Nelumbo mucifera

Nelumbo mucifera

Botanical Name:          Nelumbo nuciferaNelumbo mucifera

Synonym:                      Nelumbiumspeciosum Willd                 

Kingdom:                       Plantae

Order:                              Proteales

Family:                            Nelumbonaceae

Genus:                             Nelumbo

Local Name:                  kanwal

Sindhi Name:                kanwal

English Name:              Lotus                                                                                              

Part Used:                     Whole plant


Nelumbo nucifera gaertn. is an aquatic herb with fleshy creeping whitish-yellow colored rhizomes, petioles are fistulous, terete, papillae glabrous, hard and scattered, leaves are large, aerial as well as floating orbicular. Fruit is an aggregate of indehiscent nut-lets. Flowers are peduncles longer than petioles, glabrous spinulate, these are white or pink- reddish pink flowers 1-2.


Cultivated in China, eastern Asia3,India, Malaysia, New Guinea and Austrailia.4

Ethanomedicinal Uses in Skin Disease


  1. Seeds of Nelumbonucifera (Lotus) is crushed and mixed in oil, this mixture is applied topically for the treatment of alopecia in District Kambar-Shahdadkot (Sindh).
  2. Seeds of nucifera is ground and appliedon scalp for the treatment of alopecia in District Sukkur (Sindh).

Hair fall

  1. Flowers of nucifera are ground to form paste and applied on affected area for the treatment of hair fall in District Sukkur (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents:

The main chemical constituients resposnsible for holding antioxidant activites are kaempferol, hyperin, and astragalin. However it also contain isoquercetin, catechin, nelumboside, leucocyanidin, leucodelphinidin, nelumbine, nor-nuciferine, nuciferine, remerine, armepavine, and alkaloids (asimilobine and lirinidine)1.

Chemical Structure:


Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies,

Lotus leaves are known to have anti-obsiety and anti-oxidant properties. Plant extracts have string hepato-protective avtivity3. Different parts of the plant like the leaf, seed, flower and rhizome have been traditionally used for the treatment of leucoderma, small pox, pectoralgia, spermatorrhoea, small pox, dysentery, haematemesis, cough, epistaxis, haemoptysis, haematuria, metorrhagia, cholera, fever, and hyperdipsia 5.


  1. Mukherjee, P. K., Balasubramanian, R., Saha, K., Saha, B.P. and Pal, M., A review on Nelumbo nucifera Anc Sci Life. 1996, 15(4): 268–276.
  3. Huang, B., Ban, X., He, J., Tong, J., Tian, J., & Wang, Y. (2010). Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts of edible lotus (NelumbonuciferaGaertn.) leaves.Food Chemistry120(3), 873-878.
  4. Hayes, V., Schneider, E. L., &Carlquist, S. (2000). Floral development of Nelumbo nucifera (Nelumbonaceae).International Journal of Plant Sciences,161(S6), S183-S191.
  5. Liu, C. P., Tsai, W. J., Lin, Y. L., Liao, J. F., Chen, C. F., &Kuo, Y. C. (2004). The extracts from Nelumbonucifera suppress cell cycle progression, cytokine genes expression, and cell proliferation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.Life sciences75(6), 699-716.