Species: P. nodiflora
Local Name: Mukan, Wakan
Sindhi Name: Bukkan, Jalnim
English Name: Frog fruit, Turkey tangle.
Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene is a perennial and prostrate herb. Leaves are oblanceolate, obovate to spathulate, fleshy, long, broad, serrated, glabrous to appressedly pubescent, and subsessile to sessile. Spikes are solitary, axillary, peduncled, and appressedly pubescent to glabrous. Flowers are very small and whitish or pinkish. Fruit is ovate-shaped and subcompressed, separating at maturity into two, 1-seeded pyrenes1.
P. nodiflora is distributed in India, Sri Lanka, Ceylon, Baluchistan, South and Central America, and Tropical Africa. It is native of California.
Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases:
Prickly heat, Abscess, and Boils
Leaves of Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene (Frogfruit) is ground to make a paste. It is applied on area affected with prickly heat and abscess in District Khairpur (Sindh). The paste is also applied on boils in District Ghotki (Sindh).
Leaves of plants, P. nodifloraand Argyreia speciosa L. (Elephant creeper) are ground to make a paste, and applied on infected area in District Tando Muhammad Khan (Sindh).
Wounds, cut, and infection
P. nodifloraleaves are ground to make a paste. This paste is applied topically on wounds, cut, andfor the treatment of infection District Qamber Shahdadkot (Sindh).
Wounds and blood blister
Leaves of plants, P. nodifloraand Triticum aestivum L. (Wheat) are ground to make a paste, and applied on wounds in District Qamber Shahdadkot (Sindh).
Leaves of P. nodifloraandleaves of Artemesisia scoporiaWaldst. (Red stem) are pulvizeried to make paste, and mixed with fuller’s earthto prepare thick consistency. It is applied to fungal infection in District Tando Muhammad Khan (Sindh).
- P. nodifloraandfuller’s earthare mixed to obtain a paste. This paste is applied on scabies affected area in District Thatta (Sindh). this paste is also applied topically for the treatment of pyoderma in District Sukkur (Sindh).
- P. nodifloraleaves are tied in cloth and cover the affected area for healing scabies in District Hyderabad (Sindh).
- P. nodifloraleaves are ground and mixed with butter to make a paste. This paste is applied topically for 3-6 days for the treatment of scabies in District Qamber Shahdadkot (Sindh).
- nodifloraleaves are ground and mixed withCurcuma longa L. (Turmeric) powder, and make a paste. This paste is applied on boils in District Naushahro Feroz (Sindh).
- Extract of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) is used for cleaning the abscess affected area. Then paste of P. nodifloraleaves is applied on it in District (Naushahro Feroz (Sindh).
- Leaves of plant, P. nodifloraandZiziphus numularia L. (Chinese apple) leaves are fried in oil, and rubbed on pus for the treatment of abscess in District Naushahro Feroz (Sindh).
- P. nodifloraleaves and zaboor* leaves are ground to make a paste, and applied topically for 5 days for the treatment of abscess in District Qamber Shahdadkot (Sindh).
Paste of P. nodiflorastem is applied on pyoderma in District Naushahro Feroz (Sindh).
- Paste of P. nodifloraleaves are applied on abscessin District Jacobabad (Sindh).
- Bariyo* are ground to make a paste and applied on affected area. When it burst, mixture of P. nodifloraand butter is applied for 2-3 days for the treatment of abscess in District Sukkur (Sindh).
Piper nigrum L.(Black pepper), sulfur, and P. nodifloraplant are mixed within karwa oil, and then heated.It is applied on scabies daily in District Sanghar (Sindh).
- Leaves of P. nodiflorais ground to make a paste. It is applied topically for the treatment of ringworm in District Tando Jam and Sukkur (Sindh). it is also used externally for the treatment of abscess in district sukkur (Sindh).
- P. nodifloraleaves are ground and mixed with butter to make a paste. This paste is applied topically for the treatment of ringworm, pyoderma, phulri*,alopecia, and abscess in District Sukkur (Sindh).
- P. nodifloraleaves are mixed in Eruca sativaMill. (Jamba oil) and applied on affected area for the treatment of phulriin district sukkur (Sindh).
Nodifloretin, β-sitosterol glycoside, stigmasterol glycoside,nodifloridin A, and nodifloridin B along with lactose, maltose, glucose, fructose, and xylose were isolated from P. nodiflora.Two flavone glycosides lippiflorin A and lippiflorin B isolated from the ethanol extract. From the flowers, 6-hydroxyluteolin-7-O-apioside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, flavones 6-hydroxyluteolin, nepetin, and batatifolin were isolated. Phenylpropanoid compounds such as, acteoside and 2′-O-acetylechinacoside and a flavone demethoxycentaureidin were isolated from alcoholic extracts.
Flavones sulfates such as, hispidulin 7-sulfate, hispidulin 7,4′-disulfate, jaceosidin 7,4′-disulfate, nepetin 3′,4′-disulfate,nodifloretin 6,7-disulfate, 6-hydroxyluteolin 6,7-disulfate, nodifloretin 7-sulfate, 6-hydroxyluteolin 6-sulfate, 6-hydroxyluteolin 7-sulfate, jaceosidin 7-sulfate, nepetin 7-sulfate, and hispidulin 4′-sulfate, along with nepetin, hispidulin, and jaceosidin were also isolated from this plant. Lippiacinwas isolated from the methanolic extract of the aerial parts2.
Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies:
Juice of P. nodiflora plant is given for the treatment of fever. Juice of the root is employed for gastric troubles3. Ground whole plant in water along with black pepper and candy, and given in dysuria and bleeding piles4.
Methanolic extract of plantpossessed antibacterial5, anti-inflammatory, antineoceptive6, antidiabetic, and hypolipidaemic activities7. Methanolic and aqueous extract showed diuretic activity8.P. nodiflora was reported for antitumor9 andantiurolithiatic10activities.
- Sharma, R. A., & Singh, R. (2013). A review on Phyla nodiflora: a wild wetland medicinal herb. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res, 20(1), 57-63.
- Qureshi, R., Bhatti, G. R., & Memon, R. A. (2010). Ethnomedicinal uses of herbs from northern part of Nara desert, Pakistan. J. Bot, 42(2), 839-851.
- Patel Janki B, Shah Kinjal H, Patel Rashmika C. Evaluation of anti bacterial activity of methanolic extract of seeds of Phyla nodiflora Linn. Int. research journal of pharmacy 2(6), 2011, 91-93.
- Ahmed F, Salim MST, Das AK and Chaudhari MSK. Anti inflammatory and anti neoceptive activities of methanoic extract of Lippia nodiflora Linn. Die pharmazine, 59 (4), 2004, 329-30.
- Rangachari Balamurupan, Veeramuther Duraipandiya, Savarimuthu IG, Macimuthu. Anti diabetic activity of Y-Sitosterol isolated from Lippia Nodiflora L. in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.” European journal of pharmacology. 667 (1-3)Sept., 2011, 410-418.
- Shukla S, Patel R, Kukkal R. Study of phytochemical and diuretic potential of methanol and aqueous extract of aerial parts of Phyla nodiflora Linn. Int. journal of pharma and pharm sciences 1 (1),2009, 85-9.1
- Durairaj AK, Mazumdar UK, Gupta M and Selvan VT. Effect on inhibition of proliferation and antioxidant enzyme level of Lippia nodiflora in EAC cell line treated mice. Journal of complementary and integrative medicine, 6(1), 2009, 713-714.
- Dodala S, Diviti R, Koganti B and Prasad.The effect of ethanolic extract of Phyla nodiflora L Greene against calculi producing diet induced urolithiasis, Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources,1(3) ,2010, 314-321.