Nigella sativa L.

Nigella sativa L.

Kingdom:                  PlantaeNigella sativa L.

Order:                         Ranunculales

Family:                        Ranunculaceae

Genus:                         Nigella

Species:                       N. sativa

Local Name:               Kalonji

English Name:           Black cumin

Sindhi Name:             Kalonji, Kali jeeri

Part Used:                   Seeds

Description:

Nigella sativa L. is slender or stout annual, loosely pubescent, sometimes hairs glandular. Stem are erect but simple or branched and finely striate. Leaf-lobes are wide and acute. Flowers are single and without an involucre. Sepals are whitish in color, ovate-shaped, and puberulous. Petals are with a short, thick, and subulate-capitate appendix. Seeds are triquetrous and rugose1.

Occurance:

N. sativais widely distributed South Europe, North Africa, and South-West Asia.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases:

Abscess

  1. Seeds of Nigella sativa L. (Black cumin) are soaked in water overnight and sieved in the morning. This water is taken orally for the treatment of abscess in District NausheroFeroz (Sindh).
  2. Powder of N. sativa is mixed in some water and used for washing affected area for the treatment of abscess in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  3. Powder of N. sativa is mixed in some water to prepare extract. It is taken orally twice a day for one week for the treatment of abscess and leishmaniasis in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Itching

N. sativais taken orally with an empty stomach till recovery for the treatment of itching in District Sukkur (Sindh). it is also used for every skin diseases in same district.

Wound

VitisviniferaL. (grapes), jaggery, N. sativa powder, and oil are mixed together to make a paste. It is applied topically on wounds in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Scabies

  1. N. sativa is taken orally daily for the treatment of scabies in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  2. Powder of N. sativa is taken orally with some water for the treatment of scabies in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  3. Powder of N. sativa is mixed in oil and applied topically for the treatment of scabies in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  4. Withania Coagulation Dunal. (Vegetable rennet) and N. sativa are soaked together, and then dried in sunlight. It is then pulverized to make a powder and applied topically for the treatment of scabies in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  5. N. sativa, azadirachtaindica a. juss (neem) leaves, and Citruluscolocynthis(L.) Schard (bitter apple) are ground to make a paste. This paste is applied on scabies affected area in District Ghotki (Sindh).

Pyoderma

  1. Powder of N. sativa and Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric) is mixed together, and applied topically on affected area for the treatment of pyoderma in District Khairpur (Sindh).
  2. Gonadl*, F. arabica, crystal sugar, and Nigella sativa L. (Black cumin) are boiled in some water. This water is taken orally for the treatment of pyoderma in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  3. N. sativaseeds are crushed to obtain powder. One table spoon of this water is taken orally for the treatment of pyodermainDistrict QamberShahdadkot (Sindh).

ChemcialConstituents:

Active compounds of N. sativa were thymoquinone, thymohydroquinone, dithymoquinone, p-cymene, carvacrol, 4-terpineol, t-anethol, sesquiterpene longifolene, α-pinene, and thymol. Seeds contain nigellicimine, nigellicimine-N-oxide, nigellidine, alpha-hederin and nigellicine. Root and shoot are reported to contain vanillic acid. Nigellone, avenasterol-5-ene, avenasterol-7-ene, cholesterol, cycloeucalenol, gramisterol, lophenol, obtusifoliol, stigmasterol-7-ene, β-amyrin, butyro-spermol, cycloartenol, 24-methylene-cycloartanol, taraxerol, tirucallol, β-unsaturated hydroxy ketone, hederagenin glycoside, melanthin, and melanthigenin were isolated from this plant2.

Chemical Structure:

Nigella sativa L.st

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies:

Seeds are used for the treatment of ailments including asthma, bronchitis, rheumatism, and related inflammatory diseases. It is also used for increasing milkproduction in nursing mothers, promoting digestion, and fighting parasitic infections. Its oil is employed for the treatment of skin conditions such as, eczema and boils, and in case of cold symptoms. Seeds and their oil are used in food and medicine. Seeds are used for improving digestion and producewarmth, in cold3.

N. sativa is reported for having a numerous biological activitieswhich includes analgesic, antilipemic,postcoital contraceptive, diuretic, antihypertensive, bronchodilator, calcium antagonist, histamine release inhibitor, hepatoprotective, anthelmintic, antifungal, antimicrobial, anticancer, and antiinflammatory activities4.

References:

  1. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=242426411
  2. Ahmad, A., Husain, A., Mujeeb, M., Khan, S. A., Najmi, A. K., Siddique, N. A.,Zoheir A. Damanhouri, Anwar, F. (2013). A review on therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa: A miracle herb. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 3(5), 337–352. http://doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60075-1
  3. http://www.ijpab.com/form/2013%20Volume%201,%20issue%202/IJPAB-2013-1-2-19-23.pdf
  4. Tariq, M. (2008). Nigella Sativa Seeds: Folklore Treatment in Modern Day Medicine. Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology : Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association, 14(3), 105–106. http://doi.org/10.4103/1319-3767.41725