans-feruloyloctopamine & N-trans-p-coumaroyloctopamine.11 Fruit of Solanum melongena contain solasodin.12 The aerial parts of the  Solanum melongena contains solanoflavone.13Melongena amides have been isolated from the roots of Solanum melongena L plant.14

Leaves contain 4-ethylactechol, trans-caffeic, hydrocafeic, protocatechuic and chlorogenic acids. Constituents of the seeds are γ-Hydroxyglutamic acid, lanost-8-en-3β-ol, lanosterol, 24-methylene lanost-8-en-3β-ol, cycloartanol, cycloartenol, 24-methulenecycloartanol, lupeol, β-amyrin, daturaolone and daturadiol.

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Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/ Scientific studies:

Leaves of Solanum melongena L. are used mostly externally for the treatments of burns, scalds, sores and abscesses.1 Juice of the roots is used in otitis externa.3 Fruit is employed as a cure for toothache. Traditional Chinese medicinal compositions containing Solanum melongena for treating burns and scald by external use.7 Chinese medicinal ointment comprisesPsoralea corylifolia 100-150, borneol 50-150, lithargyrum 50-100, Eclipta prostrata 100-150, vaseline 500-1000, and optionally, Spirodela polyrrhiza 100-150, Cnidium monnieri fruit 100-150, and purple eggplant root 100-150 g, is used for treating vitiligo through regulating blood, nourishing the liver and kidney, and restoring normal skin tone, with no adverse side effect.8The liquid or an ointment of egg plant is used for the treatment of athlete’s foot, wart, herpes, eczema and tropical fish diseases.9

Solanum melongena L. possesses antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, analgesic, anti inflammatory and antiseptic properties.2, 6, 15, 16, 19 Egg plant is antipyretic, it is also used for treating asthma and hyperlipidemia.17, 18, 19, 20,30 It also prevents glaucoma.22 The solasodine content of brinjal is used as an oral contraceptive.31

 

References:

1- Khare, C. P. (2007), Indian Medicinal plants, p. 613, Springer Publishers, New Delhi-110058, India.

2- Duke, J. A., (2002). Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, II, p. 267, CRC press, New York, Washington, DC, U. S. A.

3- Joshi, S. G. (2000).  Medicinal plants, p. 377, Mohan Primlani Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt.Ltd.66 Janpath, New Delhi 110001, India.

4- Dr. Nadkarins, K. M. (1954). Indian Materia Medica, p. 1152, Manglore3 Press, India.

5- Tsao and Lo in “Vegetables: Types and Biology“. (2006), Handbook of Food Science, Technology, and Engineering by Yiu H. Hui. CRC Press. ISBN 1-57444-551-0.

6- Doijode, S. D. (2001). Seed storage of horticultural crops (pp 157). Haworth Press: ISBN 1-56022-901-2

7- Zheng, Fazhong, Faming Zhuanli Shenqing (2011), CN 102166283 A 20110831, Language: Chinese, Database: Caplus

8- Chen, Hengshu, Faming Zhuanli Shenqing (2011), CN 102018753 A 20110420, Language: Chinese, Database: Caplus

9- Nishimura, Takafumi, Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho (2003), JP 2003212785 A 20030730, Language: Japanese, Database: Caplus

10- doi:10.5138/ijpm.2009.0975.0185.05787  ©arjournals.org,

11-(Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1993)

12-(Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1990)

13-Arch Pharm Res. 2005 Jun; 28(6):657-9.

14-http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0367326X14001920#fx1

15- Shrivastava A, Srivastava N, Kumar N. Phytochemical screening and study of analgesic activity of brinjal leaves. Pharma Sci Mon 2012;3:3028-33.

16- Shrivastava A, Srivastava N, Kumar N. (2012), Phytochemical screening and study of analgesic activity of brinjal leaves. Pharma Sci Mon;3:3028-33.
17- Vohora SB, Kumar I, Khan, MS. (1984), Effect of alkaloids of Solanum melongena on the central nervous system. J Ethnopharmacol;11:331-6.
18. Mutalik S, Paridhavi K, Rao CM, Udupa N. (2003), Antipyretic and analgesic effect of leaves of Solanum melongena Linn. in rodents. Indian J Pharmacol;35:312-5.
19. Gazzani G, Papetti A, Daglia M, Berte F, Gregotti C. (1998), Protective activity of water soluble components of some common diet vegetables on rat liver microsome and the effect of thermal treatment. J Agric Food Chem;46:4123-7.
20 Sudheesh S, Sandhya C, Saraj KA, Vijayalakshmi NR. (1999), Antioxidant activity of flavonoids from Solanum melongena. Phytother Res;13:393-6.
21 Han SW, Tae J, Kim JA, Kim DK, Seo GS, Yun KJ, et al. (2003), The aqueous extract of Solanum melongena inhibits PAR2 agonist-induced inflammation. Clin Chim Acta;328:39-44.
22 Bello SO, Muhammad B, Gammaniel KS, Aguye AI, Ahmed H, Njoku CH, et al. (2004), Randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial of Solanum melongena L. fruit in moderate to severe asthmatics. J Med Sci; 4:263-9.
23 Lee YM, Jeong HS, Na HJ, Ku JY, Kim DK, Moon G, et al. (2001), Inhibition of immunologic and non immunologic stimulation-mediated anaphylactic reactions by water extract of white eggplant (Solanum melongena). Pharmacol Res;43:405-9.
24 Sudheesh S, Presannakumar G, Vijiyakumar S, Vijayalakshmi NR. (1997), Hypolipidemic effect of flavonoids from Solanum melongena. Plant Foods Hum Nutr;51:321-30.
25. Guimaraes PR, Galvao AM, Batista CM, Azevedo GS, Oliveira RD, Lamounier RP, et al. (2000), Egg plant (Solanum melongena) infusion has a modest and transitory effect on hypercholesterolemic subjects. Braz J Med Biol Res;33:1027-36.
26 Mans DR, Toelsie J, Mohan S, Jurgens S, Muhringen M, Illes S et al. (2004), Spasmogenic effect of a Solanum melongena leaf extract on guinea pig tracheal chains and its possible mechanism(s). J Ethnopharmacol;95:329-33.
27 Igwe SA, Akunyili DN, Ogbogu C. (2003), Effects of Solanum melongena (garden egg) on some visual functions of visually active lgbos of Nigeria. J Ethnopharmacol; 86:135-8.
28 Gul S, Ahmed S, Gul H, Kaneez FS. (2011), Investigating the protective effect of Solanum melongena. Asian J Health; 1: 276-94.
29. Shum OL, Chiu KW. (1991), Hypotensive action of Solanum melongena on normotensive rats. Phytother Res; 5: 76-81.
30 Solanum melongena: A potential source of antifungal agent / Jayshree Das, Jyoti Prasad Lahan and R. B. Srivastava / INDIAN JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY / DOI: 10.1007/s12088-010-0004-2.
31 Solanum melongena and Wild Allies: Potential Birth Control Resource / Kumar B, Chaudhary BR / Vegetos- An International Journal of Plant Research, 2006, Vol 19, No 1and2.