Oryza sativa L.

 Oryza sativa L.

Classification:

Botanical Name:          Oryza sativa L.Oryza-Sativa-L

Kingdom:                     Plantae

Order:                          Poales

Family:                         Poaceae

Genus:                        Oryza

Species:                      O. sativa                                                                                                  

Local Name:               Chawal

Sindhi Name:              Chawar

English Name:             Rice

Parts Used:                  Fruit

Description:

O. sativa is an annual and erect herb. Leaves are sheathing with shiny hairs on the margins. Flowers are in panicle and are golden yellow or reddish brown in color.1

 Occurrence:

O. sativa is cultivated in the tropics of all over the world, including southern Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia, and Central and South America. In Pakistan, the chief crop of O. sativa is cultivated in Kashmir.2

 Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases:

Brown spots on face and Acne

O. sativa is soaked in water overnight and water is sieved in the morning. This water is used to wash face for the treatment of brown spots and acne in Districts Tando Muhammad khan, Tandojam, Badin, Dadu, Umerkot, Mirpurkhas, Ghotki, Tandoallahyar, Kashmore, Jamshoro, Sajawal, and Nawabshah (Sindh).

Tinea versicolor

Cooked O. sativa is given orally along with sugar for the treatment of Tinea versicolor in Districts Badin, Dadu, Sukkur, Kashmore, Sajawal, Ghotki, and Nawabshah (Sindh).

Scabies

O. sativa is boiled and mashed to make a paste. This paste is applied on the affected areas for the treatment of scabies in Districts Badin, Dadu, Sajawal (Sindh).

Prickly Heat

Boiled O. sativa is tied on the area of infection for the treatment of prickly heat in Districts Sukkur and Nawabshah (Sindh)

Measles

Milk and water is added in sweet O. sativa. This mixture is sprayed on the skin for the treatment of Measles in District Kashmore, and Ghotki (Sindh)

 Constituents

O. sativa contains carbohydrates protein, minerals (sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron, and sulphur) and fats. It also contains phytic acid, vitamin E, γ-oryzanol, γ-aminobutyric acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, and palmitic acid. Leaves contain glucotricin. Plant also contains two diterpene lactones, momilactone A and momilactone B.3,4,5

 Chemical Structures:

Oryza-Sativa-L.-st

 

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacological/Scientific Studies

Decoction of O. sativa possesses cooling, epistaxis, and diuretic properties, and is used for the treatment of dysuria and various inflammatory diseases. Ashes of the straw is used for the treatment of wounds.6 Gruel of O. sativa is used for treating diarrhea, dysentery, bowel complaints, and indigestion.7 Powder is applied topically to cure itching. It is reported that the plant possessed antiinflammatory property. Ethyl alcohol and butanol extract obtain from leaves possessed antioxidant property.1

References

  1. Pullaih, T. (2006). “Encyclopedia of World Medicinal Plants”, 3,1446-1447, Regency Publications, New Delhi, India.
  2. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=200025789.
  3. http://www.mpbd.info/plants/oryza-sativa.php.
  4. Nantiyakul, N., Furse S., Fisk I., Foster T. J., Tucker, G., and Gray D.A. (2012). “Phytochemical Composition of Oryza Sativa (rice) Bran Oil Bodies in Crude and Purified Isolates”. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 89 (10). p :1867-1872.
  5. Kim, H. Y., Hwang, I. G., Kim, T. M., Woo, K. S., Park, D. S., Kim, J. H., and Jeong, H. S. (2012). “Chemical and Functional Components in Different Parts of Rough Rice (Oryza sativa ) Before And After Germination”. Food chemistry, 134(1). p: 288-293.
  6. Khare, C.P. (2007). “Indian Medicinal Plants”, p: 455, Springer Science Publications, New York, U.S.A.
  7. Baquar, S.R. (1989). “Medicinal and Poisonous Plant of Pakistan”, 310-311, First Edition, Printas Karachi, Pakistan.