Piper betle Linn.

Piper betle Linn.

Botanical Name:       Piper betleLinn.Piper betle Linn.

Kingdom:                     Plantae

Family:                         Piperaceae

Order:                           Piperales

Genus:                          Piper

Sindhi Name:            Pan

Local Name:              Paan

English Name:          Betel pepper

Part Used:                  Leaves and roots



Piper betleLinn.is a perennial herb and dioecious creeper with woody and climbing stems. Leaves are long, ovate, and cordate. Leaves are bright green or yellowish in color. Petiole is stout and long. Plant is propagated through the vegetative cutting, occurs in September to October2.


P. betleis cultivated in warmer and damper parts of India such as Assam, west Bengal, Bihar, U.P., Karnataka and Kerala1. It is also native to Malaysia2.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases


Boil leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Neem), Piper betle Linn. (Betel pepper) with Amomum subulatum Roxb. (Black cardamom), and 3-4 crystal sugar, and drink for two days for the treatment of measles in District Sukkur (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

Some important constituents isolated from different parts of P. betleare hydroxychavicol, arakene, hydroxychavicol acetate, chavibetol,chavicol,methylpiperbetol, piperbetol, methyl eugenol,chavibetol acetate, α-pinene, β-pinene, safrole, 1,8-cineole, estragole, allypyrocatecholdiacetatechavibetol, piperbetol, piperol A and B, and allypyrocatechol3.

Chemical Structure:

Piper betle Linn.st

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/ Scientific studies:

Leaves of P. betleare mixed with butter oil or medicated oil and applied topically on blisters and wound inflammation2. Chewing of leaves is preferred for improving voice. Fruit of Betel pepper mixed with honey and used in cough. Eye drops, prepared from leaves, are used for eye infection and injuries. It is act as an aromatic, antiseptic,stimulant, laxative, carminative, expectorant, and astringent.Roots is used traditionally in flok medicine as contraceptive3. It also act as antidote to snake bite4,5,6.

  1. betleshowed diverse range of biological action. It includes antibacterial, antiulcer,gastroprotective, larvicidal, antiprotozal, anticaries, antifungal, chemopreventive,free radical scavenging, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatoryactivities7.


  1. Khare, C. P. (2012), Indian Medicinal Plants, p. 490, Springer Science Publishers, New Delhi-110058, India.
  2. Dhiman, A. K. (2006), Ayurvedic Drug Plants, p. 375-376, Daya Publishers, Delhi-110 035, India.
  3. http://www.rroij.com/open-access/phytochemistry-pharmacological-profile-and-therapeutic-uses-of-piper-betle-linn-an-overview-10-19.pdf
  4. Joshi, S. G. (2000), Medicinal Plants, p. 307, Mohan Primlani Oxford & IBH Publishers Co. Pvt.Ltd.66 Janpath, New Delhi 110001, India.
  5. A.Duke, 2002, Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, II, 73, CRC press, New York, Washington, DC, U.S.A.
  6. Joshi, C.(2007), Handbook of Indian Medicinal Plants, p. 73, Scientific Publisher, Jodhpur 34200, India.
  7. Fazal, F., Mane, P. P., Rai, M. P., Thilakchand, K. R., Bhat, H. P., Kamble, P. S., andBaliga, M. S. (2014). The phytochemistry, traditional uses and pharmacology of Piper betellinn (Betel Leaf): A pan-asiatic medicinal plant. Chinese journal of integrative medicine, 1-11.