Quercus infectoria Olivier.
Species: Q. infectoria
Local Name: Mazu Phal
English Name: Aleppo oak
Sindhi Name: Mawa
Part Used: Gall nut
Quercusinfectoria Olivier.is a small tree or shrub growing to 4 to 6 feet tall.Leaves are smooth, elliptical, glabrescent, and bright. Acorn is long, narrow, scaly, and downy. Branchesare slender and drooping. Flowers are in axillary fascicles attached with filiform pedicels. Fruits are baccate and become black while ripening. Root is cylindrical, branched and shows fibrous fracture, 6-10 cm long and 4-8 mm in thickness. The galls are globular,porous uneven surface, and inner surface is yellow1.
Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases
Quercusinfectoria Olivier. (Galloak), garlic, and Brasiccacampestris L. (Mustard) are mixed with oil to make a paste. This paste is applied on feets for the treatment of tineapediasin District Sajawal (Sindh).
Q. infectoriacontainsgallotannicacid, gallic acid, ellagic acid, sitosterol, methyl betulate, methyloleanolate, starch,and calcium oxalate.Nyctanthic acid, roburic acid, and syringic acidwere isolated from methanolic extract of galls. Galls also contain gum, sugar and essential oil. The main constituentof tannin is pentadigalloyl-glucose2.
Medicinal uses and pharmacology/scientific studiea:
Q. infectoria is used as dental powder in the treatment of toothache and gingivitis3. Aqueous extract of galls are used as gargle for inflamed tonsils. Boiled and bruised galls are applied topically for the treatment of any swelling or inflammation of the skin4.
Q. infectoriais reported for its astringent, antidiabetic, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory3,5, antitremorine, local anaesthetic, antifungal, larvicidal, wound healing3, larvicidal, antiulcerogenic, gastroprotective5,antiamoebic, and anticariogenic activities6.Pyrogallol, major component of methanol and aqueous extracts,possessed substantial anti-Candida activity7.
- Shrestha, S., Kaushik, V. S., Eshwarappa, R. S. B., Subaramaihha, S. R., Ramanna, L. M., & Lakkappa, D. B. (2014). Pharmacognostic studies of insect gall of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagaceae). Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 4(1), 35–39. http://doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60205-7
- Umachigi, S. P., Jayaveera, K. N., Kumar, C. A., Kumar, G. S., & Kumar, D. K. (2008). Studies on wound healing properties of Quercus infectoria. Tropical journal of Pharmaceutical research, 7(1), 913-919.
- Pithayanukul, P., Nithitanakool, S., & Bavovada, R. (2009). Hepatoprotective potential of extracts from seeds of Areca catechu and nutgalls of Quercus infectoria. Molecules, 14(12), 4987-5000.
- Shrestha, S., Kaushik, V. S., Eshwarappa, R. S. B., Subaramaihha, S. R., Ramanna, L. M., & Lakkappa, D. B. (2014). Pharmacognostic studies of insect gall of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagaceae). Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 4(1), 35–39. http://doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60205-7.
- Chusri, S., & Voravuthikunchai, S. P. (2009). Detailed studies on Quercus infectoria Olivier (nutgalls) as an alternative treatment for methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. Journal of applied microbiology, 106(1), 89-96.
- Baharuddin, N. S., Abdullah, H., & Abdul Wahab, W. N. A. W. (2015). Anti-Candida activity of Quercus infectoria gall extracts against Candida Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences, 7(1), 15–20. http://doi.org/10.4103/0975-7406.148742