Rosa indica Linn.
Sindhi Name: Gulabjogul
Local Name: Gulab
Part Used: Flowers
English Name: Rose
Rosa indicaLinn.is an erect shrub. Leaflets are usually 5 on flowering shoot and simply serrate. Flowers are large, beautiful,red, pink or white,and fragrant. Fruits are ovoid and red1. Fruits are ovoid, bristly, pulpy, and bright red2.
R. indicais found in Middle East, Europe, Iran and Turkey. In Pakistan, it is cultivated in Swat, Sindh, and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan3.
Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases
- Paste of Rosa indica L. (Rose) flower is mixed with fuller’s earth and rose water and this paste is applied on affected area for 15 days in the District tharparker (Sindh).
- Water extracted from R. indica , Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f. (Lemon) juice, and fuller’s earth are mixed and applied on the affected area for the treatment of acne in the Districts Thatta and Nawabshah (Sindh).
- Water extracted from R. indica and Citrus limon (Lemon) juice are mixed and applied topically on the affected area for curing acne in the District Kambar Shahdad Kot (Sindh).
- R. indica water is mixed with antimony and used for curing acne in the District Jamshoro (Sindh).
- Triticum aestivum L.(Wheat) flour is mixed with R. indica water and Citrus limon (Lemon) juice to make a paste. This paste is applied on affected area for the treatment of acne in the District Kambar Shahdad Kot(Sindh).
R. indica flower, Withania Coagulation Dunal. (Vegetable Rennet), Cassia angustifolia Mill. (Cassia Senna) are ground and mixed with jaggery to make paste. This paste is fried in oil and 1-2 tea spoon of this paste is taken for the treatment candidiasis in the District Badin (Sindh).
Paste of R. indica flower is applied on affected area for curing onchyomycosis in the District Mirpurkhas (Sindh).
Petals of R. indica flower are rubbed on the affected area for the treatment of measles in the District Khairpur (Sindh).
Paste of Withania Coagulation Dunal. (Vegetable Rennet), Cassia angustifolia (Cassia Senna) is mixed with R. indica water and this mixture is heated and applied topically on affected area for the treatment of prickly heat in the Districts Sajawal and Nawabshah (Sindh).
Petals of R. indicacontaincyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside1.Essential oil containscitronell, nerol, geraniol, and phenylethanol. Hips of flowers contain lycopene, β- and γ-carotene, rubixanthine, xanthophylls, and tetra xanthophyll4.Heneicosane, nonadecane, tricosane, and pentacosane are present in essential oil and rose water5.
Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/ Scientific studies:
Flower buds of R. indicaact as astringent and used as tonic and aperients. Paste of petals is mixed with equal amount of sugar to make a solution called “Gulqand” that act as laxative. It is considered as a tonic for the removing cephalic bile and cold4. Rose is used alone or in combination with other herbs for the treatment of sore throat, enlarged tonsils, cardiac troubles, eye disease, and gall stones. It is also used for the prevention of bacterial infections6.
R. indicais reported forhypnotic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, laxative, antitussive, relaxant, cardiovascular, antibacterial, anticonvulsant, antiaging, antidiabetic, ophthalmic, antidepressant, and antioxidant activities7.
- Shinwari, Z. K. (2006).“A Pictorial Guide to theMedicinal Plants of Pakistan”, 367, Kohat University of Science and Technology Publishers, Peshawar.
- ‘Rose d’Inde’ now refers toTageteserecta, (1992).The African Marigold, (Huxley et al., iv.134).
- Dhiman, A.K.(2006).AyurvedicDrug Plants, p. 378, DayaPublishers, Delhi-110 035, India
- G.Joshi, (2000), Medicinal Plants, p. 337, Mohan Primlani Oxford & IBH Publishers Co. Pvt.Ltd.66 Janpath, New Delhi 110001, India.
- Adams, R.P. (2007). Identification of essential oil components by Gas Chromatography/ Mass Spectrometry, Allured PublishersCorp, Carol Stream, Illinois, U. S. A.