Raphanus sativus L.

Raphanus sativus L.

Classification:

Botanical Name:                  Raphanus sativus L.Raphanus sativus L.

Synonym:                             Raphanus raphanistrum var.sativus L

Kingdom:                             Plantae

Order:                                   Brassicales

Family:                                  Brassicaea, Crucifarea

Genus:                                  Raphanus

Species:                                R. sativus

Sindhi Name:                      Moori

Local Name:                        Mooli

English Name:                    Radish

Part Used:                             Roots, seeds, leaves, flowers, and pods

Description:

Raphanus sativus L. are small roots, annual or biennial, and grow rapidly. Stem is 0.2-0.6 m high. Flowers are 15-20 mm across and white or violet. Pedicel is 5-10 mm long up to 20 mm in fruit.1 Lower leaves are on hairy petioles. Roots are white cylindrical and fleshy.3

Occurrence:

R. sativus is a cultivated in India up to 500 m and in many other temperate and warm countries.1, 3

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases:

Eczema

Leaves of Raphanus sativus L. (Raddish) are boiled in water and drunk twice a day to cure Eczema in District Hyderabad (Sindh).

Scabies

Ground paste of raddish leaves is applied over scabies in District Hyderabad (Sindh).

Constituents:

Fresh peels of R. sativus L. contain most of the important phyto-constituents like tannins, saponins, flavonoids, phlobatannins, anthraquinones, carbohydrates, reducing sugars, steroids, phytosterol, alkaloids, amino acids, terpenoids, vitamin C, cardiac glycosides, and chalcones. Radish sprouts contain higher concentrations of glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, and phenols. Anthocyanins present in red pink radishes contain pelargonidin and delphinidin, while the purple radish contains cyanidin.8

Roots mainly contain alkaloid and nitrogen compounds namely, pyrrolidine, phenethylamine, N-methylphenethylamine,1,2´-pyrrolidin-tion-3-il-3-acid-carboxilic-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline, and sinapine9,10,11. Oil from radish seeds contain alkenyl glucosinolates, consisting mostly of progoitrin, and gluconapin13. Four major organic acids also found in the roots of the radish: oxalic, malic, malonic, and erythorbic acid. β-sitosterol, β-Carotene lipopolysaccharides is also found in R. sativus seeds.14, 15, 16

Chemical Structures: 

 

 

 

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Chalcones                                                                              Pelargonidin

 

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific studies:

R. sativus is used to cure many skin ailments.3 Traditionally the radish is used for treating edema and infectious skin diseases.4 R. sativus is applied for the treatment of eczema, dermatitis, insect bites, athlete’s foot, heat rash, psoriasis, pruritus, and other skin diseases with no side effect. Seeds paste is applied to treat syphilis9.

Roots, leaves, flowers, and seeds possessed antimicrobial and antifungal properties.2, 4, 5 Raphanus sativus L. showed a broad range of biological activities, such as antioxidant, anticancer, antihypertensive, and antimicrobial activities. It eliminates phlegm, relieves cough, prevents asthematic complications, improves urinary function, lowers cholesterol, prevents atherosclerosis, neutralizes tetanus toxin, and diphtheria toxin21.

 References:

  • http://www.tropicos.org/Name/4105767?projectid=32 (Flora of Pakistan)
  • Shukla, (2011), Antimicrobial efficacy of R.S. root juice Research article, Vol:III, suppl 5, P.1, 133N-0975-1491, India.
  • Thomas S. C. Li, (2000), Medicinal Plants, p. 34, Technomic Publishers, Inc, Lancaster, U. S. A.
  • Shri Rao, P.V. N, (1992), Selected Medicinal Plants of India, p. 271-272, Tata Press Ltd. Bombay-400 025, India.
  • Khare, C. P. (2007), Indian Medicinal Plants, p. 537-538, Springer Publishers, New Delhi-110058, India.
  • Yan, Bai, Faming Zhuanli Shenqing (2012), CN 102319386 A 20120118, Language: Chinese, Database: Caplus
  • Ishtiaq, M., Wajahat, H., Khan, M. A., Ashraf, M., Butt, A. M. (2007). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 10(13), 2241-56.
  • doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01972.x
  • Marquardt, P. (1976) N-methylphenethylamine in vegetables. Arzneimittelforschung 26, 201–203.
  • Wan, C. (1984) Studies on Chemical Constituents in Radish (Raphanus sativus ) seeds. II. Shaanxi Xinyiyao 13, 54–55.
  • Weilan, W., Jin, Z., Zhongda, L., and Meng, L. (1987) Hypotensive constituents of Laifuzi (Semen raphani), Zhongcaoyao, 18, 101–103.
  • Stoehr, H. and Herrmann, K. (1975) Phenolic Acids of Vegetables. III. Hydroxycinnamic and Hydroxybenzoic Acids of Root Vegetables. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch. 159, 219–224.
  • Matile, P. (1975). The Lytic Compartment of Plant Cells, pp. 15–63, Springer-Verlag, New York.
  • El-Hinnawy, I., Barakat, S., and Fouad, K.R. (1975) Biochemical Studies on some Oleaginous Seeds of Cruciferae Plants. Grasas Aceites 26, 147–149.
  • Changdai, W. (1984) Studies on Chemical Constituents in Radish (Raphanus sativus L) Seed II. Shaanxi Xinyiyao, 13, 54–55.
  • Koji, H. and Shigenori, T. (1989). Phototropism in Hypocotyls of Radish. VII. Involvement of the Growth Inhibitors Raphanusol A and R in Phototropism of Radish Hypocotyls. Journal of Plant Physiology, 135, 110–113.
  • http://www.chineseherbshealing.com/radish-seeds/