Saccharum officinarum Linn.
Sindhi Name: Khander
Local Name: Ganna
English Name: Sugar cane
Part Used: Stem
SaccharumofficinarumLinn.isa perennial plant with juicy, thick,and stout stem. Clumps are pale or dark green to dark yellow. Leaves are broad and panicle. Spikletsare large, linear, and oblong,surrounded by hairs1.Rhizomesare formed under the soil, sends up secondary shoots near the parent plant. Fruits are dry and single-seeded2,3.
S. officinarumis widely cultivated and found in Pakistan. It is also cultivated in hotter parts of India4. Sugar caneis found in the tropics andsouth-east Asia5.
Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases:
- Saccharum officinarum L. (Sugar cane) is dissolved in water. This water is applied on affected areas for the treatment of hand burn in District Jacobabad, Tando Muhammad Khan, and Khairpur (Sindh).
- S. officinarum is mixed in milk to form a solution. This solution is applied on hand burn in the District Tando Muhammad Khan (Sindh).
Paste of S. officinarum and Citrus limonum R. (Lemon) is mixed with Cocus nucifera L. (coconut) oil. This oil is applied on the scalp for the treatment of dandruff in District Jamshoro (Sindh).
- S. officinarum and Triticum aestivum L. (Wheat) are mixed to form a paste. This paste is applied topically for the treatment of wound in District Nausheroferoz (Sindh).
- Triticum aestivum L. (wheat), S.officinarum and egg yolk are mixed together to form a paste. This paste is applied on the wound for 3 days in the Districts Tando Allahyar(Sindh) and Tandojam (Sindh).
- S. officinarum and jaggery is mixed in oil to form a paste. This paste is applied on wound for wound healing in the District Kambar Shahdad Kot (Sindh).
- Triticum aestivum (Wheat) and S. officinarum are mixed in water to form a paste. This paste is applied topically for the treatment of blood blister in District Kambar Shahdad Kot (Sindh).
- Paste of S. officinarum and fuller’s earth is used for the treatment of blood blister in District Kambar Shahdad Kot (Sindh).
Paste of Triticum aestivum (Wheat) and S. officinarum is applied topically on the affected area for curing pyoderma and wounds in District Kambar Shahdad Kot (Sindh).
S. officinarum is mixed in clarified butter to form a paste. This paste is applied on the affected area for the treatment of psoriasis in District Kambar Shahdad Kot (Sindh).
S. officinarum is dissolved in water to form a thick solution. The solution is used for the treatment of measles in the District Kambar Shahdad Kot (Sindh).
Flowers containsugars and calcium oxalate.Juice contains sucrcose, glucose, and fructose. Asparagine and glutamine are prominent amino acids.Phenolicsin culms of sugar caneare phenylpropanoidssuch as caffeic, chlorogenic, and coumaric acids while apigenin, tricin, luteolin derivatives, andflavones appeared in lower amounts.S. officinarumis the main source of glycolic acid4,6,8,9.
Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/ Scientific studies:
Stem of S. officinarumact as laxative and diuretics, and have cooling effect4.It is used byMalays as a protective medicine against meroyan. Pulp is used for covering wounds. Sugar cane is used by Borneofor the treatment of fractures. Sugar cane extract is used by Chinese traditional medicine for promoting expulsion of phlegm from respiratory passages and for stimulating gastric activity. It is also used against various skin diseases such as, abscess, ulcers, and wounds,and for other infectious diseases such as, chest pain, eye inflammations, and sore throat5.Juice of the stem is used in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of Indiafor haemorrhagic diseases and anuria.Root is used in dysuria6.It is also used in folk medicine as a remedy for arthritis, bedsores, boils, cancer, colds, cough, diarrhea, dysentery, fever, hiccups, inflammation, laryngitis, opacity, penis skin, sores, sore throat, spleen, tumors,and wounds7.
S. officinarumpossesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties10.Hydroxyaceticacid and glycolic acidsare important constituents of S. officinarumandeffective way for battle with skin aging signs. It is also perfect in recovering from acne and for the removal of blackheads11.
- Shinwari, Z. K. (2006).APictorial Guide To The Medicinal Plants of Pakistan, p. 378, Kohat University of Science and Technology Publishers, Peshawar.
- “Saccharumofficinarum“. Kew Royal Botanic Gardens. Retrieved (2012-09-21).
- “Saccharumofficinarum“. FAO. Retrieved (2012-09-21).
- Joshi, S. G.(2000).Medicinal Plants of India, 320, Mohan Primlani Oxford & IBH Publishers Co. Pvt.Ltd.66 Janpath, New Delhi 110001, India.
- Duke, J.A. and Wain, K.K. (1981).Medicinal Plants of the World, 3.
- Duke, J.A. and Atchley, A.A. (1984).Proximate analysis. In: Christie, B.R. (ed.), TheHandbook of Plant Science In Agriculture. CRC Press and Publishers, Inc., Boca Raton, FL.
- Miller, D.F. (1958). Composition of cereal grains and forages. National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Washington, DC. Publ. 585.
- Ghiware, N.B. (2012). International Journal of PharmTech Research CODEN (USA): Ijprif, 4(4), 1785-1791,
- Bhore, N. V. (2012).International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, 3 (2)