Sapindus trifoliatus Linn.

Sapindus trifoliatus  Linn.

Botanical Name:       Sapindus trifoliatus Linn.

Family:                       SapindaceaeSapindus trifoliatus Linn.

Kingdom:                   Plantae

Order:                        Sapindales

Genus:                       Sapindus

Sindhi Name:            Reetha

Local Name:              Reetha

English Name:          Soap-nut tree

Part Used:                 Leaves and fruits

Description

SapindustrifoliatusLinn.is a deciduous tree or shrub1. Leaves are alternate, paripinnate, and exstipulate. Leaflets are in 5-10 pairs, opposite, alternate, lanceolate, and acuminate entires. Flowers are greenish-white, subsessile, and numerous. Fruits are globose, one-seeded, solitary, yellowish, pericarp black, and fleshy2.

Occurrence

S. trifoliatusisnative to China, Japan, and South Indian states.It is commonly cultivated in the villages of South India and West Bengal1,3. It is also found in KPK and Punjab of Pakistan2.

 Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases

Scabies:

Boil SapindustrifoliatusL. (Soap berries),SalvadoraoleiodsDecne. (Salvadora), FagoniaarabicaL. (Cretan prickly), and PhyllanthusemblicaL. (Gooseberry), bath is taken with this water 3-4 times a day for the treatment of scabies in District Sanghar (Sindh).

 Chemical Constituents

S. trifoliatuscontain proto catechuic acid, sapindiside C, D, E,oleic acid, saponins, cis-p-coumaric acid, sapindic acid, trifolioside A, emarginatosideB and C,p-hydrobenzoic acid, and cinnamic acid3,4.

Chemical Structure:

Sapindus trifoliatus Linn.st

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

S. trifoliatusis a usedagainsttridosha. Fruit is expectorant and used in salivation, chlorosis, and epilepsy5. Fruit are astringent, emetic, and anthelmintic. Root is used against gout, rheumatism, and paralysis6.Inayurvedic, it is used in the preparation of shampoos7and for various skin diseases such as, eczema and psoriasis, and for the removal of freckles. Plant has insecticidal properties and actas antilice to scalp lice8.

Fruit extract of S. trifoliatuspossessed potent antifertility, antinociceptive, antimigraine, anti-inflammatory,and antiandrogenic activities. It also possessed tonic and astringent properties3,9.

 References

  1. Joshi, S. G. (2000). Medicinal Plants, p. 97, Mohan Primlani Oxford & IBH Publishers Co. Pvt.Ltd.66 Janpath, New Delhi 110001, India.
  2. Rehman, M. (2006). A Pictorial Guide to Medicinal Plants of Pakistan, p. 314, Kohat University of Science and Technology Publishers, Peshawar, Pakistan.
  3. http://www.himalayawellness.com/herbfinder/sapindus-trifoliatus.htm
  4. http://www.rjpbcs.com/pdf/2012_3(1)/53.pdf
  5. Rehman, M. (2006). A Pictorial Guide to Medicinal Plants of Pakistan, 314, Kohat University of Science and Technology Publishers, Peshawar, Pakistan.
  6. Khare, C. P. (2012). Indian Medicinal Plants, 480-481, Springer Science Publishers, New Delhi-110058, India.
  7. Arulmozhi, D. K., Veeranjaneyulu, A., Bodhankar, S. L., and Arora, S. K. (2005). Effect of Sapindustrifoliatuson hyperalgesic in vivo Migraine ModelsBrazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 38(3). pp. 469–475.
  8. http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Reetha.html
  9. Arulmozhi, D. K., Veeranjaneyulu, A., Bodhankar, S. L., andArora, S. K. (2005). Pharmacological investigations of Sapindustrifoliatus in various in vitro and in vivo models of inflammation. Indian journal of pharmacology, 37(2), 96.