Piper nigrum Linn.

Piper nigrum Linn.

Botanical Name:           Piper nigrum Linn.Piper nigrum L.

Kingdom:                          Plantae

Family:                              Piperaceae

Order:                                Piperales

Genus:                               Piper

Sindhi Name:                  Kari Mirach

Local Name:                    GolMirch, Kali Mirch

Part Used:                       Fruit

English Name:               Black pepper, Common pepper



Piper nigrumL. is aperennial woody vine and grows upto 5m high.Leaves are heart-shaped. Flowers arepresent on spikes. Fruit is small andglobose withpulpy exocarp. Seed is whitish1. Flowering takes place during June and July and fruiting in December and January2.


P. nigrumis native to Indo-Malaysian regionandwidely cultivated in the tropics, India, East-Indies,Pakistan. In Pakistan, it is found on the coastal belt of Sindh and Punjab provinces1.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases


Paste of Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. (Beleric), Terminalia chebula Retz. (Chebulic Myrobalan ), and Piper nigrum L. (Black Pepper) is applied at the affected area for the treatment of boils in District Ghotki (Sindh).


Paste of Amomum subulatum Roxb. (Black Cardamom), Carum copticum L. (Bishops Weed), P. nigrum, and Foeniculum vulgare L.( Fennel seeds) is mixed with goat milk and taken for one week for curing measles in District Ghotki (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

Piperine is the active constituents of P. nigrum.Brachyamide B, guineensine, tricholein, trichostachine, piperamide, isopiperine, piperettine, pipericide, piperine, chavicine, piperoleinB, sarmentosine, sarmentine, retrofractamideA, isochavicine, pipene, and piperaminewere some important constituents isolated from this plant3.

 Chemical Structure:

Piper nigrum L.st

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific studies

P. nigrumisappliedtopically for prevention from skin diseases4.It is also taken orallyfor the treatment of dyspepsia, malaria, and tremors5. It is used alone or with combination of other medicinal plant for increasing libido and sexual drive. Piperine has negative effects on fertility and cause damages to the sperm cell therefor act as antifertility and antispermatogenesis agent6. Black pepper is used for the treatment of vertigo, chronic indigestion, obesity, pyrexia, paralysis, arthritic,diarrhea, and cholera, and respiratory disorders such as sinusitis, asthma, and congestion. It is also helpful in removing toxins from colon7.

Various pharmacological activities of P. nigrumare reported including antiapoptotic, antimetastatic, antibacterial, insecticidal, anticolon toxin, antifungal, antidiarrhoeal, gastric ailments,hepatoprotective, antioxidative, antimutagenic, antiriyretic, antispasmodic, antispermatogenic, antitumor, antithyroid, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, and larvicidal activities8.


  1. Rizvi, M.A.(2007), Medicinal Plants History cultivation and Uses, p. 137-138, Hamdard Institute of Advanced studies and Research Publishers, Hamdard University, Karachi-74600, Pakistan.
  2. Dhiman,A.K.(2006), AyurvedicDrug Plants, 186, DayaPublishers, Delhi-110 035, India.
  3. Damanhouri, Z. A., and Ahmad, A. (2014). A review on therapeutic potential of Piper nigrum L.(black pepper): the king of spices. Medicinal & Aromatic Plants, 2014.
  4. Joshi, S.G.(2000), Medicinal Plants, p. 310, Mohan Primlani Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt.Ltd.66 Janpath, New Delhi 110001, India.
  5. Bhattacharjee, S.K. (2004), Handbook of Medicinal Plants, p. 270, Pointer Publisher Jaipure, 303003 (Raj), India.
  6. http://docsdrive.com/pdfs/academicjournals/rjmp/0000/68044-68044.pdf
  7. Karsha, P. V., and Lakshmi, O. B. (2010). Antibacterial activity of black pepper (Piper nigrum) with special reference to its mode of action on bacteria. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, 1(2), 213-215.
  8. Ahmad, N., Fazal, H., Abbasi, B. H., Farooq, S., Ali, M., and Khan, M. A. (2012). Biological role of Piper nigrum (Black pepper): A review. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 2(3), 1945-S1953.