Santalum album L.
Synonym: Syrium myrtifolium Roxb.
Sindhi Name Sandar
Species: S. album
Local Name: Safed Chandan, Sandal
English Name: Sandal wood tree.
Part Used: Wood, Bark, and Wood oil
Santalum album L. is an ever green, glabrous, semi-parasitic tree, slender branches up to 18 m high, dark grey or nearly black or reddish, and rough bark. Stem is heavy and straight-grained and varies in color. It is white when young, and yellow and orange in color when old. Sapwood of sandalwood is unscented but the heartwood is fragrant. Seeds are yellowish brown and ovoid.1 Sandalwood is described as the fragrant woods.2
S. album occurs from Vindhya Mountains southward, particulary in Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu. Sandalwood also occurs in Rajasthan where it has become naturalized. It is indigenous to the tropical belt of the Indian peninsula and eastern Indonesia.
Ethomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases:
S. album oil is applied on wounds in District Sukkur (Sindh).
Ground paste of sandalwood leaves is applied on burns in District Sukkur (Sindh).
Main chemical constituents of S. album are santalol, santyl acetate, and santalene. Most abundant constituents that are found in S. album are sesquiterpenes, sesquiterpenols, sesquiterpenals santalic, teresantalic acid, aldehyde, pterocarpin, and hydrocarbons, isovaleric aldehyde, santene, and santenone.8 Sandalwood oil contains tannins, terpenes, resins, and waxes.9 Wax from the leaves of sandal produces palmitone and d-10-hydroxypalmitone.10
Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies:
Sandalwood oil, rich in sesquiterpenoid, has been used in traditional medicinal systems as a relaxant and coolant. A paste of sandalwood is applied for curing headache during fevers and on burns to treat local inflammations and skin diseases like pruritis.1 Mixing double quantity of sandal oil in musatard oil is used over pimples on nose.2 Ilaj-ul-gurba recommends a paste made of equal parts of sandal oil and borax with sufficient quantity of water as a useful application in ptyriasis versicolor.2 Sandalwood oil is applied to burns on skin, prickly heat, itching, boils, and pimples.2 Sandalwood is useful in the form of paste with water or rose water to treat scorpion sting and inflammations.3 Sandalwood oil is recommended as a remedy in gonnorhea.4 Sandalwood oil is very helpful in curing scabies.5 Sandalwood essential oil helps to moisturize and hydrate ageing, dry or flaky skin. Its astringent action balances oily skin conditions.5 Traditional Chinese medicine compositions contain sandal wood oil and its pills for treating dermatosis.6 Besides, this it is used as an ingredient in skin fairness enhancing cosmetics.7
Santalols of Santalum album L. exhibited anticancer, antitumor, antiviral, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and skin nourishing properties.11 Various formulations of sandalwood oil have been patented as treatment for skin diseases like warts, psoriasis, dermatitis, cold sores, Alzheimer’s diseases, and herpes.12
- Khare, C. P. (2012), Indian Medicinal Plants, p. 581, Springer Puiblishers, New Delhi-110058, India.
- Dhiman, A. K. (2006), Ayurvedic Drug Plants, p. 96-97, Daya Publishers, Delhi-110 035, India.
- Nadkarins, K.M. (1954), Indian Materia Medica, p. 1101, Manglore Publishers, India.
- Joshi, S. G. (2000), Medicinal Plants, p. 356, Mohan Primlani Oxford & IBH Publishers Co. Pvt.Ltd.66 Janpath, New Delhi 110001, India.
- Han, Xu., Nie, Ci., Liu, Yanrong., Huang, Chunxia., Jin, Lianshun., Sun, Lihui. (2012). Faming Zhuanli Shenqing, CN 102416103 A 20120418, Language: Chinese, Database: caplus
- Misra, Biswapriya B.;Dey, Satyahari From Natural Product Communications, 8(2), 253-256. Language: English, Database: calpus
- Braun, N.A., Meier M and Pickenhagen W. (2003), “Isolation and Chiral-Trace Constituents of Santalum album, Santalaceae J. Essent. oil, Res., 15(1), 63-65.
- Albert C. Chibnall et al, Biochem J, (1981-1986), (Oct 1937).
- Bommareddy, A., Hora, J., Cornish, B. and Dwivedi, C. (2007). Chemoprevention by alpha-santalol on UV B radiation-induced skin tumor development in mice. Anticancer Research, 27, 2185 2188.
- Benencia, F., and Courreges, M.C. (1999). Antiviral activity of sandalwood oil 393 against Herpes Simplex Viruses-1 and -2. Phytomedicine, 6, 119-123.