Prunus amugdalus Linn.

Prunus amugdalus Linn.

Botanical Name:          Prunus amygdalus Linn. Prunus amygdalus Linn.

Kingdom:                        Plantae

Order:                               Rosales

Family:                             Rosaceae

Genus:                              Prunus

Sindhi Name:                Badam

Local Name:                  Badamshireen

Part Used:                      Seeds

English Name:              Almond

Description

Prunus amygdalus Linn. is shorttree with brownish-grey bark. Leaves are oblong to lanceolate and serrate. Flowers are white and mostly paired1. Fruits are present with a dry pericarpand minute pores2. Shell is yellowish buff color and flattened-ovoid, outer surface is usually pitted with small holes3.

Occurrence

P. amygdalusis distributedto the Middle East, South Asia, France, Portugal,Morocco, Spain,Italy, Iran, and Algeria.In Pakistan, it is cultivated in Kashmir at an elevation of 760-2400m1,2,3,4.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases

Brown spot / Freckles/ Pigmentation:

  1. Paste of Prunus amygdalus Batsch.(Almond) is mixed in milk and applied to the affected area in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  2. Butter is mixed with the paste of P. amygdalus and applied on the affected area for curing freckles in District Badin (Sindh).
  3. Clarified butter and P. amygdalus paste are mixed and applied for the treatment of brown spots in Districts Kamber Shahdad Kot, Sajawal, Nawabshah, and Thatta (Sindh).
  4. Paste of P. amygdalus is used for curing pigmentation in District Khairpur (Sindh).

Ringworm:

Oil of P. amygdalus and Ficus carica L.(Fig) are mixed and applied to the affected area of ringworm in District Nausheroferoz (Sindh).

Removal Face hair:

Paste of Cicer arietinum L. (Chickpea), P. amygdalus, and Citrus sinensis L. (Orange) juice is applied on face for 30 min (for one month) for the removal of face hair in District Nawabshah (Sindh).

Hair loss

Paste of P. amygdalus oil and Lawsonia inermis L. (Henna) is applied for curing hair loss in District Kamber Shahdad Kot (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

P. amygdalusoilcontains triglycerides, triolien, dioleolinolein, lauric acid, myristic acid, and palmitoleic acids. Kernel contains sphingolipids, daucosterol, and β-sitosterol. Hulls contain ursolic acid, betulinic acid, oleanolic acid, and ursolic acid3,5. Active constituents of almonds are amandine, arachidic acid, eicosanoic acid, behenic acid, and erucic acid6.

Chemical Structure:

Prunus amygdalus Linn. st

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/ Scientific studies:

Oil of P. amygdalusis nutritive, demulcent, and slightly laxative1.Poultice prepared from almonds is useful againstirritable sores and skin eruptions3. Seeds act as stimulant and nervine tonic. It is also useful in constipation, impotency, and several skin disorders2. Almond is used in combination with amla juice is applied ono scalp for the treatment of hair loss and dandruff. It improved skin complexion and enhanced colon function8.Almond is used topically for chapped skin and for soothing of mucous membranes3.It relieves in heartburn5.

P. amygdaluspossessesanti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. It reduced blood cholesterol level and used for various skin diseases such as, burns, dermatosis, ichthyosis,leucoderma, itching, and psoriasis8,9,10,11. Almonds decrease the symptoms of amnesia, dementia, and alzheimers disease12.Itpossesses prebiotic activity. It also stimulates the growth of gut bacteria by enhancing the growth of bifid bacteria and Eubacterium rectal13.

References

  1. Khare, C. P.(2012).Indian Medicinal Plants, 518-519, Springer Publisher, New Delhi-110058, India.
  2. Rehman, M. (2006), APictorial Guide To The Medicinal Plants of Pakistan, p. 339, Kohat University of Science and Technology Publishers, Peshawar.
  3. Jeff, M., Gregory, P., Batz, F.,Hitchen, K., Burson, S., Shaver, K., and Palacioz, K. (2002).Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, J Med LibrAssoc; 90(1): 114.
  4. Bhattacharjee, S. K. (2000), Handbook of Medicinal Plants, 285, Pointer Publisher Jaipure 303003 (Raj), India.
  5. https://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/a/almon026.html
  6. Phillips, K. M., Ruggio, D. M, Ashraf khorassani, M. (2005).Thephytosterol composition of the nuts and seeds which are commonly consumed in the United States. J Agric Food Chem. 53:9436-45.
  7. Joshi, S. G. (2000).Medicinal Plants of India, 334-335, Mohan Primlani Oxford & IBH Publishers Co. Pvt. Ltd. 66 Janpath, New Delhi 110001, India., 2006,
  8. Davis, P. A., and C. K. Iwahashi. (2001).Whole almonds and almond fractions reduce aberrant crypt foci in a rat model of colon carcinogenesis. Cancer Letters 165(1), 27-33.
  9. Duke, J. A. (2007).Handbook of Medicinal Plants of Bible, II, p. 356-358, CRC Publishers, New York, Washington, DC, U. S. A.
  10. Berryman, C. E., Preston, A. G., Karmally, W., Deckelbaum, R. J., and Kris, P. M. (2011). Effects of almond consumption on the reduction of LDL-Cholesterol: a discussion of potential mechanisms and future research directions. J Nutr.69, 171-85.
  11. Phung, O. J., Makanji, S. S., White, C. M., and Coleman, C. (2009).Almonds have a neutral effect on the serum lipid profile. A meta analysis of randomized trails. Journal of the American Dietetic Association; 109(5), 865-873.
  12. Kulkarni, K. S, Kastura, S. B, Mengi, S. A. (2010). Efficacy of the Prunusamygdalus (almonds) nuts in scopolamine induced amnesia in rats. Indian J Pharmacol,42,168-73.
  13. Mandalari, G, Neuno-palop C., Bigignano, G., Wickham, M. S. J., and Narbad A. (2008). Potential prebiotic properties of almond seeds. Applied and Environmental Biology; 74(14), 4264-70.