Phyla nodiflora Linn. Botanical name:Phyla nodiflora Linn.
Synonym: Verbena nodiflora Linn.
Sindhi name: Bukan
Local name: Bukan
English name: Cape weed, fog fruit
Part used: Leaves and roots
Phyla nodiflora Linn. is a small creeping, highly branched herb. This perennial herb has sub quadrangular stem, rooting at the nodes, rounded at the apex and serrate. Leaves are sub sessile, opposite and spatulate. Flowers are pinkish and dense.1 Flowers are densely packed in long peduncle with axillary head. Fruit is globose and oblong.2
Phyla nodiflora Linn. is distributed throughout Nepal, about 1400 m, on moist or dry places. It is also cultivated in India, Bhutan, Srilanka, China, Japan, Mayanmar, Malaysia, Africa, North and South America.1 It is also found in Pakistan from plains to 1600 m and are common in hedges.2, 3
Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases:
The ground leaves of (Phyla nodiflora L. Greene) herb are applied on the face for the treatment of acne and pimples.
The methanolic, petroleum ether and water extract of Phyla nodiflora Linn. contain steroids, alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, essential oils, salts and potassium. 3, 7, 4′, 5′-tetrahydroxy-3′-methoxyflavone, nodifloretin, 4′-hydroxywogonin, onopordin, cirsiliol, 5, 7, 8, 4′-tetrahydroxy-3′-methoxyflavone, eupafolin, hispidulin, larycitrin, and β-sitosterol have been isolated from the methanolic extract of the aerial part of P. nodiflora.7
Flavone glycosides such as lippiflorin A and lippiflorin B, nepetin and batalilfolin have been reported from the ethanol extract of L. nodiflora.8 Flowers of L .nodiflora, contain flavones glycosides, 6 hydroxyluteolin-7-Oapioside and luteolin-7-O-glucoside, and flavones 6-hydroxyluteolin, nepetin, and batatifolin.9 Leaves contain halleridone and hallerone as their acetyl derivatives.10
Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/ Scientific studies:
Phyla nodiflora Linn. is demulcent and is used as a cooling drug1. This plant is diuretic, febrifuge; given to children to improve digestion and to women after delivery.2 It promotes healing of wound. A paste from the fresh plant is applied as a suppurant for boils.3 It is also spasmolytic, and antiseptic. The paste of leaves is applied topically to treat chicken pox, dermatosis, eczema, itch, leprosy, scabies and wound.5 It is used in the treatment of hookworm.6 The juice of the is used to relieve fever. The aroma of the inhaled plant is breathed in to treat coughs and colds. The juice of the root is used in the treatment of gastric troubles.
The crude organic extracts of Phyla nodiflora show antibacterial and antifungal activity 11,12,13,14 Anti-inflammatory activity of this plant is also reported.15,16 A study suggested that L. nodiflora contains nodifloretin, β-sitosterol glucoside, stigmasterol, glucoside, nodifloridin A and B, which could be used in proper doses for the treatment of hepatitis.17
1- Manandhar, N. P. (2002), Plants and People of Nepal, 359, Timber Publishers, Nepal.
2- Rehman, M. (2006), A Pictorial Guide to Medicinal Plants of Pakistan, p. 314, Kohat University of Science and Technology Publishers, Peshawar, Pakistan.
3- Joshi, S. G. (2000), Medicinal Plants, p. 397, Mohan Primlani Oxford & IBH publishers Co. Pvt. Ltd.66 Janpath, New Delhi 110001, India.
4- Khare, C. P. (2007), Indian Medicinal plants, p. 480-481, Springer Publishers, New Delhi-110058, India.
5- Duke, J. A. (2002), Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, p. 781-782, II, CRC Publishers, New York, Washington, DC, U. S. A.
6- Duke, J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China.
7- The Scientific World Journal; p. 8, Volume (2014) , Article ID 528653.
8-Nair AGR, Ramesh P, Nagarjan S and Subraimanam S. (1973), A new flavones glycosides from Lippia nodiflora. Indian journal chem. p. 2. 1316-1317.
9–Barnabas C, Gunasingh G, and Nagarajan S, (1980), Flavonoids from the flowers of Phyla nodiflora Linn. Indian Journal of Chemistry, Section B: Organic Chemistryincluding Medicinal Chemistry, 19B(9), 822.
10- Ravikanth V,Ramesh P, Diwan PV and Venkateswarlu Y. (2000), Halleridone and Hallerone from Phyla nodiflora as taxonomic markers. Biochemical Systematic and Ecology, 28(9), .905-906.
11- Durairaj A K, Vaiyapuri TS ,Mazumder UK, M Gupta,. (2007), Antimicrobial and lipidperoxide scavenging activity of lippia nodiflora (verbenaceae) Pharmacologyonline 3, , 177-189.
12- Salve S D and Bhuktar A S. (2012), Pharmacognostic study of Phylanodiflora linn. International journal of pharmacy,3 (3), 255 260
13- Patel Janki B, Shah Kinjal H, Patel Rashmika C. (2011)Evaluation of anti bacterial activity of methanolic extract of seeds of Phyla nodiflora Linn. Int. research journal of pharmacy 2(6), 91-93.
14- Pascual ME, Slowing K, Carreto E, Sanchez mata D, Villar A, (2001), Lippia:traditional uses, chemistry and pharmacology – a review. Jour of Ethnopharmacology,76(3) , 201-214.
15- Durairaj AK. Vaiyapuri TS ,Mazumder UK, Gupta M. (2007), Antimicrobial and lipid peroxide scavenging activity of lippia nodiflora (verbenaceae) Pharmacology online 3, 177-189.
16- Ahmed F, Salim MST, Das AK and Chaudhari MSK. (2004), Anti inflammatory and anti neoceptive activities of methanoic extract of Lippia nodiflora Linn. Die pharmazine, 59 (4), 329-30.
17- Zheng L. (2008), Application of Lippia nodiflora extract to preparing medicinal preparation for treating hepatitis.China patent, 2(3), 101-105.