Salvadora persica Linn.

Salvadora persica Linn.

Botanical Name:          Salvadora persica Linn.Salvadora persica Linn.

Kingdom:                        Plantae

Order:                               Brassicales

Family:                             Salvadoraceae

Genus:                             Salvadora

Sindhi Name:               Miswak, musag

Local Name:                 Miswak

English Name:             Tooth brush tree, Mustard tree

Part Used:                     Leaves, root, bark, flowers, and seeds



Salvadora persica Linn. is an evergreen, profusely branched, and glabrous tree or a small shrub. Branches are drooping. Leaves are sub-fleshy, elliptic-ovate, and mucronate. Bark is scabrous and cracked whitish with pendulous extremities. Flowers are greenish yellow in drooping panicles. Fruits are globose, smooth, and red in color1,2.


S. persicais found wild in arid regions and on saline, coastal regions of Sindh, and Balochistan provinces of Pakistan. It is also found in drier regions of India, Mali, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Namibia1,3,4.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases:


  1. Salvadora persica Decne (Tooth brush Leaves) is soaked in water till tender and then mixed with oil of Brassica compestris L. (Mustard) and applied on affected area for the treatment of ringworm in District Kambar-shahdadkot (Sindh).
  2. S. persicais rubbed on affected area for the treatment of ringworm in District Kambar-shahdadkot (Sindh).
  3. S. persicais soaked and extract is applied on affected area for the treatment of ringworm in Districts Sukkur, Shikarpur, andKambar-shahdadkot (Sindh).
  4. S. persicais chewed and extract is applied on affected area for the treatment of ringworm in Districts Ghotki, Naushehroferoz, Sukkur, Jacobabad andJamshoro (Sindh).


S. persica is applied on affected area for the treatment of vitiligo in District Sukkur (Sindh). This remedy is also used for the treatment of ringworm in District Khairpur (Sindh).

Fungal Infection

Ground S. persica and applied on infected area for the treatment of fungal infection in District Thatta (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

Salvadoside, salvadoraside, salvadorine, and salvadourea are active constituents of S. persica. Plant is rich in carbohydrates, chlorides, tannins, fluoride, saponins, trimethylamine, sterols, vitamin C, sulfurterpenes, and an alkaloid. Plant also containkaempferol, quercetinrutin, quercetin, pyrrole, β-sitosterol,pyrrolidine, m-anisic acid, and piperidine derivatives5.

Chemical Structure:

Salvadora persica Linn..stJPG

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies:

Bark of S. persicais vesicant. Leaves are used against cough. Seed oil is used as a purgative and in painful rheumatism1. It is applied topically on wound and act as antidote to snake bite6. Seeds are diuretic3. Flowers are used as laxative and stimulant. It has beneficial effects in the treatment of gonorrhea and leprosy2. Leave juice is used against scurvy. Root decoction is used in gonorrhea and vesical catarrh. Bark is also used for the stimulation or regulation of menstrual cycle. Bark decoction is used as emmenagogue and also in fever condition. Plant is also used in the preparation of toothpaste and used as mouthwash in plaque7.

Salvadora persica Linn. possessedantiplaque, antifertility, analgesic, antiulcer, anticonvulsant, antibacterial, antimycotic, cytotoxic, hypolipidemic, and diuretic activities7.


  1. Rehman, M. (2006). A Pictorial Guide To Medicinal Plants of Pakistan, p. 380, Kohat University of Science and Technology Publishers, Peshawar, Pakistan.
  2. Joshi, S. G. (2000). Medicinal Plants, p. 355, Mohan Primlani Oxford & IBH Publishers Co. Pvt.Ltd.66 Janpath, New Delhi 110001, India.
  3. Khare, C. P. (2012), Indian Medicinal Plants, p. 574, Springer Publishers, New Delhi-110058, India.
  5. Halawany, H. S. (2012). A review on miswak (Salvadorapersica) and its effect on various aspects of oral health. The Saudi Dental Journal, 24(2), 63–69.
  6. Duke, J. A. (2002). Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, p. 416, II, CRC Publishers, New York, Washington, DC, U. S. A.
  7. Khatak, M., Khatak, S., Siddqui, A. A., Vasudeva, N., Aggarwal, A., and Aggarwal, P. (2010). Salvadorapersica. Pharmacognosy Reviews, 4(8), 209–214.