Santalum album L.

Santalum album L.

Botanical Name:             Santalum album L.Santalum album L.

Kingdom:                          Plantae

Order:                                Santalales

Family:                             Santalaceae

Genus:                          Santalum

Sindhi Name                  Sandar

Local Name:                  SafedChandan, Sandal

English Name:               Sandal wood tree.

Part Used:                     Wood andbark

Description

Santalum album L. is an ever green, glabrous, semi-parasitic tree, slender branches up to 18 m high, dark grey or nearly black or reddish, and rough bark. Stem is heavy, straight, and white when young, and yellow and orange when old. Sapwood of sandalwood is unscented but the heartwood is fragrant. Seeds are yellowish brown and ovoid1.

 Occurrence

S. album is distributed in China, India, Philippine, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia2.

Ethomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases

 Burn

Powdered Santalum album L. (Sandal Wood) is mixed with honey and applied for the treatment of hand burn in District Ghotki (Sindh).

Acne and brown spots

Powdered S. album is mixed with fuller’s earth to form paste and applied on affected areas for the treatment of acne in District Mirpurkhas (Sindh).

Pyoderma

Leaves of S. album is burned to ashes and mixed in oil, this mixture is applied topically on affected areas for the treatment of pyoderma in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

 Chemical Constituents

Main chemical constituents of S. album are santalol A and B, santyl acetate, and santalene. Most abundant constituents that are found in S. album are sesquiterpenes, sesquiterpenols, sesquiterpenalssantalic, teresantalic acid, aldehyde, pterocarpin, and hydrocarbons, isovaleric aldehyde, santene, and santenone3.

Chemical Structure:

Santalum album L.st

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

Oil of S. albumis used in traditional medicinal as a relaxant and coolant. A paste of sandalwood is applied for curing headache during fevers and on burns to treat local inflammations and skin diseases like pruritis1. Mixing double quantity of sandal oil in musatard oil is used over pimples on nose.Ilaj-ul-gurba recommends a paste made of equal parts of sandal oil and borax with sufficient quantity of water as a useful application in ptyriasisversicolor.Sandalwood oil is applied to burns on skin, prickly heat, itching, boils, and pimples4. Sandalwood is useful in the form of paste with water or rose water to treat scorpion sting and inflammations5. Sandalwood oil is recommended as a remedy in gonnorhea6.Oil is applied topically for the treatment of scabies.Essential oil act as astringent and balances oily skin conditions7.Traditional Chinese medicine compositions contain sandal wood oil and its pills for treating dermatosis8.

Santalols of S. albumexhibited anticancer, antitumor, antiviral, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and skin nourishing properties9.Various formulations of sandalwood oil have been patented as treatment for skin diseases like warts, psoriasis, dermatitis, cold sores, Alzheimer’s diseases, and herpes10.

References

  1. Khare, C. P. (2012), Indian Medicinal Plants, p. 581, Springer Publishers, New Delhi-110058, India.
  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santalum_album#Distribution
  3. http://www.fragcom/notes/Sandalwood-33.html
  4. Dhiman, A. K. (2006), Ayurvedic Drug Plants, p. 96-97, Daya Publishers, Delhi-110 035, India.
  5. Nadkarins, K.M. (1954), Indian MateriaMedica, p. 1101, Manglore Publishers, India.
  6. Joshi, S. G. (2000), Medicinal Plants, p. 356, Mohan Primlani Oxford & IBH Publishers Co. Pvt.Ltd.66 Janpath, New Delhi 110001, India.
  7. http://www.iloveindia.com/indian-herbs/sandalwood.html.
  8. Xu, H.,Ci, N.,Yanrong, L.,Chunxia, H.,Lianshun, J.,and Lihui, S. (2012). Faming ZhuanliShenqing, CN 102416103 A 20120418, Language: Chinese, Database: caplus.
  9. Bommareddy, A., Hora, J., Cornish, B., and Dwivedi, C. (2007). Chemoprevention by alpha-santalol on UV B radiation-induced skin tumor development in mice. Anticancer Research, 27, 2185 2188.
  10. Benencia, F., and Courreges, M.C.(1999). Antiviral activity of sandalwood oil 393 against Herpes Simplex Viruses-1 and -2. Phytomedicine, 6, 119-123.