SURVEY,DOCUMENTATION AND SCEINTIFIC STUDIES OF PLANT REMEDIES USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF THE INFECTIOUS SKIN DISEASES IN SINDH
Dr. M. Iqbal Choudhary
Project Sponsored by:
Planning and Development Department
Government of Sindh
|Information about Sindh||7|
|Flora of Sindh||7|
|List of Plants for the Treatment of Infectious Skin Diseases in Sindh||27|
|Description of Plants Used in the Treatment of Skin Diseases||32|
|Herbal Formulations Marked for the Treatment of||568|
|Infectious Skin Diseases|
|Tables of Plants versus Diseases||577|
|Table of Diseases versus Plants||615|
Many people, especially in the poor, underdeveloped countries, rely on wild plant resources for food, construction materials, fuel wood, medicine and various other purposes. Worldwide, it is an established fact that indigenous communities are extremely knowledgeable about plants and other natural resources on which they are immediately and intimately dependent. Unfortunately, much of this wealth of knowledge is very fragile today due to erosion of traditional cultures. Ethnobotanists can play very important roles in rescuing this disappearing knowledge and returning it to local communities. It is, therefore, important that before this rich unwritten folklore on uses of plants and plant resources becomes lost forever through the recent accelerated ‘civilization’ of the aborigines (tribal), it should be properly documented and preserved.
Local inhabitants are extremely knowledgeable about the utilization of indigenous flora of the study area. They use them in several skin diseases such as, Scabies, Ringworm, Psoriasis, Ptyriasis alba, Burn, Boils, Vitiligo, Warts, Wound, Alopecia, Tinea capitis, Jock itch, Ichthyosis etc.
In each field survey of different villages lots of knowledgeable remedies were collected. From majority of villages new medicinal plants were reported and collected for research purpose. Some medicinal plants were collected from the respective villages, and some were bought from the Pinsar shop (herbal market sellers). During these field surveys the complete remedies of medicinal plants were asked for the treatment of infectious skin diseases, for eg: some herbs were grinded,soaked and eaten, some were applied topically, some were used for dressing bandages, and some herbs were used for taking bath to cure a certain disease.
Approximately 15 districts of Sindh were covered from where a total of One Hundred and four (104) plants are identified which are used by village people in their health related problems, in combination, from which few plants have shown very high potency against fungal and bacterial infections after performing several Bioassays. Several skin disease exudative samples were collected from these villages and brought to PCMD diagnostic laboratory for further examination.
One of the most striking findings of the ethnobotanic surveys, conducted during 2007-2011 in the province of Sindh, was very high prevalence of skin diseases, and related disorders. The high onset of skin diseases in Sindh was largely due to poverty, lack of clean water, poor sanitary conditions, malnutrition, insect, vector and inadequate access to specialized dermatological treatments. The most common skin diseases we observed during the survey included scabies, impetigo, superficial fungal infections, leishmania, and a variety of ulcers due to poor quality of food and water, negligence and lack of treatment. We also witnessed some chronic skin diseases, like psoriasis, that people just had not gotten checked out or treated because there was no doctor in the area. The most depressing thing that we noticed was in most of the areas they don’t have a female physician. Women have to travel four to six hours away from their homes to visit a female physician. Similarly, it was noted that rural population of the Province of Sindh is using a large number of plant remedies for the treatment of skin disorders.
This current project focuses on epidemiological study of the increasing emergence, high prevalence, and spread of multi-drug resistant (MDR) skin diseases in the province of Sindh. It addresses wide spread infectious diseases caused by fungal and bacterial pathogens, with significant morbidity and mortality in a large segment of the population, and a high economic cost due to resistance. The anticipated results of the study are highly relevant to society in terms of reducing the burden of diseases and sufferings in impoverished population of rural areas, and in terms of reducing medical costs associated with treating opportunistic infections. In this study, ethnobotanical medicinal practices in Sindh against the skin diseases will be collected, documented, scientifically evaluated, and publicized for IPR protection.
Following are the objectives of this study:
- To conduct epidemiological study on the prevalence of various skin diseases in the province of Sindh through systematic field-based survey.
- To identify and record plant species used in folk medicines against fungal infections.
- To identify biomarkers of drug sensitivity and resistance in diseases causing microorganisms.
- To identify potential novel natural products/ plant extract for future drug candidates against skin diseases and to develop them for clinical trials.
- To carryout scientific evaluation of selected medicinal plants to ascertain the efficacy and safety.
- To launch a web portal and compile a monograph on the ethnobotanical practices Sindh against skin diseases.
Sindh is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is the home for Sindhi people. It is locally known as Mehran and given the title Bab-ul-Islam. The name of Sindh is driven from ancient name of river Indus that is Sindhu in Sanskrit language.
Sindh is bounded to the west by indus river and Baluchistan, to the north by Punjab, to the east by Indian state of Gugrat and Raghistan, to the south by Arabian sea.
Flora of Sindh
Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous native plant life. Plants are grouped into floras based on region, period, special environment, or climate. Sindh has semi arid climate, through its coastal and riverine forests there are fresh water lakes and mountains and desert but in the irrigated Indus valley there is vegetation.
- Bushy growth is found in the arid plain and sand dunes. Rise and fall in the quantity of salt in soil changes their characteristics .Salvadoran persica, the leafless caper, tamarisk etc grow if the salt quantity is high. Calotropris procera or khabar are flora of pure sand.
- Plants grow along the bank of Indus and its back water includes: babul, lai, jhao and giant grasses.
- Hilly and rocky region plants are mert, dharma khatri and tukhamran etc
- Wild and cultivated plants found near the villages include: neem, amaltas ,jamun , aam, ber , pipal etc
- Mangroves plants are: timar, kirari etc
- Besides all these plants, a large number of herbal and medicinal plants are grown in the province that is used to cure diseases. It includes bhooh, Kandairo, Aloe Vera, Kikar, Sarsoon, Aak, Bhangri, Khokro, Injeer etc.
- The province is mostly arid with scant vegetation except for the irrigated Indus Valley. The dwarf palm,Acacia Rupestris (kher), and Tecomella undulata (lohirro) trees are typical of the western hill region. In the Indus valley, the Acacia nilotica (babul) (babbur) is the most dominant and occurs in thick forests along the Indus banks. The Azadirachta indica (neem) (nim), Zizyphys vulgaris (bir) (ber), Tamarix orientalis (jujuba lai) and Capparis aphylla (kirir) are among the more common trees.
- Mango, date palms, and the more recently introduced banana, guava, orange, and chiku are the typical fruit-bearing trees. The coastal strip and the creeks abound in semi-aquatic and aquatic plants, and the inshore Indus delta islands have forests ofAvicennia tomentosa(timmer) and Ceriops candolleana (chaunir) trees. Water lilies grow in abundance in the numerous lake and ponds, particularly in the lower Sindh region.
- Taluka Qasimabad
- Bhittai town
- Goth Budho Khan Palari
- Goth Sajan Mirbahar
- Taluka Hyderabad City
- Thatto mangwan
- Fazal bhagul
- Taluka Hyderabad Rural
- Jamali check post
- Taluka Mithi
- Parmar Colony
- Kotdji Wand
- Goth Baharo
- Goth Rahilo
- Goth Narwan
- Goth Bhughar
- Goth Lundhar
- Taluka Nagarparker
- Goth Ghortiari
- Goth Kasbu
- Goth Odaisor
- Goth Lakhi Jo Wandio
- Goth Onjo Wandio
- Goth Virwah
- Goth Mondro
- Goth Karithar
- Taluka Chachro
- Goth Wejhiar
- Goth Tighthi
- Udani Jo Goth
- Goth Panghrio
- Goth Matharo
- Goth Mithrio
- Goth Bhalwa
- Taluka Diplo
- Goth Khari Pasayo
- Goth Sakri
- Goth Sahongi
- Goth Sadoi
- Goth Karihar
- Goth Bahadhur
- Taluka Sinjhoro
- Goth Gul M. Laghari
- Goth Godhand
- Goth Rais Ali Chandio
- Goth M. Khan Channar
- Goth Chabarlo
- Goth Haji Fazal Din Arain
- Goth Faiz Khan Thaen
- Goth Ali Khan Chandio
- Goth Sanwar Khan Mari
- Goth Ghulam M. Chanar
- Goth Gulab Shah
- Taluka Sanghar
- Goth M. Yousuf ji Miyan
- Padri jo Goth
- Goth Haji Ahmed Laghari
- Goth Jaffar ji Miyan
- Goth Mir M. Mendro
- Goth Khan M. Wasan
- Taluka Shahdadpur
- Goth Allah Dino Abro
- Goth Wali M. Wasan
- Goth Sachal boti
- Goth Abdul Khalique Bughti
- Goth Ismail Khan Laghari
- Goth Ejaz Ali Metlo
- Goth Elyas Metlo
- Goth M. Arbab Solangi
- Goth Tharo Khan Laghari
- Goth Dur Meer Baig
- Taluka Jam Nawaz Ali
- Goth Rasool Bux Khaskheli
- Goth Haji Sher M. Khaskheli
- Goth Bagh Water
- Goth Meo Khari
- Goth Jam Murad
- Goth Ahmed Khaskheli
- Goth Jam Madad Ali
- Goth dumbo Babar
- Goth Haji Mehrab Khan
- Goth Haji Dadal
- Taluka Khipro
- Goth Haji Jan Muhammad
- Goth Madad Ali Rind
- Goth Peromal
- Goth Per Bux Junejo
- Goth Haji Muhb Kanasiro
- Goth Saleh Faqir Khaskheli
- Goth Haji Din M. Sangrori
- Goth M. Ilyas Raja
- Goth Rano Siyal
- Taluka Tando Adam
- Goth Zahid Hussain Mari
- Goth Malool Mal
- Goth Rais M. Amrani
- Goth Haji Khan M. Malokani
- Goth Haji Abdul Hakeem Shoro
- Raheem Jo Goth
- Goth Mir Khan Bozdar-
- Taluka Kotdigi
- Goth Hussain abad
- Goth Ali dino Shah
- Goth daim berbo
- Goth Mohammad chaingal soomo
- Goth Per Nusaiq
- Goth Haji muhabbat kalhoro
- Taluka Gambat
- Goth pir Malal shah
- Goth Haji Jawar Mangriyo
- Goth Khuda bux
- Goth Alam khan Bhogri
- Goth Imam Bux Chandio
- Goth Abdul Bari
- Goth A.Wasayo Bhatti
- Goth Jan Mohammad
- Goth Dhari Bux Maher
- Taluka khair pur
- Goth Maiji Khan Katshar
- Goth Noor mohammad Nareejo
- Goth sarwar khan
- Goth panwari
- Goth mosari
- Taluka Sobodero
- Goth Thatti
- Goth usman Ali Shah
- Goth shaheed M. Paryal chag
- Goth Pujalo Larik
- Goth deedar Ali
- Goth M. achal Sehto
- Taluka Mirwah
- Goth dandi
- Goth Zar M. Ibrahim
- Goth M. Waris
- Goth Kahn M. Nawal
- Goth M. Ramzan
- Goth Dergah Mohsin Shah
- Goth Gai Khan Chahri
- Taluka Faiz Gung
- Goth neer war shar
- Goth khan M. Shar
- Goth sahib khan chandi
- Goth alam khan chandio
- Taluka Kangri
- Goth perano bhand
- Goth dost M. dhro
- Goth sikander abad
- Goth kumar kehar
- Goth wasar ka nehar
- Goth gujan
- Goth chak
- Taluka Lucky Ghulam Shah
- Goth Ibrahim
- Goth Lal Khan shar
- Goth Magrani
- Goth Allah Wasayo
- Goth punjal
- Goth Arbab
- Goth shahzad maher
- Goth yosuf shar
- Taluka Shikar pure
- Goth imam bux
- Goth Ali Abad
- Goth Qalander bux gopang
- Goth char
- Goth kamil shar
- Goth Mohamad bux shAR
- Goth pir man shar
- Taluka garhi yasen
- Goth Tabalo shareef
- Goth khan mohammad bahadur
- Goth misri wan
- Goth baqir shah
- Goth ladho khan
- Goth meho mangi
- Taluka Rato Dero
- Bungal Dero.(Not recorded due to heavy rain)
- Ali Bux Kotrani.(Not recorded due to heavy rain)
- Waris Dino Machi.(Not recorded due to heavy rain)
- Nau Dero.(Not recorded due to heavy rain)
- Taluka Larkana
- Kehar Village.(Not recorded due to heavy rain)
- Goth Mahota.(Not recorded due to heavy rain)
- Goth Dodai.(Not recorded due to heavy rain)
- Goth Choar pur
- Taluka Bakrani
- Goth Ghulam Ali Channa
- Goth Mehrab sindhiyo.(Not recorded due to heavy rain)
- Goth Gairailo
- Goth Nae Gud
- Goth Gunja Tunia
- Goth Tharowan.(Not recorded due to heavy rain)
- Taluka Dokri
- Goth dhand.(Not recorded due to heavy rain)
- Goth karani.(Not recorded due to heavy rain)
- Goth Bhulreji.(Not recorded due to heavy rain)
- Goth Ftaeh Khan Awner.(Not recorded due to heavy rain)
- Taluka Jacobabad
- Goth Daowd khan khoso
- Goth Hidayatullah Babbar
- Goth Abdul Aziz
- Goth Abdul Majeed Hambi
- Goth Muhammad Talami
- Goth Authar khan Bhanghar
- Goth Abdul Rehan Abro
- Goth Qalati khan khoso
- Goth peer Bux khan Bhatti
- Goth Sojhoro umzari
- Taluka Garhi Kherio
- Goth Haji Muhammad Punah Khan Khoso
- Goth Elahi Bux Erri
- Goth Hazar Khan Barohi
- Goth Ilahi Bux
- Goth Ghulam Rasool Babbar
- Goth Jaam khan Erri
- Goth Azizabad
- Goth Dao Jahanpur
- Goth Sohno Khan Lohar
- Goth Barohi
- Goth Gul Muhammad Chohan
- Goth ALLAH Wadhayo Kharos
- Goth Budho
- Taluka Thul
- Goth Shambhoo Barohi
- Goth Ameer Khan Khoso
- Goth Amir Khan Khoso
- Goth Fateh Muhummad Barohi
- Goth Leemo Khan Lashari
- Goth Dost Muhummad Khan Khoso
- Goth Bachroo
- Goth Muhummad Ebrahim Khoso
- Goth Ghanwaar Khan
- Taluka Kashmor:
- Goth Sher Baz Domki
- Goth Bakshan Khan Chachar
- Goth Darkhani School
- Goth Din Muhumad
- Goth Haji Khan Dashti
- Goth Giyandar Khan dashti
- Goth Din M. Niach
- Goth Salah Khan Khoso
- Goth Raees Kamil Khan Chachar
- Taluka Tangwani
- Goth Saleem Khan Bajrani
- Goth Mahabatt Khan Dahani
- Goth Gul Muhammad Bajrani
- Goth Haji Arsala Khan
- Goth Muhammad Khan Khoso
- Goth Rasool Bux
- Goth Chakkar Khan
- Goth Mehmood Khan
- Goth Mehrab Khan Magsi
- Goth Tharmall Bachkani
- Taluka Kandkot
- Goth Dad Muhammad
- Gul bar soomro
- Goth Turab Ali khan
- Goth Taaj Muhammad khan
- Goth Wabat khan Bajkani
- Goth Noor Hasan Balkani
- Goth Akhtar Ahmed Nonari
- Goth Bagghan kahan Qambrani
- Goth Faqeer Ram Das
- Goth Haji Wazir khan
- Goth Rahamatabad
- Goth Baggan Soomro
- Goth Gulam Akbar Suheryani
- Taluka Umerkot:
- Goth Mandar Thakur
- Goth Khokhro (Area Khokhrapar)
- Goth Lukmandan
- Goth Bithoro
- Goth Turlah
- Goth Haji M. Sadiq
- Goth Jalu Jo choro
- Goth Nae Chor
- Goth Tabri Amin Faqir
- Goth Haweli
- Taluka Kunri:
- Goth Sayed Madeed Shah
- Goth Noor Halepoto
- Goth Naseer Dogar
- Goth Bhado
- Goth Sain Shehr Shah (Bachal Memon)
- Goth Zamerabad
- Goth M. Moosa Nohkai
- Goth Qazi Sultano
- Taluka Samaro
- Goth Qadir Qaem Khani
- Goth Haji Khasil Khan
- Goth Haji Aleem Khan
- Goth Anwar Kari
- Goth Faiz M. Bhotrani
- Goth Ali Kutab Burgary
- Goth Jam M. Burgary
- Goth Aslam Shahani
- GothJalal Shah
- Goth Sano Kolhi
- Taluka Pithoro:
- Goth Dodo Khaskheli
- Goth Qazi Nawab
- Goth Haji Fazal Abro
- Goth Badal Nehri
- Goth Raees Hadi Khaskheli
- Goth M. Qasim Khaskheli
- Goth Goond Shareef
- Goth M. Ibrahim
- Goth Haji Potonohdri
- Pithoro Phatak
- Goth Iliyas Saand
- Goth Saleh Saand
- Goth Jadam Mangreo
- Goth Haji Abdul Haq Arisan
- Taluka Jhando mari
- Goth Malook khan
- Goth Deera Farm
- Goth Jogi Faqeer
- Goth Shoro water (Jhando mari)
- Goth Faqir Mohammmad
- Goth Irfan Kot
- Goth Ameer Bux Chandiyo
- Taluka Chambar
- Goth Nawaz Otho
- Goth Bahadur laghari
- Goth Mohammad Saleh Otho
- Goth Hashimabad
- Goth Tohri (chambar)
- Goth Abid Bachani
- Goth Abdullah Kumbar
- Goth Khan Muhammad
- Goth Khuda Bux Jaskani
- Goth Nasarullah
- Goth Gitar harisar
- Taluka TandoAllahyar
- Goth Noor Nabi Halipoto
- Goth Shaikh Lahnaro
- Goth Kubbo stop
- Goth Abdullah Nayo
- Goth Lal Muhammad Memon
- Goth Gohram Faqeer:
- Goth Gohram Faqeer
- Goth Bachal khan Kaloi
- Goth Haji Rashid Memon
- Goth Haji Zahoor Yousufani
- Goth Sohail Bachani
- Taluka Tandojam:
- Goth Haji Muhummad Bakash Solangi
- Goth Haroon shaikh (Tandojam)
- Goth Haji sawan khan
- Goth Khadim khan mirjat
- Goth Mir Zamin Talpur
- Goth Haji yar Muhammad
- Goth Darya khan Nahyoo
- Goth Mir sarwar (Tandojam)
- Goth Ghulam Akbar
- Goth Mir shah Muhammad (Tandojam)
- Goth Ijaz nahiyoo ( Tandojam)
- Taluka Sukkur
- Goth Khuda Bux Jatoi
- Goth Abdullah Shah (New Sukkur)
- Goth Abad Lakha
- Goth Mako
- Goth Yar Muhammad Ghumra Bagarji
- Goth Allah Dino
- Goth Dilawar Hussian
- Goth Haji Gulzar
- Goth Hussain Bux Lashari
- Goth Mir Mangnejo BSM
- Goth Gul Muhammad Chohan
- Goth ALLAH Wadhayo Kharos.
- Goth Budho
- Taluka Pano Aqil:
- Goth wali Dhino khanro
- Goth M.Shareef khan korai
- Goth khair Muhammad Bullo
- Goth Kot Bullo
- Goth Mor ja kanda
- Goth Leemo Jogi
- Goth Chakar Maako
- Goth Bhelar
- Taluka Rohri:
- Goth Khahi
- Goth Mando Dero
- Goth Satam Daro
- Goth AllahYar Maitlo
- Goth NAO
- Goth Jamal Din Panhwar
- Goth Jamal Din Panhwar
- Goth Major Dilawar
- Goth Khaliq Dino Jatoi
- Taluka Saleh Patt:
- Goth M.Bachal Bhambro Allahdad
- Goth Latifabad Bhumbro
- Goth Allah Dino Iboopoto
- Goth Kamal Khan iboopoto
- Goth Bargeh
- Goth Qaim khan behan
- Goth Khahi
- Goth Haji M.Ramzan
- Goth Noor abad
- Goth meer Nisar khan Burro
- Goth Shafi Muhammad Mirbahar
- Goth Zawar haji bux
- Goth Dilawar Khan
- Goth Shai Usna ushri
- Goth Nohmaan
- Taluka Shujabad
- Goth Haji Muhammad Ali Halepoto
- Goth Muhammad Ranjho Malkani
- Taluka Mirwah Golarchi
- Goth Lashkari Korai
- Goth Ghulam Qadir Korai
- Goth Pathan Kalooni
- Goth Ghulam M. Khan Noorani
- Taluka Mirpurkhas
- Goth Haji Bashir
- Goth Haji Muhammad Kamil Panohar
- Taluka Badin
- Goth Gul Shah
- Goth Muhummad Mundero
- Goth Moosa Junejo
- Goth Kasero Khaskheli
- Goth Abdul Ghafoor Malha
- Goth Gul Malah
- Taluka Tando Bhago
- Goth Nehal Halipoto
- Goth Muhummad Ishaque Dal
- Goth Sayed Ahmed Ali Shah
- Goth Faqeer Nehro
- Goth Mir Ali Muhammad Talpur
- Goth Haji Ahmed Zaoor
- Taluka Talhar
- Goth Makhdoom Mandrem
- Goth Jakhro
- Goth Saeed Pur
- Goth Sachal HAlepoto
- Goth Noor Muhhammad Rustmani
- Goth Taj Muhammad Shah
- Taluka Matli
- Goth Bachal Khan
- Goth Jai Ram Kholi
- Goth Mushtaque Baloch
- Goth Arjun Patel
- Taluka Golarchi
- Goth Haji Manthar Jat
- Haji Abdul Jat
- Haji Shaji Muhammad Jat
- Chak No.1
- Chak No. 2
- Abdul Rehman Mallah
- Abdul Hakeem Chang
- Taluka Ghotki
- Goth Muhammad Ali Hakro
- Goth Nizam din Abro
- Goth Raees Ibrahim Chachar
- Goth Fazil Ibrahim
- Goth Abdul Rahim
- Goth Allah yar Chachar
- Goth Arbani
- Goth Sardar Khan Ghotki
- Taluka Abauro
- Goth Khadam Bux Chachar
- GothEssa khan Chachar
- Goth Haji Misri
- Goth Jam khan
- Goth Baksh Chachar
- Goth Khan Panwar
- Goth Muhammad Sharif khan chachar
- Goth Ghulam Haider Laghani
- Goth Farhan House
- Goth Inayatullah
- Goth MKanzoor Ahamed Indhar
- Goth Abdul Haleem
- Taluka Daharki
- Goth Awan
- Goth Kata Meerbahar
- Taluka Mirpur Mathelo
- Goth Peer Bux
- Goth Muhammad Siddique Kalwai
- Goth Allam Khan
- Goth Taaj Zaheeran
- Goth Ghazi Lal Bux
- Goth Saeed Khan Chandio
- Goth Kaloo Khan Sial
- Goth Ahmed Ali Kaloo
- Taluka Khangarh
- Goth Khuda Bux Mangrio:
- Goth Sheroo Mehar:
- Goth Methar
- Goth Wahi Dhano
- Goth Chak Islamabad/ Deh Bumbly
- Goth Phoog Mangral
The research will be executed in a very planned way in following steps:
- Field survey
- Compilation of database and monograph
- Scientific evaluation (safety and efficacy) of selected medicinal plants
- Field survey
- Preparation before the field work:
It includes collection of ethnobotanical data related to skin infections from literature, obtain secondary information-map, flora, land, the people and the conservation issues in the region. Consultation of the maps to select the specific sites and villages before visit.
- Formation of the multidisciplinary team:
Making team for survey that includes dermatologist, taxonomist, pharmacist, microbiologist, chemist, biochemist, anthropologist.
- Identification of fields:
All the relevant information about the flora, soil, culture, and people will be obtained before visiting the field.
- Ensure community participation:
During survey,a friendly relationship will be established with villagers and aims and objectives of the survey will be discussed with them. Presence of dermatologist will be essential, as people usually donot have easy access to doctors, they discuss all the information of diseases and medication to doctors.
Interview of patients (Questionnaire will be filled) (Annexure-I). Interview of old people, and hakims to record traditional knowledge of medicinal plants use by them to treat skin infections. It also includes inquiries into types of plants collected from the forest, farm, and gardens or brought in market.
- Selection in choice of techniques:
Samples will be collected from the patients by microbiologist, which will be examined in detail in various laboratories.
- Scientific Evaluation:
The data recorded on questionnaire will be analyzed, thoroughly. All plants, and herbs that will be mentioned by the local people will be collected/ purchased. A full scientific evaluation of their claim will be done at International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences.
- Systematic work:
The survey will be carried out systematically so that others who wish to conduct a more thorough study consult the result. This includes making the maps of the sites to be visited, recording the names and complete data and geographical information of the local people who will participate in the interview, identification of the biological samples collected from patients and scientific evaluation of the ethnobotanical information.
- Compilation of on-line database and monograph
A data-base for traditional medicine use for the treatment of skin infections will be compiled, which will be a frame-based on-line reference of all information on medicinal plants and extract used in the rural areas of Sindh. A monograph will also be published.
This database will be formed in a way that will be convenient reference for the health professionals, scientist and general people. Technical terminology unique to folk medicine in Sindh will be described. This database and monograph will include information about the skin infections, plants, and herb use in rural areas of Sindh to treat skin diseases, herbal formulations, and scientific evaluation.
- Scientific evaluation (safety and efficacy) of selected medicinal plants against skin diseases
All plants and other vegetative and natural species identified through the survey will be collected and extracted at the International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences. During this project, a systematic study will be conducted on the chemistry and pharmacology of extracts and compounds isolated from natural sources. Extraction and isolation of active constituents from plants will be carried out by using a variety of chromatographic techniques such as column chromatography and HPLC techniques. The structure elucidation of active constituents will be determined by using sophisticated spectroscopic techniques, and chemical methods.
Extraction and Isolation
Plants will be collected/purchased and dried in air. Air-dried plant material will be crushed and soaked in methanol /ethanol for one week at 25o C. The crude extract will be dissolved in distilled water, and defatted with hexane. The defatted aqueous extract will be further fractionated with CHCl3, EtOAc and then with BuOH. These extracts will be evaporated and evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, and other relevant assays. Active extracts will be subjected to column chromatography (CC) on silica gel, sephadex LH-20 and HPLC and eluted withgradients of different solvents like hexane-CH2Cl2, hexane-EtOAc, CH2Cl2-EtOAc, CH2Cl2-MeOH, H2O-MeOH, etc. to yield the most active constituents from plants, and medicinal herbs. The structure elucidation of active constituents will be carried by using UV, IR, Mass, 1- and 2-D NMR techniques, and chemical methods.
Bioassay and Pharmacological Evaluation
All plants will be identified through survey, will be collected and extracted at the International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences laboratories after taxonomic identification. Extracts (80% EtOH/MeOH-H2O) will be prepared and dried under vacuum. These extracts will be screened for relevant activity (reputed therapeutic activity) by using high-throughput biological and pharmacological screening protocols.
Diagnosis of fungal skin infections
The diagnosis of a dermatophyte infection can be easily confirmed by obtaining material from an actively infected site (i.e., skin, hair, or nail), dissolving it in a potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution, and examining the material under a microscope. A KOH preparation that is positive for the presence of dermatophytes will demonstrate septatehyphae that branch at various angles in skin and nail specimens. In infected hairs, spores are generally present either on the hair surface or within the hair shaft. The presence of hyphae in hair is unusual. Although the KOH preparation confirms the presence or absence of a dermatophyte, it does not allow for identification of the responsible species. If this is necessary, infected material must be inoculated on a fungal culture medium such as Sabouraud’s. DTM or Mycosel agar. A two- to four-week period is usually required for identification of the dermatophyte species.
In circumstances, where a KOH preperation and fungal culture are negative, but a dermatophyte infection remains a strong consideration on the basis of clinical findings, it may be appropriate to biopsy the affected site. The biopsy material can be stained with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), which reveals the presence of fungal elements by staining them red. The Wood’s lamp is an ultraviolet light source which is used to detect the coral red fluorescence of a skin infection called erythrasma, which is produced by the organism erythrasma bacterium. This fluorescence helps differentiate erythrasma from tineacruris. Wood’s lamp illumination of some cases of Microsporum-induced tineacapitis also produces fluorescence, but the color is blue-green. However, the vast majority of tineacapitis is caused by T. tonsurans, and the infected hairs of these patients do not fluoresce under the Wood’s light.
Following general methodology will be employed for the clinical isolatetion.
Fungal isolates and inoculum preparation.
Fungi and bacteria will be obtained directly from patients of during the surveys in various areas of Sindh, Pakistan. Potato dextrose agar will be used to prepare homogeneous suspensions of fungi hyphal fragments. The turbidity of the supernatants will be measured spectrophotometrically.
Broth microdilution antifungal susceptibility testing.
The MICs of the anti- dermatophytic agents will be performed with RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with L-glutamine. The pH of the medium will be adjusted to pH 7.0 with 0.165 M morpholinepropanesulfonic acid buffer.
A series of doubling dilutions of the stock solutions of the antifungal agents (plant extracts) will be prepared in 2 ´RPMI 1640 medium. Each dilution will then mixed with an equal volume of a 1:50 dilution of the fungal suspension (approximately 2 ´ 104 CFU/ml) in 20% (vol/vol) Alamar Blue dye in sterile distilled water. A final volume of 200 mL of the reaction mixture contained 104 CFU of fungus per ml and the agents at concentrations ranging from 64 to 0.001 mg/mL. A drug-free medium will be inoculated and used as a growth control. The blank medium will be free of drug and fungus.
The microdilution plates will be incubated at 30°C for 96 h, and the endpoints were read as the MICVIS and MICCOL. The MICVIS is defined as the lowest concentration of an agent at which there is no visually observable growth in broth, and the MICCOL is defined as the lowest concentration of an agent that prevents the development of a red color in broth. Fungal growth activity will also be measured and calculated using fluorescence using a fluorescence reader.
Bacterial isolates and inoculum preparation
Collection of samples by Initial examination which is based on patient’s symptoms includes: skin culture from infected site (skin swabs, and skin biopsy), culture of the drainage (fluid) from the infected site, blood culture, urine culture and sputum culture. After that identify the species by growing the culture for 24 h at 37° C on nutrient agar /nutrient broth and also on other selective media (manitol salt agar etc), also check the characteristics and morphology by gram staining. Subsequently carry out the biochemical tests for further confirmation. Next is to screen the natural and synthetic compounds against the particular skin infection bacteria by pouring the sterile agar with organism in sterile Petri plates andallow the plates to solidify for an hour. Make wells (10 mm diameter) with the help of flamed borer on the surface of agar plates. Now Add compounds into each well after that incubate at 37° C for 24 h. Measure the zone of inhibition and from zone determine the antimicrobial activity of compounds.
Diagnostic test of leishmaniasis (Skin split smear)
Leishmaniasis is diagnosed in the haematology laboratory by direct visualization of the amastigotes (Leishman-Donovan bodies).
Sample taken from blood, or aspirates (marrow, spleen, lymph nodes or skin lesions) spread on a slide to make a thin smear, and stained with Leishman’s or Giemsa’s stain (pH 7.2) for 20 minutes. Amastigotes are seen with monocytes or, less commonly in neutrophil in peripheral blood and in macrophages in aspirates. They are small, round bodies 2-4μm in diameter with indistinct cytoplasm, a nucleus and a small rod-shaped kinetoplast. Occasionally amastigotes may be seen lying free between cells.
Blood taken from patient’s lesions, 0.1 mL blood pour in NNN biphasic medium bottle and incubate in cooled incubator for 72 h. Observed the promastigotes stage of parasites in biphasic NNN medium.
Crude extracts/pure compounds, used in skin infections,will be subjected to cytotoxicity assay. The cytotoxic activity of compounds will be studied by using human neutrophils. An in vitrospectrophotometric method will be used for this study, which measures the cell viability (%) after the incubation of test compounds with human neutrophils. The assay is based on the reduction of tetrazolium salt WST-1 by mitochondrial dehydrogenases of viable cells to yellow organ formation dye, which can be measured spectrophotometrically.
Clinical studies on selected bioactive extracts and substances (already been evaluated for its cytotoxicity and on animal models) will be carried out in dermatology department of the Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Center (Karachi) under the supervision of Prof. Dr. Azam J. Samdani as per international standards.
Clinical trials are medical research studies. They are very scientifically controlled in order to evaluate how new drugs in development (called “investigational drugs”) treat or cure a specific skin infection/disease or condition. New drugs or treatments usually go through three phases of clinical trial testing before enough data is collected to determine that it is safe and effective for use in humans.
Phase I studies assess the safety of a drug or device. The study is designed to determine the effects of the drug or device on humans including how it is absorbed, metabolized, and excreted. This phase also investigates the side effects that occur as dosage levels are increased. About 70% of experimental drugs pass this phase of testing.
Phase II studies test the efficacy of a drug or device. Most phase II studies are randomized trials where one group of patients receives the experimental drug, while a second “control” group receives a standard treatment or placebo. About one-third of experimental drugs successfully complete both Phase I and Phase II studies.
Phase III studies involve randomized and blind testing in several hundred to several thousand patients. This large-scale testing provides the pharmaceutical company and the FDA with a more thorough understanding of the effectiveness of the drug or device, the benefits and the range of possible adverse reactions
List of Plants for the Treatment of Infectious Skin Diseases in Sindh
|S.No||Botanical Name||English Name||Common Name|
|1.||Acacia erioloba E. Meyer||Camel thorn||Jawasi|
|2.||Acacia nilotica.L.wild||Gum Arabica||Babar|
|3.||Aerva Javanica(Burm .F)juss||Pillow weed||Bhooh|
|4.||Alhagimaurum Medic||Persian Manna plant||Kandairo|
|6.||Allium cepa. L||Onion||Basar|
|7.||Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.||Aloe vera||Ghee Kunwar|
|8.||Amomum Subulatum Roxb||Black Cardamom||Barri Ellaichi|
|9.||Anewthum sowa Roxb.||Dill||Sowa|
|10.||Artemesisia Scoporia Waldst||Red Stem ,Worm wood||Kikar|
|11.||Azadirachta indica A. Juss||Velvet mesquite||Neem|
|12.||Berberis vulgaris L.||European Barberry||Rasaut|
|14.||Butea frondosa Koen.Roxb||Flame of the Forest||Kamarkas|
|15.||Calotropis Porcera A(Aiton)W.T.Aiton||Crown Flower||Aak Akada|
|16.||Camellia sinensis(L.).Kuntze||Black Tea||Chaanh|
|17.||Capsicum annum L.||Red chillies||Garha Mirch|
|18.||Capparis decidua||Caper plant||KIrar|
|19.||Carum copticum||Bishops weed,Thymol seeds||Ajwaan|
|20.||Cassia fistulaL.||Golden shower||Chimkini|
|22.||Cicer arientum||Chana beans||Chana|
|23.||Citrulus colocynthis (L.) Schard||Bitter apple||Indrayan,trooh|
|26.||Clerodendrum serratum L||Bleeding heart||Bhangri|
|28.||Colligonum polygonoides L.||Phog||Phog|
|29.||Chorchorus depressus L||Quercus Margarettiae||Mundairi|
|30.||Cuminum cyminum||Cumin seeds||Achho jeero|
|31.||Cucumis sativus L||Cucumber||Kheero|
|33.||Cuscuta Reflexa roxb||Devil’s hair,Gold thread||Akash bail|
|34.||Cucumis Melo||Musk melon||Chibbar|
|35.||Cyamposis tetragonoloba(L.)||Cluster bean||Gawar|
|37.||Eclipta prostrate L||False Daisy||Khokro|
|38.||ElettariaCardamomum maton||Cardamom||Nando Photo|
|39.||Fagonia Arabica .L||Cretan Prickly||Dramaho|
|40.||Ficus Carica L||Figs||Injeer|
|41.||Foeniculum vulgare||Saunf||Fennel seeds|
|43.||Helianthus annus.C||Sunflower||Sijmukhi jo Gul|
|45.||Ipomoea aquatica||Water Spinach||Devi naro|
|46.||Laptadenia Phyrotechnica decne||Camel Thron||Khip|
|48.||Lallemantia royleana Benth||Cool seeds||Nazboo|
|49.||Luffa Acutangula||Dish cloth||turi|
|50.||Launaea Procumbens||Creeping Launea||Bathar|
|51.||Mangifera indica L||mango||Aam|
|53.||Mucuna Cochichinenis (Lour)A.||Tohar||Valvet Bean|
|57.||Origanum vulgare L.||Oregano, Wild marjoram||Sathar|
|59.||Papaver somniferum||Opium poppy seeds||khaskhas|
|61.||Plantago ovate forssk||Desert Indian weat||isphago|
|62.||Piper betle||Betle leave||paan|
|63.||Piper nigrum||Black pepper||Kali mirch|
|64.||Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene||Frog fruit, Turkey tangle||Bukkan,Jal nim|
|67.||Prosopis glandulosa toor||Holy Basil||Devi plant|
|70.||Rheum emodi||Rhubarb||Revand chini|
|71.||Ricinus communis||Castor oil plant||Haran|
|73.||Santalum album||Sandal Wood||Sandar|
|74.||Salvadora persica Decne||Tooth brush leaves||Miswak|
|75.||Salvadora Oleiods ecne||salvadora||Jar|
|76.||Saccharum Officinarum||Sugar cane/Table sugar||Khandr|
|77.||Senna italic mill||Senegal senna it||Dadh wal|
|78.||Solanum surattense Burm.F||Wild||Aderi|
|79.||Sapindus Trifoliatus||Soap barries||Retha|
|82.||Solanum melongena L.||Brinjal||bengan|
|83.||Syzgium cumini||Black pulm||Jamoon|
|85.||Terminalia bellirica||Beleric or bastard myrobalan||Harir|
|88.||Tamarix aphylla (L.)||Athel pine||Lai|
|89.||Viola Odorata.L||Sweet violet||Gul Banafsha|
|90.||Vigna radiate.L||Moong Beans||Moong ki Daal|
|91.||Withania Coagulation Dunal||Cheese||Paneer|
|92.||Zingiber Officinale roscoe||Ginger||Adrak|
|93.||Ziziphus numularia L||Chinese apple||Bairr|
|95.||Curcuma caesia||Black turmeric||Nar kachoor|
|96.||Emblica ribes||False Black pepper||Baobrring|
|98.||Acacia concinna||Shikakai||Sika kai|
|99.||Citrullus colocynthis||Bitter apple||Trooh|
|100.||Kaempferia galanga||Kapoor kachri|
|103.||Phyllanthus emblica||Indian goose berry||Amlo|
Description of Plants Used for the Treatment of Infectious Skin Diseases in Sindh
Curcuma Caesia Roxb
Botonical Name: Curcuma caesia. Roxb
Sindhi Name: Kari hadar
Local Name: Kali haldi
English Name: Black turmeric
Parts used: Rhizome
Curcuma caesia plant has the height ranging from 0.5 m to 1.0 m. It has tuberous rhizome
The plant is sessile, laterally flattened, and covered with adventitious roots, root scars, and warts; the shows circular arrangements of remnants of scaly leaves, which gives a false impression of growth rings. The branching is more odourless sympodra .12
As the plant propagates with rhizome, the primary roots are not noticeable , however, yellow brown long fibrous and tapering adventitious roots are found and also noticeable all over the surface of rhizome 12. The leaves are present in the groups of 10-20, each leaf is broad , oblong, lanceolate and glabrous. In the mid region of the leaves, the lamina shows deep farraginous purple coloured clouds. The petiole is ivory colour and unsheathing the petioles encircle each other forming a pseudoaxis. The variation is parallel, typical shows the characteristic of monocots.12
It is 15-20 cm long dense spike, which arises much before the opening of leaf, the bracts are green, and the bracts of coma are deep red, which become crimson when old 12. Flowers are pale yellow with reddish border. Its calyx is 10-15 mm long, obtuse, and toothed, and corolla are long tubular with pale yellow lip , 3 lobed and semi-elliptical.12
Curcuma caesia. Roxb is a herb found throughout the Himalayan region, north-east and central India. It is mostly found in Bengal and north-eastern part of the country including Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Mizorum.
Curcuma caesia Roxb is commonly as an anti-inflammatory and anti-asthmatic in Ayurvedic medicine.1 Freshly rhizome’s paste is applied on snake and scorpion bites. 5 Dried rhizomes and leaves of curcuma caesia Roxb are used in piles, leprosy, asthma, cancer, wounds ,impotency, fertility, tooth ache, vomiting and allergies. 6,7,8,9 Crushed rhizome paste is applied against cut or injury to control bleeding and helps in quick healing 10. The fresh rhizomes are used in leprosy, cancer, epilepsy and also helmenthic , gonorrhoreal discharge. 11
The leaves of Curcuma caesia Roxb are crushed and its powder is applied to the area of pyodermal infection.The powdered plant is also used to treat hair follicles.
Chemical constituents and their structures:
The major constituents of Curcuma caesia Roxb are 97.48% of the oil, with camphor(28.3%), ar-turmerone (12.3%), (Z)-ocimene (8.2%), ar-curcumene (6.8%), 1,8 cineole (5.3%), elemene (4.8%), borneol (4.4%), bornyl acetate (3.3%) and curcumene (2.82%).These have been identified as the most important constituents of Curcuma caesia roxb. 13
The presence of alkaloid, steroid, phenolic and tannin was identified as the most important constituents which are extracted from the rhizomes and it contains the major components such as –hexane, petroleum ether (60:80), benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water . Pandeyetal. furthur identified that by GC-MS that the volatile oil extracted from rhizomes contains 30 compounds.
Linalool (20.42%), ocimine (15.66%), 1-ar-curcumene (14.84%), zingiberol (12.60), 1,8-cineole (9.06%), andα-borneol (7) dcamphore (18.88) are present in rhizomes of the plant Curcuma caesia Roxb which are most important components.15Curcuma caesia Roxb composit of curcuminoids, oil content, flavonoids, phenolics and other types of amino acids with addition with alkaloids contents.16.Presence of bioactive components in the rhizomes is due to the presences of curcumin and other demethoxy compounds, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxy curcumin.
Repoerted Structures :
The plant main has curcumoinoids which have the antiinflammatory and anti oxidant properties, wound healing, anti microbial activity etc.17
Rhizomes of curcuma caesia reported to have anti fungal activity mainly the essential oil from the curcuma caesia rhizomes have the antifungal property. 20
Curcuma caesia anti asthmatic property was identified.21
The bronchodilating activity of the vextracts of C. caesia Roxb was identified. Histamine aerosol induced bronchospasm and pre-convulsion dyspnoea in guinea pigs was used to study bronchodilator activity of the extract .22
Curmumin present in Curcuma caesia showed good antioxidant activity due to presences of sulphur free redica 23. In DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay.
The extracts of Curcuma caesia Roxb extracts showed good analgesic and antipyretic activities . When tested on rats in which acute pain and brewer’s yeast hyperthermia was induced at dosage ranging in between 250 to 500 mg/kg body weight 24.Extracts bof rhizomes exhibits CNS activities.Its anticougates muscles relexent effect.
MECC was done for determination of locomoter Anticonvulsant property and muscle relaxant effect was tested on animals models.25 By performing MCC identified that rhizomes also have the activity for Central Nervous System (CNS) depression. 26
Curcuma caesia rhizomes in petroleum, ether, Dichloromethane, ethanol and water were taken and examined at different concentrations to identify anthelmintic activityof the plant, (50 mg/ml, 100 mg/ml and 150 mg/ml) taken for each extract to determine the paralysis and earth worm time of expiry. Curcuma caesia Roxb causes paralysis in earthworm at the dose of (150 mg/ml) .27
- Arulmozhi D K; Sridhar N; Veeranjaneyulu A; Arora S Preliminary mechanistic studies on the smooth muscle relaxant effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Curcuma caesia Journal of herbal pharmacotherapy (2006), 6(3-4), 117-24,
- By Banerjee, Anup; Nigam, S.S. From Indian Journal of Pharmacy (1976), 38(4), 103-5. Antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Curcuma caesia Roxb By Arulmozhi D K; Sridhar N; Veeranjaneyulu A; Arora S K From Journal of herbal pharmacotherapy (2006), 6(3-4), 117-24, Preliminary mechanistic studies on the smooth muscle relaxant effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Curcuma caesia.
- By Dhal, Yogamaya; Deo, Bandita; Sahu, R. K. Comparative antioxidant activity of non-enzymatic and enzymatic extracts of Curcuma caesia Roxb. -an important medicinal plant From Research Journal of BioTechnology (2012), 7(4), 17-22.
- Israr F, Hassan F, Naqvi BS, Azhar I, Jabeen S and Hssan SMF. Studies on antibacterial activity ofsome traditional medicinal plants used in folk medicine, Pak. J Pharm Sci. 2012; 25(3):669-674.
- Syamkumar S and Sasikumar B. Molecular marker based genetic diversity analysis of Curcuma species from India. ScientiaHorticulturae. 2007; 112(2): 235-241.
- Ravindran PN, NirmalBabu K and Sivaraman K. Turmeric: The Genus Curcuma. CRC Press, 2007, p.11.
- Amalraj VA, Velayudhan KC and Muralidharan VK. A note on the anomalous flowering behaviour in Curcuma caesia (Zingiberaceae). J Bombay Nat Hist Soc. 1989; 86(2): 278-279
- Trivedi PC. Ethnomedicinal plant of India. Aviskar Publisher, 2003; Jaipur 30, pp-46.
- Arulmozhi DK, Sridhar N, Veeranjaneyulu A and Arora KS. Preliminary Mechanistic studies on the smooth muscle relaxant effect of hydroacloholic extract of Curcuma caesia.Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy 2006; 6: (3/4).
- Paliwal P, Pancholi SS, Patel RK. Pharmacognostic parameters for evaluation of the rhizomes ofCurcuma caesia. J Adv Pharm Technol Res 2011; 2: 56-61.
- “Curcuma caesia Roxb.” The Plant List. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kewand Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
- Ammon HPT, Wahl MA 1991. Pharmacology of Curcuma longa. Planta Med 57:
- Baerjee Ak ,kaul vk and nigam ss essenze Deriv.Agrum1984;54(2)117-121.
- Karmakar I, Dolai N, Bala A, Haldar PK. Anxiolytic and CNS depressant activities of methanol extract of Curcuma caesia rhizome. Pharmacologyonline 2011; 2: 738-47.
- Chatopadhyay I, Biswas K, Bandhopadhyay U, Banerjee RK. Turmeric and Curcumin: Biological actions and medicine of applications. Curr. Sci. 2004; 87: 44.
- Miller AL. Antioxidant flavonoids: Structure, function and clinical usage. Alt Med Rev 1996;1:103-111.
- Banerjee A, Nigam SS. Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Curcuma caesia Roxb. Indian J Med Res 1976; 64: 1318-21.
- Arulmozhi DK, Sridhar N, Veeranjaneyulu A, Arora SK. Preliminary mechanistic studies on the smooth muscle relaxant effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Curcuma caesia. J Herb Pharmacother 2006; 6: 117-24.
- Paliwal P, Pancholi SS, Patel RK. Comparative evaluation of some plant extracts on bronchoconstriction in Experimental animals. AJPLS 2011;1: 52-7.
- Chirangini P, Sharma GJ, Sinha SK. Sulfur free radical reactivity with curcumin as reference for evaluating antioxidant properties of medicinal Zingiberales. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 2004; 23: 227-36.
- Kaur R, Satija S, Kalsi V, Mehta M, Gupta P. Comparative study of analgesic and antipyretic activity of Curcuma caesia and Curcuma amada roxb. Rhizomes. Inventi Impact: Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 2011, Article ID- “Inventi: Ep/441/11″, 2011.
- Karmakar I, Saha P, Sarkar N, Bhattacharya S, Haldar PK. Neuropharmacological assessment of Curcuma caesia Roxb. Rhizome in experimental animal models. Orient Pharm Exp Med Springer 2011; 11: 251-55.
- Karmakar I, Dolai N, Bala A, Haldar PK. Anxiolytic and CNS depressant activities of methanol extract of Curcuma caesia rhizome. Pharmacologyonline 2011; 2: 738-47.26. Gill R, Kalsi V, Singh A. Phytochemical investigation and evaluation of anthelmintic activity of Curcumaamada and Curcuma caesia-a comparative study. Inventi Impact: Ethnopharmacology vol. 2011.
Botonical Name: Curcuma longa.L
Synonym: C. domestica valeton
Sindhi Name: hader
Local Name: Haldi
English Name: Termeric
Parts of plants used: Rhizome and leaves
Curcuma longa L. It contains apical ,cylindrical spikes up to 10 to 15 cm long 1. It is a freshly rooted perennial herb upto 60 cm long2. It is tall herb with large root stocks and consists of rhizomes, which are ovate, oblong or pyriform and often short branched3. The lateral rhizome which is slightly bent upto 1- 2cm, fresh orange in colour 4. Stem short with tufled leaves and flowers are yellow. 5 Leaves are large and flowers are autumnal spikes 10 to 15 cm long 6. The calyx is tubular, unilaterally split, unequally toothed.7
The Plants is a native of southern Asia.where it is grown commercially on large scale.It is found in India and China, Indo china and Srilanka.
Turmeric roots of Curcuma longa L, has been used in traditional medicinal formulations for various treatments which include jaundice and other liver ailments, ulcers, parasitic infections, skin diseases, sprains, inflammation of the joints, cold and flu symptoms. 8 It is also used for preserving food as antimicrobial. 9 It is applied on sprains and wounds 10. Curcuma longa. L. is used in preparing medicinal oil. 11
Turmeric and wheat (Triticum asetivum) is mixed in oil. To treat wound. Turmeric (Curcuma longa. L) is mixed in oil to treat any infection on skin. A mixture of Ajwain, turmeric and flour. is applied to treat ringworn. Turmeric (Curcuma longa. L) is mixed with mustard oil and it is mixed with other ingredients and used as a treatement of vitiligo haldi (Curcuma longa L.) is mixed in oil and buttermilk nand used for treating Tinea unguium.
The number of compounds have been reported from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) the most important are the curcuminoids. It compresess of curcumin (diferuloylmethane), demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin. Curcumin form of turmeric powder.13 Many other compounds includes volatile oils such as turmerone, atlantone, and zingiberene, from which are approximately 235 are firstly identified compounds.
They are phenolic and terpinoids in which further includes 22 diarylhetanoids,diarypentanoids and eight phenepropane and many other phenolic compounds, 68 monoterpenes,109 sesqiterpenes, three triterpenoids four sterols ,two alkaloids and other 14 compounds further.By the study of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) invivo it is examined that the curcuminoids are primarilary present in rhizomes. Monoterpenes are dominant in oil present in leaves and roots and also in rhizomes.
Curcuminoids which are present in rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) varies according to the condition, source and the methods of cultivation in which the essential oils in turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) varies from the geographical location of the plant of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) .The essential oils and cucuminoids are different from each other with the methods of extraction and storage process.This is the most important reason that the commerically available turmeric varies. While, curcumin demathoxycurcumin and bismethoxycurcumin are used for the the main quality control of rhizomes powerderd and extracts. Ar –turmerone,∞ turmerone and p-turmerone are used to control the product quality of turmeric.
110 species of curmuma has been identified from which 20 are examined for photochemical. Among the curcuma the Curcuma longa .L is the most important spices studied.Uptill now the 235 compounds has been isolated from which phenolic and terpinoids are identified including monoterpenes, sesquterpenes, triterpenes sterols and alkaloids and many other important compounds.15
Bioactive compound isolate from extracts shows the following effects.:
Anti inflammatory16 antioxidant17 anti bacterial18 anti tumor17 anti HIV19, artheritis20, snake bite21, apoptosis20, anti cargenogenic affect21, alzehmir’s diseases2, hepatoprotective effect.23, antispasmodic24, cardivascular24, antifibrotic effect21, effect on immunity16, Anti rheumatic activity25 ,cytotoxic activity26, ovirian cancer and bone cancer 27,28, Inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase29, cytoxygenase30 and anti leukemic 28, CAK-123 (renal cancer)28 and MCF 7 (breast cancer)31. HIV integrase inhibitors activity32, hypocholestermic activity33, Turmeric is used as digestive agent.34
Curcuma longa.L shows the best anti inflammtory activity after testing its activity on animal model.Cuircumin is less effective when given orally. In vitro studies also showed the antispasmodic activity.35
Further studies showed various useful activities of Curcuma longa.L anti-inflammatory, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anti-bacteria, antioxidant effects and nematocidal activities36. This plant also inhibits cancer cells formation and tumor growth.36 The extracts of Curcuma longa.L also showed anti parasitic property. Curcuma longa.L also showed posotive effects on several liver diseases.
Some of the water and fat soluble constituents of Curcuma longa .L showed significant anti oxidant activity. Turmeric also has the well protected effects on heart by lowering the fat and cholestrol synthesis.37
- Manisha,Vaibha,Medicinal plants,2004 ,vol 2,591,592,Isha books,Adarrh nagar,Dehli,India.
- Dr. Jk Rawat.Medicinal plants of India,2003,pg 76, Daya publication house,new dehli,India
- P.V.Narasimha Rao,selected medicinal plants of India,1992,pg 121,Tata press LTD,414,veer savarkar, Newdehli, India
- 1.Manisha,Vaibha,Medicinal plants,2004 ,vol 2,591,592,Isha books,Adarrh nagar,Dehli,India.
- Dr. Jk Rawat.Medicinal plants of India,2003,pg 76,Daya publication house,new dehli,India
- P.V.Narasimha Rao,selected medicinal plants of India,1992,pg 121,Tata press LTD,414,veer savarkar, Newdehli, India
- By Rao, L. Jagan Mohan; Nagarajan, S.From Indian Pat. Appl. (2010), IN 2009DE00409 A 20100910
- Chemistry and biological activities of C. longa By Jayaprakasha, G. K.; Rao, L. Jagan Mohan; Sakariah, K. K. From Trends in Food Science & Technology (2005), 16(12), 533-548.
- Anil.K.Dhiman,Ayurvedic drug plants,2006,152,Daya Publishing House,Haridwar,India.
- James A.D,Duke’s handbook of Medicinal plants of the bibble ,1929,166,167,j.a Duke,Boca raton,London,New York,U.S.A
- Nagpal M, Sood S (2013).”Role of curcumin in systemic and oral health: An overview”. J Nat Sci Biol Med4(1): 3–7.
- Tayyem RF, Heath DD, Al-Delaimy WK, Rock CL (2006). “Curcumin content of turmeric and curry powders”. Nutr Cancer 55 (2): 126–131.
- Shiyou li,wei yuan ,guangrui Deng ,ping wang ,pieng yuang and bharat aggarwal.
- National university of pharmaceutical crops,Aurthur collage of Forestry and agriculture ,Stephen F,Austria university Nacogdoches TX 75972,USA.
- Department of general oncology,integrative m,edicine program MD Aderson, cancer centre university Houston ,TX 77030,USA.
- Cytokines research laboratory,Department of reaech therapeutics MD Aderson, cancer centre university of texas Houston ,USA.
- Aggarwal ,BB ,and Harikumar ,KB,Potential theraputical effects of curcumin ,the anti-inflammatory agent against neurodegenerative ,cardiovascular ,pulmonary ,metabolic ,autoimmune and neuroblatic diseases.Inc ,Biochemic C bio -41(1): 40-59(2008)
- Ruby A-J Kuttan ,G dinesh BK Rajesekharan K.N ,Kuttan ,R,Antitumor anti oxidant activity of natural curcuminiods ,cancer let,94,79-83 (1995)
- Kim.Kj,YO,H.H,cha:jd,seo,sj,choi,N.Y and you,yo,Antibacterial activity nof curcuma longa against methicillin resistant S.aureus phytother Res (19) (7):599-604 (2005)
- Chandra D and gupta ,S anti inflammatory and antiartheritis activity of volatile oil of curcuma longa (haldi).INC,j,med ,res 60:138-148(1972).
- Katsuyama .YKita ,Funa n and horinouchi S,Curcumoniods biosynthesis by two types iii polyketide synthase in the herb c longa j,biolo,chem.,284,11160-11170(2009)
- Prasad Dn Guptab,Srivasta rk and satyavati,gv studies on ulcerogenic activity of curcumin ,Indian ,j,physiol pharmacol 20:20-92(1976)
- balaji s and champakam Btoxicity prediction of compounds from turmeric ,Food chemistry toxicolo -48(10)2951-2959(1010)
- Mazumdar A .Neamatic ,N sundar ,S Sculz ,J,Pertz and eich E ,Curcumin analogues with altered potencies against HIV J,intergase as probes for biochemical mechanism of drug action j,med chem. 40:3057-3063(1957)
- Songs EK,Diarytheptanoids with free radical ,scavenging hepato protective activity in vitro from C.longa ,Planta med 67 :876-877(2001)
- Faila m,liu Pt ,Espinosa –jaffrey,A ,Rosenthal.Mj ,Bernard ,G And ringman Jm ,Innate immunity and transcription of MGAT 111 and Toll like recepotor in Alzheimer’s diseases patients are improved by bisaemeothoxycurcumin ,Pro Nat Acd ,Sci ,USA,104:12849-12854(2007)
- Patel K and srinivasan K,Influence of dirtery spices and their cutive principals on pancreatic digestive conditions and medicines ,and ed –or eclectic medical publications ,sandy ,1998.
- Aderson Am .Mitchell ,M.s and mohan rs designsynthesis, biological evaluation and molecular docking of curcumin analogues as anti oxidant ,cycloxygenasew inhibitory and anti inflammatory agents j,chem., edu 77: 359-360(2000)
- Chen,Hw and hungHC,effect of curcumin on cell cycle progression and apoptosis in vascular smooth cells Br J,pharmacol ,24:1029-1040(1998)
- Jana NR ,Dikshit P,GOswami,A and inhibition of prosteasomal function by curcumin induces apoptosis throught mitochondrial pathway .I biochem 279:11680-11685(2004)
- Srihari ,RT,basu NJH and siddique ,HH antiinfalamatory activity of curcumin analogues ,India j,RES 75 :574-578(1982)
- Mosley ,C.A ,liolta,DC and snyder,jp,highly active anticancer curcumin analogues ADV ,Exp med biolo 595:77-103(2007)
- Pari L tewas D and eckel J kole of Curcumin in health and diseases ,Arch physiol biochem 114(2)127-149(2008)
- Blasiak ,Trzeciak ,A,Metecka –panas E.Drzewoski,j,Iwamienko,T sumiel,I and wojewoski, M DNA damage and reoair in humaN Lymphocytes and gastric mucosa cells exposed to chromium and curcumin teratogen,carcinogen,mutagen 19:19-31(1999)
- Sharma PO antioxidant activity of curcumin and related ,biochem pharmacol ,25:1811-1812 (1976).
- Planta Med. 1991 Feb;57 (1):1-7.
- Laboratório de Biologia de Tripanosomatídeos Departamento de Imunologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Av. Brasil 4365, 21045-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil
Cuscuta reflexa Roxb:
Botonical Name: Cuscuta Reflexa Roxb
Sindhi Name: Dodder
Local Name: Dodder
English Name: Devil:s hair
Part of plant used:Fruit.
This plant is leafless, twinning/spreading parasites throwing profuse branches and often covers the host shrubs or other plants completely. Its Stems /branches are fleshy. Its flowers are small, white pedicelate and arranged in loses racemes or often in short clusters .9
Its found throughout India and Ceylon and grows upto 2800 m evelation in the various parts of himachal Pradesh.It is propagated by stem cutting.
Plant purge is used externally against itch . Infusion of plant used as wash for sores. 1 It is used against eczema spots and diarrhea.2 Externally it is used for itch and internally for protracted fever . The stems are used for bilious disorders. The seeds are applied as an anodyne.3 It is used in flatulence and liver complaints.4C. reflexa has been investigated for antispasmodic, hemodynamic, anticonvulsant, anti steroidogenic, antihypertensive, muscle relaxant, cardiotonic, antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant, cholinergic, diuretic and hair growth activities.5 Extracts of Cuscuta reflexa shown to be capable of promoting follicular proliferation or preventing hair loss in cyclophosphamide-induced hair fall.6 C. reflexa has been investigated for antispasmodic, hemodynamic, anticonvulsant, anti steroidogenic, antihypertensive, muscle relaxant, cardio tonic, antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant, cholinergic, diuretic and hair growth activities.7 It is used internally in treating protracted fevers and externally in the treatment of body pains and itchy skin. 8
For the recovery of scabies take bath with water of aak (Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T. Aiton), Amar bail (Cuscuta Reflexa Roxb ).
Chemical constituents :
To study photochemistry, characteristics Cuscuta reflexa roxb was analysed using UV-Vis and FT-IR. Cuscuta reflexa. Roxb consists of flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids, cuscutin, Cuscutalin and amarvell.10 Furthur studies on Cuscuta reflexa Roxb identified that its its isolates have Cuscutin, amarbelin, betasterol, stigmasterol, kaempferol, dulcitol, myricetin, qurecetin. Plant have kaempferol-3-O-glucosie,astragallin19, myrecetin,benzopyrones20, glucopyranosides21, propanamide flavonols, quercetin and quercetin-3-O-glucoside, β-sitosterol, and bergenin11.Primarliry, Nine compounds including coumarin, α-amyrin, β-amyrin, α -amyrin acetate, β-amyrin acetate, oleanolic acetate,oleanolic acid, stigmasterol and lupeol were isolated from the plant CuscutaReflxa Roxb and structures were also reported.12 The most active triterpiniod which was extracted is lupeol. β-sitosterol, oleanolic acid are the major constituents isolated from Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.
The compounds isolated from the spices of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb shows strong inhitory action against alpha-glucosidase.This components are isolated primarly and they are 6,7-dimethoxy 2H-1-benzopyran-2-one(1),3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propen-1-ethanoate (2), 6,7,8-trimethoxy 2H-1-benzopyran-2-one (3), 3-(4-O-beta-glucopyranoside-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-propen-1-ol (6), 2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-3,5-dihydroxy-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside-4H-1-benzopyrane-4-one (7) these are those five components. The new compounds in addition to that are 7′-(3′,4′-dihydroxyphenyl)-N-[(4-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]propenamide (4), and 7′-(4′-hydroxy,3′-methoxyphenyl) butylphenyl) ethyl propenamide.1
C.reflexa Roxb have caffeic and. In both Cuscuta spices have the phenolic patern. Different concentration of the phenolic acid is identified in all the cuscuta spp. Flavoids are slowly decresed from the meristematic apex to haustoria,In haustoria there is more amount of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives as they are in increased amount in the stem apex area.The greater amount of phenylpropanoids in apex and in addition to the hiyher value of caffeic and depsides .15
Almost all the work was done on Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. mainly phytochemical studies. With the help of UV-Vis and FT-IR different types of components are isolated from the extracts ofCuscuta reflexa Roxb and they are alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, fixed oil and fats, proteins, phenolic compounds, tannis and saponins .16
Reported Structures :
To identify the certain plant extract there are no such parameter to identify the the purity and the quality of the given plant. 17 In experimental rats it was found that Cuscuta reflexa Roxb extract at a certain doses induces the lowest blood pressure and heart beat rate. This was not happened due to atropine (1 mg/ kg) and CR cannot effect the response of norepinephrine and this is concluded that CR reaction is independent of cholinergic receptor stimulation.In the same way if we take the example of ginea pigs CrC lowest the force and the rate of their artries and this reaction is not disturbed in the presences of atropine (0.1 pM).CR also block the both acetylcholine- and histamine contraction. CRC also effects the rats uterus. IN vivo it was found that the CR in a non-specific depressant and its action is total based on CR in a non-specific depressant effects. 18
Pharmacological Actions Of Doddor seeds:
It is very helpful to treat the chronic protatitis a certain dosage of its Cuscutae, Rhizoma Dioscoreae, Hypoglaucae,Rhizoma Dioscoreae, Fructus Alpiniae Oxyphyllae, Rhizoma Alismatis,Fructus Corni,and Herba Patriniaeis given to treat this chronic protitiits and its good output rate is 90%.
It is very useful to treat the threatened abortion in this a certain dosage is given to the patient of abortion and approximately 110 cases are proven to be cured by this.IN the fifth day of manestural cycle the mixture of Radix Dipsaci, Colla Corii Asini, Radix Codonopsis Pilosulae, Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae and Semen Cuscutae was given treat the threatened abortion.The dosage is specified for that.
In the mice the weight of uterus and to increase the keritinization of viginal tract eppithillium the water extract of cuscutae was given. Doddar seeds are very helpful to treat kidney. It can be used as the tonic for kidney and sperms clinically from the experimental work it was found that the certain dosage the stool becomes mashedmore times and there is no belly pain. Therefore it was concluded that the dodder seeds are used as a tonic for the kidney and as wellas the treatment for habitual constipation. Certain dosage of the seeds are taken to a certain period of time to ensure the complete recovery of the kidney disesase. Nourishing eyes and blurred vision is due to the deficiency in liver and kidney. In addition in treatment of liver, kidney hreatened abortion and chronic diarrhea it also helpful to traet eyes and the blurred vision due to the difficeny in liver and kidney.
The seeds of doodar has the ability inhibit certain microbes Staphylococcus, Shigella flexneri, and Bacillus typhosus. The seeds of dodder has ability to inhibit DNA concentration in carcinoma cells at certain concenteration. Lupeol possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor and chemopreventive activities in addition to anti protozoal activity .13 Interleukin system is being first functional by lupeol which is a primary anti inflammatory. IL-4 (interleukin 4) production by T-helper type 2 cells24-26 is lower by lupeol this was found.
- R.n chopra,Glossary of India medicinal plants,1956,85,Dr.K.S Krishnan Mary,New dehli,India.
- P.C Trivedi,Ethnomedicinal plants 2004,94,Mrs.S.jain,Jaipur India.
- D.M.A Jayaweera,Medicinal Plants ,1980,Part 2,93,The national science council of Srilanka ,Colombo,Srilanka.
- S.P.Ambasta,The useful plants of India,1986,152,DR.S.KKrishnan Marg,New Dehli,India.
- Patel Satish; Sharma Vikas; Chauhan Nagendra S; Dixit Vinod KAn updated review on the parasitic herb of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb Zhong xi yi jie he xue bao = Journal of Chinese integrative medicine (2012), 10(3), 249-55.
- Patel Satish; Sharma Vikas; Chauhan Nagendra S; Dixit Vinod KA study on the extracts of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. in treatment of cyclophosphamide induced alopeciaDaru : journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (2014), 22(1), 7.
- Patel Satish; Sharma Vikas; Chauhan Nagendra S; Dixit Vinod K An updated review on the parasitic herb of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb Zhong xi yi jie he xue bao = Journal of Chinese integrative medicine (2012), 10(3), 249-55,
- Dr.Jk Rawat.Medicinal plants of India,2003,pg 77,Daya publication house, new dehli, India
- Borole SP, Oswal RJ, Antre RV, Kshir sagar SS, Bagul YR:Evaluation of anti-epileptic activity of Cuscuta reflea Roxb.Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2011; 2, 657-663
- Pacheco H: A new flavanone glycoside from leaves of Cuscuta reflexa. Bull Soc Chim 1966; 12, 3212-3215
- Anis E, Ullah N, Mustafa G, Malik A, Alza N, Bader Y:Phytochemical studies on Cuscuta reflexa. J Nat Prod 1999; 5,124-126.
- Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo).2002 Jan; 50(1): 112-4. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitory constituents from Cuscuta reflexa. Anis E1,Anis I, Ahmed S, Mustafa G, Malik A, Afza N, Hai SM, Shahzad-ul-hussan S, Choudhary MI.
- Christiane Löffler, Antje Sahm, Victor Wray, Franz-Christian Czygan, Peter Proksch,
- Ramya. B, Natarajan. E ,Vijikumar. S, John vasanth. J, Muthukkumarasamy S, and Muthuramsanjivi. VKA2. Department of Biochemistry, JJ college of Arts and Science, Pudukkottai, Tamil Nadu, India. Plant Science Research Division (PSRD), Tamil Nadu Scientific Research Organization (TNSRO), Arimalam, Pudukkottai,
- Pharmacology of Cuscuta reflexa roxb TitlePharmacognostical evaluation of Cuscuta reflexaRoxb AuthorsKumar Vikas; Pankajkumar, S. Y.; Udayaa, P. S.; Raj, B. H.; Rana Amar;Kamaruz, Z. M. Journal Pharmacognosy Journal2010 Vol. 2 No. 6pp.
- Anwar-Ul Hassan Gilani andKhalid Aftab Department of Pharmacology, 1992, Vol. 30, No. 4, Pages 296-302
Botonical Name : Datura Stramonium .L
Synonym: Datura inermis Juss. ex Jacq.
Sindhi Name: Chario Dhatoro
Local Name: Datura
English Name: “Thorn apple”
Datura Stromonium L is an erect, nearly glabrous, with broad, ovate, coarsely irregularly lobed toothed leaves, Flowers are white, single or short, large violate, trumpet-shaped usually on axillary stalk.9
Leaves are pale green.The capsule is erect, ovoid, thickly covered with sharp spines and dehiscing into 4 valves.10 Calyx is long, tubular and herbaceous. It has long and funnel shaped corolla with wide mouth. Stamens are attached near the base of the tube. Its ovary is 2 or spuriously 4 celled capsules, the ellipsoid, 4.0-7.0 cm long and sinuous. Seeds are many compressed and rugose. 11
- stramonium.L is naturalized to all four deserts of the American Southwest. Species of Datura can be found throughout the world, except in the colder or Artic regions. The plant lives in sandy flats, plains, arroyos up to 2,500 feet above sea level, and amidst disturbed soils. Jimson weed is commonly seen among roadsides in the Southwest.
It occurs in temperate and Sub topical parts of Nothern hemisphere, but naturized in the himalaya upto 2700m in cultivated areas waste lands and near villages habitations.
It is native to region of Europe and south America. And it has been successfully grown in kashmir valley, hills of h.p and u.p and also grown during winter season in northern plains. It occurs in nature in temperate himaliya upto 2500m and hilly region of central and southern India.
Datura stormonium L leaves and seeds are antiseptic and anodyne necrotic. Its juice of its used for earache. Juice of its fruit is used on scalp for dandruff and falling hairs. Leaves are used for boils, sore and fish bite.1 It is also used to treat Parkinson’s disease. It is used in boils, breast inflammation caused by excessive milk, asthma, salivation, travel sickness, diarrhea, enlarged testicles, insanity and itch.2 It is used in cigarettes for treating asthma.3 The Poultice made from its flower is applied to wounds to reduce pain. 4 The leaves are applied to boils and ulcers 4. This plant is widely used in phytomedicine to treat epilepsy, skin ulcers, etc as well as to kill the microbes in wound lesions.5 D. stromonium also is used for treating furuncle, malaria, eczema, sore, undefined lump, lymphangitis, and skin allergy.6 An ointment of the ground seeds and suet of this plant is rubbed on boils, pimples, and swellings; the powdered leaves are applied to hemorroids; and hot baths containing the plant give relief to colds and diarrhea. D. stramonium is used to treat, gastrointestinal problems, aches, abscesses, arthritis, boils, headaches, hemorrhoids, rattlesnake bites, sprains, swellings, and tumors. The leaves of this plant are applied as a dressing to cure rheumatic pain, swellings, wounds, gout, burns, ingrown toe-nails, fungal infections, tumors and ulcers. Dried pulverized leaves are dusted on wounds or applied after mixing the powder with fat or Vaseline . Dried and ground leaves and seeds are eaten with fat to treat ringworm . Hair loss is countered by applying fruit sap or leaf pulp and these also serve to remedy dandruff. 8
The leaves of Datura staromonium are crushed and applied to skin eruption.
The whole plant contains several alkaloids. The stems, leaves which vary with seasonal changes dependent on the number on alkaloids.12 Daturine, is the main component of the seeds of Datura starmonium malic acid. It was composed of many alkaloids. Daturine can be categorized into atropine and hyoscyamine, Hyoscyamine is the main datura alkaloid , the other being atropine and hyoscine. Seeds of Datura starmonium are composed of 25% fatty oil from which daturic acid (C17H34O2), has been isolated . Datura starmonium contain small amount of alkaloids called belladonna, leaves contains larger propotion than blade. Stem and root of the plant contains smaller amount of alkaloids . Dried part have more alkaloids than the fresh parts. Hyoscyamine, atropine and hyoscine (scopolamine), malic acid are consist of this plant.
Seeds contains all the higher quantity , which makes them more powerful than leaves. 13
The major alkaloids determine from the jimson seeds are atropine and scopolamine.It also reveal a green compound of unknown structure.14
Hyoscyamine Malic acid
Datura stromonium is useful to treat asthma. Organic esters with are present in alkaloids in Datura stromonium possess a good anticholinergic activity. The seeds cause a poisoning symptoms dryness of mouth, extreme thirst, dryness of skin, urinary problems, uncousioness, vision problems, increase in heart beat 16,17.
Datura stromonium extract of seeds and leafs prepared in ethanol was analyzed against acaricidal, repellent and oviposition deterrent properties in laboratory against spider mites. The mortality rate was observed in adults spider mites after 48 hours when the extract of leafs and seeds were applied on them in a certain concentration.18
Datura stomonium L exhibits antimicrobial activity against many microorganisms in a dose dependent manner . It shows no or very littlte activity against E. coli and Pseudomonas aeroginosa19. Antimicrobial and anti funagalactivity is detrmined by the plate cup diffusion method when ethnoic extract of Datura stromonium, Terminalia arjuna and Withania somnifera are combined.These were used to detect the anti microbial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Micrococcus luteus andCandida albicans and ciprofloxacin was used in it as a standard drug 20.
Datura stromonuium is useful to treat cancer as well. At concentration of 0.05-0.10 g, but with some side effects such as vomiting, hypertension and loss of consciousness may lead to coma21.
The leaves of Datura stromonium, A. indica and fruit of C. Sativum were used to determine antiinflammatory activity. As compare to other extracts A. indica shows good anti-infalmatory activity as compare to Datura stromonium22.
Datura stromonium shows a broad spectrum vibriocidal activity which was determined by disc diffusion method23. A study comprising 16 tests pants selected on the basis of their activities against cholera and gastrointestinal diseases23.
- R.N. Chopra, Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants,1956, 91, D. R. Krishnana Marg, New Dehli, India.
- DR. Sharma, Argo techniques of medicinal plants, 2004,75,Daya Publishing House, New Dehli, India.
- S.P. Ambasta,The useful plants of India,1986,163,Dr.K.S Krishnan Marg, New Dehli India.
- D.R.S.K. Bhtacharjee,Hand book of medicinal plants,1998,125,Mrs.Shashi j, Jaipur, India.
- Venkanna, B.; Uma, A.; Suvarnalaxmi, Ch.; Chandrasekharnath, N.; Prakasham, R. S.; Jayalaxmi, L. Antimicrobial property of Datura leaf extract against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from urethral and skin suppurative infections Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy (2013), 7(3), 782-792.
- Zhao, Qingshan A chinese medicinal composition for treating acne Faming Zhuanli Shenqing (1994), CN 1086435 A 19940511.
- Dr.Jk Rawat.Medicinal plants of India,2003,pg 83Daya publication house, new dehli, India
- Dr.Ravindra s,Argo-techniques of Medicinal plants,2004,pg 74,Daya publishing house,1123/74, Deva Ram Park, New Dehli, India.
- Dr.Anil K. Dhiman, Ayurdevic drugs plants,2006,122,Daya publishing house, New Dehli, India.
- Balachandran P, Rajgopal G. Cancer—an ayurvedic perspective. Pharm Res. 2005;51 (1):19–30.
- Gupta S, Raghuvanshi M, Jain D. Comparative studies on anti-inflammatory activity of Coriandrum Sativum, Datura stramonium and Azadirachta Indica. Asian J Exp Biol Sci. 2010; 1 (1):151–154.
- Sharma A, Patel VK, Chaturvedi AN. Vibriocidal activity of certain medicinal plants used in Indian folklore medicine by tribals of Mahakoshal region of central India. Indian J Pharmacol. 2009;41(3):129–133.
- Composition of jimson weed (Datura stramonium) seedsFirst PageCiting ArticlesAdd to ACS Chem Worx Mendel Friedman, Carol E. LevinJ. Agric. Food Chem., 1989, 37 (4), pp 998–1005DOI: 10.1021/jf00088a040.Publication Date: July 1989.
- Nadkarni KM, Nadkarni AK. Indian material medica. Bombay: Popular Prakashan; 1996. p. 435.
- Taha SA, Mahdi AW. Datura intoxication in Riyadh. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hgy. 1984;78:134–135.
- Boumba A, Mitselou A, Vougiouklakis T. Fatal poisoning from ingestion of Datura stramonium seeds. Vet Human Toxicol. 2005; 4 6: 81–82.
- Journal NA, Yalcin SCC. Acaricidal, repellent and oviposition deterrent activities of Datura stramoniumL. against adult Tetranychus urticae (Koch) J Pest Sci. 2009; 14: 54–57.
- Takhi D, Ouinten M. Study of antimicrobial activity of secondary metabolites extracted from spontaneous plants from the area of Laghouat, Algeria. Adv Environm Biol. 2011; 5 (2): 469–476.
- Sharma MC, Sharma S. Phytochemical, preliminary pharmacognostical and antimicrobial evaluation of combined crude aqueous extract. Int J Microbiol Res. 2010; 1 (3):166–170.
Botonical Name : Eclipta prostrate.L
Synonym: Eclipta erecta
Local Name: Bhringraj
English Name: Prickly Chaff Flower, Devil’s Horsewhip.
Parts used: Leaves,Flowers.
Eclipta prostrate.L is an erect slender, rough pubescent herb. Leaves opposite, sessile ,narrowly lanceolate. Its heads are radiate, terminal on erect stalk, its flowers white, pappus of 2-5 minute teeth ligules5 .Its stem are prostrate, decumbent, ascending , annual or perennial herb, stem are creeping and rooting at the base. Its leaves are elliptic oblong or acute or obtuse. The floral head are axiallary and terminal 6.0-10.0mm across, borne on 5.0-7.0cm long penduncles. Involucral bracts are 2 seriate ovate lanceolate,acute, appressed pubescent and 3.0 -6.0 cmm long, marginal flowers are white with 2 dentate and 2-2.5 mm long ligules.Achenes, the fruit are oblong turbinate and tuberculate with thickend margins about 2.0 mm long.6
Eclipta prostrate.L is comman weed in moist situation throught india ascending 2000m on the hills. It is propagated by seeds.
Eclipta prostrate.L is used in dysentery, cuts, eczema, ringworm, itches, headache and eye trouble.1 It is Used in chronic skin diseases, ulcers, elephantiasis, conjunctivitis, and stimulate the growth of hairs2. It is used for toothache. In Java leaves are eaten and also used externally for ringworm. It is used for arthritis, drosy, and deobstruent for hepatic and spleen enlargement. . It is used for bacterial infections. It is used as anti inflammatory.It is used as antiseptic.3 The roots of the plants are known as enetic and purgative and applied externally for antiseptic for ulcers and wounds.4 Its leaves are also said to be used in scorpio sting.The plant can be used for treating various tumors, esp. malignant tumor, particularly cancer, such as gastric cancer, intestinal cancer, lung cancer, hepatocarcinoma, breast cancer, esophageal cancer, colon cancer, bladder cancer, skin carcinoma, pancreatic cancer and leukemia.4
The leaves of Eclipta prostarata.Linn are used to treat scabies.
Ten components were determined by Eclipta prostrate and their structures are known as wedelolactone (1), demethylwedelolactone (2), isodemethylwedelolactone (3), alpha-formylterthienyl (4), strychnolactone (5), beta-sitosterol (6), nonacosanol (7), stearic acid (8), lacceroic acid (9), 3,4-dihydoxy benzoic acid (10) And further 14 compounds were also determine including esters and hydrogen using GC-MS technique.8Triterpinoids Saponin(Eclalb asaponins)1-V1,X1 and X11 Ecliptasaponin C and d,Eclalbatin ),flavonoids (apegenin and luteolin).coumestans (wedelolactone,demethyldelolactone and strychnolactone and alkaloids (25-b-hydroxyverazine ,ecliptalbine ,ecliptine and trace of nicotine are the main components of Eclipta prostrate.9,10
In addition to that -formylterthienyl , -terhienyl ,sixteen related polyacetylanic thiophenes ,dithienenyacetylines esters,I,II and III,B –sitosterol ,Stigmasterol,daucoterol ,Stigmasterol -3-0 gluoside ,non acosonal ,stearic acid ,lacceroic acid,3,4- dihydroxybezoic acid , amyrin ,ursolic acid ,Oleanolic acid and ascorbic acid.
Ascorbic acid Oleanolic acid
Ursolic acid Amyrin
Eclipta prostrate.L is having strongest anti bacterial activity against S.aurueus.14 It also has good effect on T-lymphocytes.15 It has good activity of hepatoprotective activity. It regulates the levels of hepatic microsomal drug metabolized enzymes.16
The crude extract of E.prostrata shows significantly activity auneliorates histopathological changes in lived.17
E.prostrata shows alchoholic extracts shows significant antihyperlipidemic activity. In vitro model of albino rats it shows this activity. It is dose dependent . Phospholipids and fatty acids are lowered by the higher dose of extract.18
This activity was compared by the standard drugs treatment.8 The extract of E prostrate has great effect on cardiac frequency of the rabbit , the alchoholic of the plant shows this activity .It is also dose dependent. 19
- P.C Trivedi,Ethnomedicinal plants,2004,95,Mrs.Shashi j,jaipur ,India.
- D.M.A Jayaweera,Medicinal plants,1980,vol 2,57,The national science council of srilanka,Colombo,Srilanka.
- James A.Duke,Hand book of medicinal herbs,2002,2nd edition,266,CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs,Boca Raton,London,New York,Washington D.C,U.S.A.
- Dr.Anil K.Dhiman,Ayurdevic drugs plants,2006,82,Daya publishing house,New Dehli,India.
- Dr.Jk Rawat.Medicinal plants of India,2003,pg 94Daya publication house,new dehli,India
- Anil K.D,Ayurvedic drug plants,2006,pg 82,Daya publishing house,1123/74,deva ram park,New Dehli,India.
- Xue, Fushe A Chinese medicinal composition for treating tumor and preparation method thereof Faming Zhuanli Shenqing (2008), CN 101229348 A 20080730
- Studies on the chemical constituents of Eclipta prostrata (L) (PMID:12579857) Zhang JS, Guo QM Institute of Materia Medica, Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. firstname.lastname@example.org
- Coldecott.T Bhringaraja (Eclipta prostrate ),Ayuervedic herbs plant,Monograph,2006.
- 10.Kumari CS,Govindasamy S,Sukumar E,Lipid lowering activity of Eclipta prostrate in experimental hyperlipidemia ,Journal of Ethnopharmacology ,2006,105,332,335.
- From herbal monograph ,Himalaya Herbal healthcare :http//www.himalayahealthcare .com,herbal finder /eclipta .htm(Accessed on 12 nov 2007)
- Zhang M,Cheng chemical constituents of E.alba (L)article of chinease),Zhongguo Zhong yao ZaZhi ,1996,21(8):480-481.
- Zhang js,Gua Qm,Stuidies on the chemical constituents of Eclipta prostrate (L) article of chinease),yao Hsuch Hsuch pao-acta Pharmaceuticles Sinica , 2001,36(1),34:37.
- Wiartc,moganas,khalifah’s,mahanM,ismails,BuckleM,NarayanaAK,sulaimanM.AntiMicrobila screening of plants used for traditional medicine in the state of perak, peninsular Malaysia.Fitoterapia.2004;75:68-73.
- Tewtrakul S,Subhadirasakul S,cheenpracha’s,karalaiC,HIV-! Protease and HIV-! Integrase inhibitory substance from E.prostarata against Malayan pit viper venom. Journal of ethnopharmacolog, 2004,90:347-352.
- Gopal MG,farhana b,Effectiveness of herbal medications in the treatment of acne vulagris – apilot study.the Indian practitioner .2001;54(10):723.
- Lin SC, Yao.cj,Hepato protective activity of Taiwan folk medicine :E.prostrata Linn against various hepatotoxins induced acute hepatotoxicity phytotherapy research .1996;10:483:490.
- Kumari cs, govindasamys, Sukumar E.lipid lowering activity of e.prostarata in experimental hyperlipidemia.journal of ethnopharmacology .2006 ;105:332-335.
- Sajad Tm,Rashid S.Ahmed M,Khan V.estimation of cardiac depressant activity of ten medicinal plants extracts from Pakistan phytotherapy research , 1996,101,178-180.
Elletaria cardamom Maton:
Botonical Name : Elletaria cardamom Maton
Genus: Elettaria Maton
Sindhi Name: Nandha phota
Local Name: Choti Illaichi
English Name: Cardamom
Elletaria cardamom Maton is erect ,perennial herb upto 3m tall. Leaves are large, narrow, with strong medium nerve. Flowers are white or pale green in colour and appear from near the base of the stem and lies on the ground.5 It has is a woody or fleshy and branching root stocked, annual herb with 1.8- 2.5 m high stem, which is clothed with spongy sheaths below. Its leaves are sub-sessile, 3.0 -6.0 7.5cm and oblong lanceolate. Its panicles are several to one leafy stem,3.00-6.00cm long bracts linear oblong and persist. Calyx is 1.3 cm long. Corolla lip is white, streaked with violet. Fruit are sub globose or oblong, about 1.3 cm long and marked with many fine vertical ribs.6
It is native to India and Ceylon. It occurs wild in moist forest and hilly regions of Karnataka and Kerala. It is commercially cultivated in Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. It propagated by seeds.
Grinded choti illaichi. (Ellantaria caradamomum maton) is used to treat wound and eczema.
A decoction of cardamom together with their pericarp and jiggery added is a popular home remedy to relieve gaddiness caused by biliousness. 1 Seeds are chewed to prevent bad smell in mouth.2 It is used for flatulence, loss of appetite, colic, bronchitis and asthma.3 Cardamomum is given in snake bite and scorpio sting.4 The seeds are fragrant and cardio tonic. They are laxative , diuretic, carminative , lesions inflammation useful for earache, headache and toothache4. It also works well on skin diseases, ulcers on the skin and itching. Used externally , it works as an antiseptic for snake bites or stings from insects.7
Chemical constituent :
In tested cardamom has essential oil as the main components . α-terpinyl acetate (44.3%), 1,8-cineole (10.7%), α-terpineol (9.8%) and linalol (8.6%),α-terpinyl acetate (21.8 and 25.9% respectively) are present in chroloform and methodic oleoresins. 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (28.9%) are abundant in ethanoic oleoresin. whereas, diethyl ether oleoresin contains small amount components.8
Seeds of Ellentaria cardamom Maton contains high amount of essential oils that includes phenolic and flavonoid components. Starch and in addition to protein, waxes and sterols are other components of the oil.Essential oils are the main components present in all Elettaria cardamom Maton.14 Other components include Pinene β -Myrcene ,limonene ,1,8 cineole,γ-terpinene , terpinolene , linalool , linalyl acetate , terpinen-4-ol , terpineol ,β-terpineol ,-terpinyl acetate , octyl Acetate, Nerly acetate nerolidol , geraniol , geranial , Β-caryophyllene , cis, trans farnesol, cis, cis farnesol.9 Nonsaponifiable lipid fraction of Cardamom contains waxes and sterols. Waxes are n-alkanes (C21, C23, C25, C27, C29, C31, and C33) and n-alkenes (C21,C23, C25, C27, C29, C31, and C33), While the sterols are β-sitostenone and γ-sitosterol which are recently identified. Moreover, Phytol and traces
of eugenyl acetate are also present.10
Cardamom fruit powder is useful to treat cardiovascular diseases with stage 1 hypertension 11.
Ethanolic extract of E. cardamom in ethanol possess the significant anti bacterial activityat the dose of 512μg/mL.12 It shows toxic effect at the dose of 0.3 mg/g like cells necrosis, inflammation in brain and oxidative stress., but, 0.003 mg/g use of this spice does not cause any harmful effects.13
Petroleum ether soluble extract of Cardamom shows good gastro protective activity, At a dose of 12.5 mg/kg it inhibits 100% of the gastric ulcer lesion which are induced by aspirin. But Methanolic extract of Cardamom Maton also possesses good gastro protective activity. 14
In powdered cardamom possesses good activity of lowering the blood pressure at the dose of 3g. It helps to decrease the diastolic pressure. In hypertensive patients it enhances fibrinolysis and helps to improve antioxidant without disturbing blood lipids and fibrinogen.15 With the combination of two pathways it helps to lower blood pressure, exhibits gut excitatory action through Ca++ antagonist and cholinergic mechanisms. 16
Elleteria caradamomum Maton posses the good anti inflammatory activity, analgesic and Antispasmodic activity. In vivo studies done found that in dose of 175 and 280 microliters/kg was reduces the inflammation in rats. Analgesic activity was observed by p-benzoquinone of induced writhing method . A positive antispasmodic activity was observed in vitro.17 Due to muscarinic due to the blockage of receptor .
Cardamom oil when used as an oxidant ,a concenteration dependent activity by increasing glutathione, a natural oxidants.18
Tribolium castaneum and Sitophilus zeamais are two various insectspices which attack wheat are killed by the action of Caradamomum when it acts as a potential grain protectant by the help of contact and fumigant action of Eletria cardamom Maton.19 Elletaria cardamom Maton is also useful for various skin disorders like pustules, itching and it is also used to lighten the skin complexion.20Ellatria cardamom possess a good CNS depressant activity and as well as, anticonvulsant activity. 21
In vitro studies were done determine the inhibitory activity of Caradamomum maton on human platelets. 22 Aquoeus extract of Ellatria cardamom Maton contains good lipid peroxidation and activity against platelet aggregation.23
- Dr.K.M. Nadkarins, Indian Materia Medica, 1954, 476, Serinagar, India.
- P.S.K Bhattarcharjee, Medicinal herbs and flowers,2005,prem C.Bakliwal,Jiapur,India.
- C.P Khare ,Indian Medicinal Plants,2007,vol.1,235,Jhankpuri,New Dew Dehli ,India.
- Kritikar ,Indian Medicinal Plants,1975,vol4,2443,International book distributer,Dehradun ,India.
- Dr.Jk Rawat.Medicinal plants of India,2003,pg 83Daya publication house,new dehli,India
- Dr.Anil K.Dhiman,Ayurdevic drugs plants,2006,122,Daya publishing house,New Dehli,India.
- Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil and various oleoresins of Elettaria cardamomum (seeds and pods)† Gurdip Singh1,*, Shashi Kiran1, Palanisamy Mrimuthu1, Valery Isidorov2and Vera Vinogorova2 Article first published online: 10 OCT 2007 DOI:10.
- Indian J Biochem Biophys.2009 Dec;46(6):503-6.Blood pressure lowering, fibrinolysis enhancing and antioxidant activities of cardamom (Elettariacardamomum).Verma SK1,Jain V, Katewa SS
- Amma K.P.A.P, Rani M.P, Sasidharan I, Nisha VNP. Chemical composition, flavonoid-phenolic contents and radical
- Shveta Sharma et al. / IJDFR volume 2 Issue 6, Nov.-Dec.2011
- Gopalakrishnan M,J C. S. Narayanan J.C.S, Michael G. Nonsaponifiable Lipid Constituents of Cardamom. J. Agric
- Kaushik P, Goyal P, Chauhan A, Chauhan G. In vitro evaluation of antibacterial potential of dry fruit extract of Ellatria.
- Jazila EM, Mountassif D, Amarouch H. Antimicrobial activity of Elettaria cardamomum: Toxicity, biochemical and histological studies. Food Chemistry 104, 1560-1568, 2007.
- Jamal A, Javed K , Aslam M, Jafri M.A. Gastroprotective effect of cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum Maton. fruits in rats . J Ethnopharmacol 103 , 149–153, 2006.
- Verma S.K, Jain V, Katewa S.S. Blood pressure lowering fibrinolysis enhancing and antioxidant activities of cardamom (Ellatria cardamom). Indian J Biochem biophysics 46, 503-506, 2009
- Gilani A.H, Jabeen Q, Khan A.U, Shah A.J. Gut modulatory, Blood pressure lowering, Duretic and Sedative activities of
- Cardamom. J Ethnopharmacol 115 , 463–472, 2008.
- Al-zuhair H, El-sayeh B, Ameen H.A and Al-Shoora H.Pharmacological studies of Cardamom oil in animals. Pharmacol
- res. 34, 1996.
- Amma K.P.A.P, Rani M.P, Sasidharan I, Nisha VNP. Chemical composition, flavonoid-phenolic contents and radical scavenging activity of four major varieties of cardamom. Int J Biol Med Res. 1(3), 20-24, 2010.
- . Huang, Y., Lam, S.L. and Ho, S.H. Bioactivities of essential oil from Elletaria cardamomum (L.) Maton to Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). J Stored Pdts Res 36, 107–117, 2000
- KorikanthimathmVS, Prasath D, Rao G. Medicinal properties of cardamom Ellettaria cardamomum. J Med Aroma plant sci. 22/4A & 23/ 1A, 683-685,2001.
- . Girish S. A, Sudhir G. W, Avinash K. D. Evaluation of sedative and anticonvulsant activities of Unmadnashak Ghrita. J Ethnopharmacol 94, 77-83, 2004.
- Suneetha W.J, Krishnakantha T.P. Cardomum extract as inhibitor of human platelet aggregation. Phytother Res. 19, 437-440, 2005.
Botonical Name : Embilca ribis
Sindhi Name: Baobring
English Name: false black pepper
Parts used: Leaves
This climbing shrub has to be differentcially identified from emblica tsjeriam cottam.The roots are brownish grey, with hairy reddish rootless. The stems is whitish grey,studded with lentirels, with a mature of 45-72 cms breed. Leaves are coriaceous, acuminate entire, perfectly glabrous and petiole 1 cm-0.8cm margined midrib prominent, inflorescence panicles 15-60 cms in lengt, minute,white or yellow. Fruits A berry, 2.4-4 mm obovate to sub globular tipped with style, smooth, succulent, in dry condition with wrinkles with loss of calyx.
The plant grows in jammu and kashmir, himachal pradesh, uttar pradesh, assam and parts of south india, maharashtra and srilanka. Its physical habitat is moist soil and sheltered area.
It is used mainly in helminthiasis. It is an Antifungal agent.1It is used in ringworm and other chronic dermatosis.1It is also given boiled to infants for upper respiratory infections.1 It is anthelmentic.2 Decoction of dried fruits is used for fever and disease of chest and skin.3Dried fruit is astringent, toxic,used in scorpio sting and snake bite.3 Leaves are useful in pruritus,skin diseases and leprosy.3 The paste is applied on skin in skin diseases ,give excellent results .In chronic sinusitis cold and megrane.4 It alleviates the skin diseases and eliminates the dispigmentation.4 It has many uses in ayurveda but most importantly is used to dispel intestinal worms and fungal pathogens such as ringworm.The freshly chopped leaves or leaf juice can be applied topically in the treatment of skin diseases and wounds. 5
Emblica ribis (baobring) leaves are crushed and are use to treat acne.
Emlica ribis contains alcohol soluble extractive 10 %, total ash 6 %, acid insoluble ash 1.5 %, Water soluble extractive 9 %.Secondary constituents are, 3(2H)-benzofuran and christembine compounds in the form of crystals of embolic acid with soda, potash and ammonia. Daucosterol – di-hydroxy-embeli, embelic acid, Embelin these are not soluble in water they are only soluble in alcohol/chloroform/benzene) embelin dimer, embelin disalts, embelin derivatives.
New embelin derivatives, embelinol, embeliaribyl ester embeliol, gomphilactone derivative, homoembelin, homorapanone, monopotassium embelate, New compounds, A nitrogen containing alkyl 1,4-benazoqinone, An unusual nitrogen-containing 3-alkyl-1,4-benzoquinone derivative39,N-(3-carboxylpropyl)-5-amino-2-hydroxy-3-tridecyl-1,4-benzoquinone (1), A band of 906 bp, amplin of 594 bp, quarvital-1%, quercitol,rapanone, resins5,6-dihydroxy-7-tridecyl-3-[4-tridecyl-3-hydroxy-5-oxo-2(5H)-furylidene]-2-oxo-3(2H)-benzofuran (2), palmitic.6-(4″-hydroxyoctadecanyloxy)-p-quinonyl-5-methylene-8-(10-pentanyloxy)-p-quinone (embelinol) (1), n-pentacosanyl-n-nonadeca-7′-en-9′-alpha-ol-1′-oate (embeliaribyl ester) (2) and 1,2,4,5-tetrahydroxy 3-undecanyl benzene (embeliol) were the new compounds which were identified from the seeds of Emblica ribis.
Phytochemistry of these compounds were identified 2,5-dihydroxy-3-undecyl-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione (embelin) were also identified which were already known and the structure of these compounds were made on data anylasis and spectra.
Embelic acid, volatile oil, fixed oil, resin, tannin,christembine (alkaloid)15, phenolic acids like caffeic acid, vanillic acid, chrorogenic acid, cinnamic acid, ocumaric acid are the constituents of the emblica ribis.8 4.33% of the embelin content is seems in the of Embelia ribes.9
Embelin is not soluble in water but it has ability to form to a violet colored complex in any alkaline medium.10 Potassium embelate is present in this plant in addition to that , 5-dihydroxy,3-undecyl-1,4-benzoquinone, embelin, quercitol, fatty ingredients, vilangin are also present.11In further identification in phytochemistry three new compound were identified that are 3 – (4”-hydroxyoctadecanyloxy)–p-quinonyl-5-methylene-8-(10-pentanyloxy)-p-quinine (embelinol), n-pentacosanyl-nnonadeca-71-en-91–alpha–ol-11-oate (embeliaribyl ester) , 1,2,4,5-tetrahydroxy 3-undecanyl benzene (embeliol) and a known compound embelin.12
Vanillic acid Caffeic acid
Chrorogenic acid Cinnamic acid
When the extract of Emblica ribis is given orally at the dose of 50 mg/100 gms body weight/day, 100mg/100 gms body weight /day,200 mg/100gms according to the body weight result in the decreases in level of serum SGPT in the mice whose liver are damaged due to the paracetamol which were given that 48 hours before dosage of at 500 mg/kg body weight.13 When Embelin is given orally dose of 25 mg/kg for atleast 15 days it shows decreased peroxidative in the rats whose are treated with CCl4.When the results are compared with the standard drug which is silymarin embelin shows significant results. It also possess antioxidant activity.14It has very good Analgesic activity which act centrally. Embelin has good as compare to morphine in therapeutical index, hiyh oral efficacy and abstinence syndrome absences.15
In vitro studies seeds of Emblica ribis in ethanoic extract has significant activity of α- amylase inhibitor activity.When 1mg / ml concenteration 59.3% inhibition is observed. Diabeties and obesity can treated by the α- amylase inhibitor activity of the plant.
Trypsin is inhibited by Embelic acid and then its values are checked with the potent trypsin inhibitors like phenylmethane, sulphonyl fluoride and soybean trypsin inhibitor. 12
Oil of embica ribis seeds at various doses mg/ml, 50 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml causes the death of the worms.But at various doses causes the paralysis of the worm.Increase in the dose is inversely propotion to the time of paralysis,it means the doses increase and the time of the paralysis will decreases.13
Emblica ribis has 12mm zone of inhibition and compare to drug nitrofurazone which has 22 mm zone of inhibition.It has activity against B.satilus. Emblica ribis has no activity against Psudomonas aeroginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escheresia 14. Embelia ribes seeds in ethanol shows significant activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, klebsiella pneumoni . Acetonic extract have mild anti bacterial activity against Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pnemoniae, and the standard is used is Amoxicillin.15
At doses 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight of extract of Emblica ribis when orally given has significant lowers the superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione in the
Streptozotocin.It was also determined that the embelin scavenges DPPH radical and inhibits
hydroxyl radical. second pulse radiolysis is a technique by which it was determined that the embelin can work as competitive antioxidant.16
Emblica ribis shows good anticonvulsant and adaptogenic activities. Extract of Embilca ribis shows good effect against anfirtility.17,18 100 mg /kg body wt reported 85% post coital anfirtility when its given on 1-7 day of pregnancy.
In vitro studies it was observed that the emblican isolated from the emblica ribis when given to rats at doses 50 and 100 mg /kg body weight the rate of anfirtility activity was observed.19
Test method NCCLS (The national committee for clinical laboratory standard M27-A2 Protocol). NCCLS is the method by which antifungal activities of Emblica ribisin vitro was studied.This method shows that the embica ribis and embelin shows the minimum inhibitory action against candida albicans.And there are certain candida Spices shows below 700 mg/L values.20
Emblica ribis shows good activity of wound healing.Embelin can treat the wound contraction in hiyher rate.21
- P.VS rao,selected medicinal plant of india,1992,pg,141,143,tata press LTD 414,veer-savaskar Marg,Prabhadevi,Bombay,India
- D.F.M.C Joshi, handbook of India medicinal plants ,2007,pg 48,PawAN Kumar scientific publisher S.A new Pali road,Vadodora,390,009,Gujarat,India.
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- 1(4) Syed Asadulla et al,1236, international journal of research in pharmacy and chemistry
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- New compounds from the seeds of Embelia ribes Burm.Hao K1, Ali M, Siddiqui AW.Author information , Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India.
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Botonical Name: Fagonia Arabica
Synonym: Fagonia cretica L
Sindhi Name: Daramaho
Local Name: Dhamasa
English Name: Cretan prickly clover
Parts used: Flowers and leaves
Fagonia Arabica is small under shrub with stiff branches, often more or less prostrate with slender, teriete, striate, glabrous and glandular twigs. Its leaves are opposite, 1-3 foliate, about 12 2.5 mm, entire linear or elliptic and mucronate. Its petiole is very variable, 3 mm long, Its flowers are solitary rose-coloured and are borne on 5-12 m long penduncles, which arise from between the stipules sepals are 5 deciduous, imbricate and half as long as the petals. Its petals are 6mm long. Spathulate with masked claw, stamens are 10, inserted on the disc, filaments filiform and naked, ovary is hairy sersile, Its 5-angled and 5-celled, fapering into 5-angled style. The fruits are 5 mm long of fine seeded cocci and are glandular-pubescent and deeply 5-particle. 4
Fagonia Arabica is present in Arabian countries as the name indicated by the plant’s name is origin to this herb, where it is widely present. It is also grown in asian countries like Pakistan, Afghanistan and India and in some places in Africa including Egypt. This plant grows on rocks, and also widely spread in the hilly areas of this country.
Fagonia Arabica is very usful in fever and skin diseases. 1 It isvery helpful in cases of abseesces from throns etc.2 The juice of this plant is also thought to inhibit uppuration when it is applied to open wounds on any part of the body 2. Its Water is used to take bath for the patients suffering from itching.3 This herb is also used as an antiseptic, expectorant, diuretic, astringent, antimicrobial, antispasmodic antiviral and many more. 5
Leaves of Fagonia Arabica are boiled and drinked for the treatment of acne and pimples. For the treatment of scabies Fagonia Arabica plant is boiled and applied For complete recovery of scabies .heated (Fagonia Arabica.L) is applied. For treatment of ringworm water of (Fagonia Arabica.L) is applied.
Chemical Constituents And Reported Structures:
Initially, phytochemical screening was done on shoot systems of Fagonia species helps in indentification of saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, proteins and amino acids terpenoids sterols coumarins, Glucoside and trace elements are also present in it. 6-13
The Constituents are as follows which are present in Fagonia arabica
Carbohydrates and or Glycosides, Sterols and or Triterpenoids, Alkaloids, Flavonoids, a-Sulphat-b-Chlorides, Anthraquinones, Cyanogenic glycosides, Coumarins are either weak or in lesser amount While, Saponins, Tannins, Cardiac glycosides, Irodoids are present in hiyh amount
When Fagonia arabica whole plant was tested it, showed presence of crude protein, fat, and crude fibers. The plant powder contains ash content, moisture content, and vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) content. The vitamin C content was known, while Na, K, Ca, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe and P was known by the technique called Flame Photometer, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and Spectrophotometer respectively.
The triterpenoid saponins are identified and their structure developed from arial parts of various
species of F. arabica, are 23,28–di-o-beta–Dglucopyranosyl–taraxer—20-en-28-oicacid. Quercetin & kaempferol are identified from leaves & flowers. Docosyl docosanoate, Ceryl alcohol , β- setostirol & n-tricontanol chenovic acidwere identified from hydrolsed plant extract. Egyptian plant extract showed presence of Fagogenin, chenovic acid M.p 3050. Fagogenin m.p. 3070C, Genin A, m.p 3260 C, andGenin B, m.p.2470C, stigamastirol & kaempferol. Its fruits are rich in ascorbic acid content. 17
Fagoni arabica species possess many important properties like anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic, thrombolytic effects and antioxidant activity and is pharmacologically important herb.
Dhamasa has very good thrombolytic activity, invitro when the experiments were done it showed breakdown of blood components. However, in vivo animal models Fagonia arabicaspecies gives75 % of blood clot lysis. Fagonia arabica species is good for patients suffering for Atherothrombotic diseases it is incorporated as a thrombolytic agentin these patients. 14
In mice the synergistic effect of Fagonia arabica plant and fish extract twas seen as it acts synergistically in the blood clotted mice, mice whose are suffering from myocardial or cerebral infarction and embolized mice.
Therefore, Fagonia arabica pharmacology showed the synergistic activity in mice for a long time .The synergestic effect of streptokinase and as well as a non-thrombolytic agent (control).The clot lysis, was 65.5% for plant extract, as compare to this streptokinase had 71%. It represented a mean value and SD of 65% ± 2.01% and 71.67% ± 0.71% of the plant extract and streptokinase respectively, and it was compared with non-thrombolytic (control), whose value is, 0.86% ± 0.08%. 15
Fagonia arabica has many important activities like anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects. but, its antioxidant activity has not been identified yet. However, now The study was designed to identify the antioxidant activity of F. arabica along with its neuroprotective effects on chemical ischemia induced in PC12 cells.
Chemical ischemia was elicite when the cells are exposed to uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation sodium azide (5.0 mM) and competitive inhibitor of glycolysis 2-deoxy-glucose (2.0 mM) for 2 h with 24 h reperfusion with normal culture medium.
DPPH and ABTS + scavenging and ferric ion reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assays are used to determne the total polyphenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant potential of the herb l; its and then the study was done to know th effect on neuroprotection and energy metabolism The ischemic injury was known by disturbed energy status as indicated by decreased ATP levels in the cells, followed by high lactic acid content.
Thses Both the variations favourably responded to F. arabica and gives considerable neuroprotection from ischemia and also used to maintain the cellular viability and mitochondrial integrity of the cells.
In F. Arabica little amount of TPC and antioxidant potential is seen. This study shows the antioxidant activity of F. Arabica along with its protective ability against ischemia/reperfusion mediated cell death. 18
- Dr.mc joshi, Hand book of india Medical Plants ,2007 ,pg 16 ,pawan kumar scientific publisher 5.A new pali road,vadorona ,390 009 ,Gujarat,India.
- Dr.Anil Dhiman, Ayuervedic Drugs plants, pg 117,2006, 350,Daya publishing house 110.035 New Delhi India.
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- endophytic fungus Microdochium bolleyl. J. Nat. Prod. 2008, 71, 1078-81.
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- Rhazya sticta, Vinca Roseea, and Fagonia cretica, Phytochemistry, 1999, 42, 182-3.
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- in-vitro thrombolysis, BMC Copl.Alt.Med, 2007, 7:36.
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- Extracts against myocardial, cerebral infarction, and embolism disorder in mice J Pharm
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- Antioxidant potential of fagonia arabica against the chemical Ischemia induced in PC12 cells Iran J pharma Res .2012, winter, 11(1), 303-313. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
- Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Antioxidant Potential of Fagonia arabica against the Chemical Ischemia-Induced in PC12 Cells Ravindra Satpute, Rahul Bhattacharya, and Hatim F. Daginawala.
Botonical Name :Ficus Carica.Linn
Synonym: F. rumphii B
Local Name: Comman fig
English Name: Comman fig
Parts used: Fruits, Leaves
Ficus Carica.Linn is alarge shrub to small deciduous tree, It is 5-9 m tall with several spreading branches from a short, rough trunk. Its bark is smooth, grey or dull white, young twigs glabrous or softly hairy. Its leaves with glabrous to tomentose up to 12 cm long grooved petiole; lamina variable in shape and size, broadly ovate to nearly orbicular, (4-) 5-15 (-20) cm long, (3.5-) 5-15 (-18) cm broad, undivided or obscurely palmatifid to mostly palmatipartite, lobes spathulate with entire to apically few-dentate margin, 5-costate at the cordate base, margins undulate-dentate or dentate-crenate, acute to ± obtuse, scabrous above, densely soft hairy beneath especially on nerves, lateral nerves 6-8 (-9) pairs, intercostals ascending-parallel; stipules ovate-lanceolate, It is 10-12 mm long, hairy to glabrescent Hypanthodia axillary solitary or paired, borne on upto 3 cm long peduncles, pyriform to globose, 1.5-2 cm in diameter, subsessile to sessile, subtended by 3, broadly deltoid basal bracts, apical orifice closed by 4-5, broadly deltoid, ciliate imbricate bracts.Its male flowers has sepals usually 4, united, lobes lanceolate; stamens 4, filaments long with oval, exserted anthers. Its female flowers pedicellate, sepals 4, lobes lanceolate-oblong ovary with lateral style, stigma entire or 2-fid. Figs usually pyriform-obovoid, 2-5 (-8) cm in diameter, glabrous or shortly hispid, yellowish to brownish violet.4
Ficus Carica.Linn is tree,a native of Asia minor,is cultivated in many parts of north India for its fruits.Fresh figs are to be found in northern Indian bazzares.
Ficus Carica.Linn milky juice is applied to cure ulcers in the mouth. Fresh figs form a nice tonic to weak people who suffers from cracks in lips,tongue and mouth.1Its fruits emollient pulp helps relieve pain and inflammation, and it has been used to treat swelling and gum abscesses. The milky latex from leaves and stem is reputed to be analgesic and has long been used to treat warts, insect bite and sting.2.Latex is used to treat warts.3
Equal amount of babchi, ingeer (Ficus carica L.), nargando with somenlemon juice for treatment of scabies (Ficus carica L.) juice is used to treat any skin infection.
The most important active constituents of ficus carica are:
Natural furocoumarins (5-methoxypsoralen and 8- methoxypsoralen),phytosterols (54% ß-sitosterol and 14% lupeol), amino acids, being glycine one of them known for being a good neurotransmitter.18 fatty acids (86% of them Saturated fatty acids).
There are alsomany other constituents,which includes,
organic acids, chlorogenic acid, sugars,epicatechins, catechins, luteolin-8-C-glucoside kaempferol-3-Oglucoside, phytosterols, linoleic acid, phenolic acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids Others are,
3-O- and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acids, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, ferulic acid, psoralen and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, bergapten.6
Ficus carica .linn has many phenolic compounds that acts as antioxidant such as reducing agents, hydrogen donators, free radical scavengers, singlet oxygen quenchers and many others too. Its antioxidant is identified by ferric reducing antioxidant method was used.9
Its anticancer activity was determined by the experiments done in vitro.Its shows inhibitory action proliferation of various cancer cell lines.7,8
The leaves of the plant Ficus carica.Linn possess the Hepatoprotective Activity.The leaves in proleum ether possess mainly nthos activity.This activity was tested on rats by orally dministration of rifampicin in the dose of 50 mg/kg. 10
Hypoglycamic Activity olso seen in The leaf extract of this plant.This activity was tested on the streptozotocin diabetes rats when it was administerated orally and considerably hypoglycamic activity was noticed from the aqueous extract of the plant.11
Methanolic extract of Ficus carica .linn shows very good anti bacterial and anti fungal activity.ampicillin or gentamicin with methanolic extract of this plant possess very good anti bacterial and anti fungal activity mainly aganist oral bacterias.12
Its also possess a very good anti tuberclousis activity in its methanolic extract of the leaves of the plants.13
The methanolic extract of the leaves of the plant shows very good Nematicidal Activity by showoing motality rate with in 72 hours14. The anti spasmodic activity was identified in in vitromodel of rabbit and anti plateltes activity was identified on in vivo human15. Ficus carica .Linn shows good antihelmentic activity in vivo model.When the doses of mL/kg/day 16. It has good Antimutagenic activity.The plant extract of Ficus carica. Linn. It was identified on in vivo model of rat.17
- R.n chopra,Indian metria medica,1954,pg 547, vol 1,Dr.krishnan marg,New dehli,India.
- narayan P.A,handbook of medicinal plants,2003,pg 237,238,Agrobios,Jodhpur 342 002,Agrobios,India.
- Narayan P.Manandhar,Plants and people of Nepal,2002,Pg 233,Timber press 133 S.W,Timber press Portland,Oregon.
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- “http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=200006351″taxon_id=200006351″ HYPERLINK
- “http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=200006351″& HYPERLINK
- “http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=200006351″ HYPERLINK
- “http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5 HYPERLINK
- “http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=200006351″& HYPERLINK
- “http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=200006351″taxon_id=200006351″ HYPERLINK
- S. D. Yancheva, S. Golubowicz, Z. Yablowicz, A. Perl, and M. A. Flaishman, “Efficient agrobacterium-mediated transformation and recovery of transgenic fig (Ficus carica L.) plants,” Plant Science, vol. 168, no. 6, pp. 1433–1441, 2005.
- S. Rubnov, Y. Kashman, R. Rabinowitz, M. Schlesinger, and R. Mechoulam, “Suppressors of cancer cell proliferation from fig (Ficus carica) resin: isolation and structure elucidation,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 64, no. 7, pp. 993–996, 2001.
- A. Solomon, S. Golubowicz, Z. Yablowicz et al., “Antioxidant activities and anthocyanin content of fresh fruits of common fig (Ficus carica L.),” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 54, no. 20, pp. 7717–7723, 2006.
- N. Y. Gond and S. S. Khadabadi, “Hepatoprotective activity of Ficus carica leaf extract on rifampicin-induced hepatic damage in rats,” Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 364–366, 2008.
- C. Perez, E. Domínguez, J. M. Ramiro, A. Romero, J. E. Campillo, and M. D. Torres, “A study on the glycaemic balance in streptozotocin-diabetic rats treated with an aqueous extract of Ficus carica (fig tree) leaves,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 82–83, 1998.
- M.-R. Jeong, H.-Y. Kim, and J.-D. Cha, “Antimicrobial activity of methanol extract from Ficus carica leaves against oral bacteria,” Journal of Bacteriology and Virology, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 97–102, 2009.
- S. S. Khadabadi, N. Y. Gond, N. B. Ghiware, and G. R. Shendarkar, “Hepatoprotective effect of Ficus carica leaf in chronic hepatitis,” Indian Drugs, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 54–57, 2007.
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- S. Mohamad, N. M. Zin, H. A. Wahab et al., “Antituberculosis potential of some ethnobotanically selected Malaysian plants,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 133, no. 3, pp. 1021–1026, 2011.
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Botonical Name :Foeniculum Vulgare.mill.
Family: Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)
Genus: Foeniculum Mill.
Sindhi Name: Soonf/Waduf
Local Name: Fennel
English Name: Sweet fannel.
Parts of plants used: Leaves
Foeiculum Vulgare. mill is an aromatic, perennial herb, It have 1-2 cm high leaves alternate, 3 or 4 times pinnate the ultimate leaflets very numerous , filiform very enlongated,the superior leaves with sheaths longer than the blade. Umbels compound, large long pendunculate, nearly, regular .Flowers are yellow not involucrate, its calyx with 5 very slight teeth. It have 5 patels , entire tips in volute stamens.It has 5 ovary , it has 2 celled stylopodium large, conical. Its fruit is avoid, 2 mm long by 2 mm in diameter, grennish , glabrous mericrap compressed dorsally, semi cylinderd with 5 prominent, nearly regular ribs. Seeds somewhat concave with longitudinal ferrous. The taste sweet and pungent and smells of anis seed.5
The species Foeiculum Vulgare. mill are long originated from Mediterranean Europe and western Asia. The plant is commercially cultivated in difference parts of world. It is cultivated as cold season crop in north India , Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Punjab, Haryana and Rajastan, It requires a fairly mild climate and propagated by seeds.
Foeiculum Vulgare. mill is used as antispasmodic.1 Used as approdiasiac antheliminate, alexiteric, appetizer. Used to cure eye diseases.2 It is divertic, vermicide.3 It cures asthma and windy colic.4 The essence of fennel can be used as a safe and effective herbal drug for primary dysmenorrhea.
Sounf Foeniculum Vulgare.mill are boiled and used to treat scabies
Chemical Constituents :
There are many new technigues to isolate the volatile components of Foeniculum Vulgare.mill. By these techniques quantitative and qualotatives approaches are been done for this plant. Isolation of Foeniculum Vulgare.mill’s essential oil has been done by various techniques on of these is thermal desorption (DTD) with gas chromatographymass spectrometry.Hiyh amount of essential oils are determined from very little amount of sample size.Clear phytochemical variartions have been seen among the various samples.7
The chemical composition of the funnel mainly the essential oil were dertermined by the Hydrodistillation conditions. Specifically three hydrodistilaation conditions were used, anethole (72.27%-74.18%), fenchone (11.32%-16.35%) and methyl chavicol (78%5.29%). They are the important constituents of volatile oil. The distillation technique used automatically will influence the quantity of the essential oil and its yield too.8
One of the technique to isolate the essential oil is super critical carbondioxide (SCCO2) and another is stem distillation, when the essential oil are extracted from both techniques it was found that these both shows different composition of different species and it was also determined that the super critical carbondioxide (SCCO2) helps to yield more amount of essential oil than that of stem distillation do.9,10
Estragole (53.08%, 56.11%, and 61.08%) , fenchone (13.53%, 19.18%, and 23.46%) , and alpha-phellandrene (5.77%, 3.30%, and 0.72%) are some main components that are isolated from on flower, unripe and ripe fruit.The oilm extracted from different parts of the funnel shows little difference in quality and major difference in quantity.11
HSME-GC-MS is one of the inexpensive and effective from other techniques.12 Trans-anethole, estragole, fenchone, alpha phellandrene, methyl chavicol, p-allyl anisole are the most important components which are isolated so far from this plant.13,14,15
Phenolic and flavonoidal compounds isolation is done from this plant.Wild funnels gives hiyh amount of total phenolic contents as compares to edible and medicinal funnels.And the phenolic and flavonoidals are calculated as gallic acid.1612 major phenolic components are isolated from funnel. 3-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-caffeoylquinic acid, 1,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, rosmarinic acid, eriodictyol-7-O-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, and kaempferol-3-O-glucoside are known .17
By by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS techniques the following components of the funnel teas were known that are, Chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucuronide. Flavonol are little unkown constituents of two teas.18 Two diglucoside stilbene trimers and a benzoisofuranone derivative were known from the fruit of the funnel.19In total 40 phenolic substances were isolated from the funnel from which 27 are the hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoid glycosides, and flavonoid aglycons these are already known.20 New method for testing the phenolic compounds of the fuunel has been developed is reversed-phase HPLC.
Reported Structures :
Antimicrobial and antifungal activity are done on the essential oil extracted from the fuunel fruits possess many useful effects. They have good inhibitory activity and food born pathogens.21,22,23,24,25 It has good therapeutic activity against gram positive and gram negative bacterias. It shows that gram positive bacteria are quiet sensitive then gram negative bacterias. Listeria monocytogenes are quiet sensitive While, Pseudomonas are resistant.26
According to doses and the techniques of assay used its antifungal effects on mycellial growth are seen.27 It shows good antifungal activity against many fungi like Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Phytophthora infestans. A phenyl propanoid derivative, dillapional is the main antimicrobial components in the stem of the funnel and shows activity against Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger and Cladosporium cladosporioides, respectively. Dillapiol, bergapten, imperatorin and psolaren fare active anactive compound of this plant and scopoletin is a known anti microbial agent.31
In vitro studies Aqueous extract of funnel was compared to the already known anti oxidant ascorbic acid. 32 High density lipoprotein-cholesterol level, plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities are increased by the methanoic extract. While, the malondialdehyde (MDA) decresed.33
Eight antioxidant compounds were isolated by the isolation of bioguided of an aqueous extract of funnel these eight compounds exhibits anti radical scavengring property.34 Greatest nitric oxide scavenging effect of 79.75% at 62.5 μg/mL is shown by the aqeous extract of the funnel.35 Funnel has quiet good radical scavengerin activity.36 In adittion to this activity of radical scavering it also possess a strong effect against lipid peroxidation and it is compared with trolox, vitamin E and tert-butyl hydroxyl anisole (BHA)32,33,34,35.
Anopheles dirus is the major cause of malaria in Thailand and it is also responsible to cause dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever.After 24 hours exposure ,the volatile exert the good larvicidal activity against the two mosquito species42.At the values of LC50 of 24.5 mg/litre, extract of Foeniculum Vulgare.mill is said to be toxic.43
Oral administrated extract of Foeniculum Mill. possess inhibitory effect against type IV allergic reactions and acute and subacute inflammatory diseases.44Foeniculum vulgare is safe and very effective and proves a good hebal medicine with the camparision to mefenemic acid.It is used to treat primary dysmenorrheal.
Funnel has great ability to inhibit prostate tumor xenografts in the side of antiangiogenic mechanisms. 48 There are many other property that reflects the anti cancer activity of funnel.49,50,51,52
- Thomas S.C Li,medicinal plant,2000,pg 20,Technomic Publishing Co.Inc, 851 New Holland Avenue Box 3535,Lancaster ,Pennsylvania.
- Dr.Anil Dhiman,Ayuervedic Drugs plants,2006,350,Daya publishing house 110.035 New Delhi India.
- Dr M.C Joshi,Hand book of India medicinal plants,2007,pg41,Pawan Kumar scientific publisher S.A new Pali road,vadodora,390.009,Gujarat India.
- P.S.K Bhatt Acharjee,medicinal herbs and flower,2005,pg 157.prenc.Bakliwal Jaipur India
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- M.C. Diaz-Maroto, M.S. Perez-Coello, J. Esteban and J. Sanz. Comparison of the volatile composition of wild fennel samples(Foeniculum vulgare Mill) from central Spain. JAgric Food Chem.54(18): 6814-18 (2006)
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- M.M. Ozcan, J.C. Chalchat, D. Arslan, A. Ateͷ and A. Unver. Comparative essential oil composition and antifungal effect of bitter fennel(Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) fruit oils obtained during different vegetation. J Med Food. 9(4):552-61 (2006).
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- M.M. Ozcan, J.C. Chalchat, D. Arslan, A. Ateͷ and A. Unver. Comparative essential oil composition and antifungal effect of bitter fennel (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) fruit oils obtained during different vegetation. J Med Food. 9(4):552-61 (2006).
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- E.M. Soylu, S. Soylu and S. Kurt. Antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of various plants against tomato late blight disease agent Phytophthora infestans. Mycopathologia. 161(2): 119-28(2006).
- M.C. Diaz-Maroto, I.J. Diaz-Maroto Hidalgo, E. SanchezPalomo and M.S Perez-Coello. Volatile components and key odorants of fennel(Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and thyme(Thymus vulgaris L.) oil extracts obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and supercritical fluid extraction. JAgric Food Chem. 53(13): 5385-89 (2005).
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- S. Soylu, H. Yigitbas, E.M. Soylu and S. Kurt. Antifungal effects of essential oils from oregano and fennel on Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. J Appl Microbiol. 103(4): 1021-30 (2007).
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- Y.S. Kwon, W.G. Choi, W.J. Kim, W.K. Kim, M.J. Kim, W.H. Kang and C.M. Kim. Antimicrobial constituents of Foeniculum vulgare. Arch Pharm Res. 025(2): 154-157(2002).
- S. Satyanarayana, K. Sushruta, G.S. Sarma, N. Srinivas and G.V. Subba Raju. Antioxidant activity of the aqueous extracts of spicy food additives–evaluation and comparison with ascorbic acid in in-vitro systems. J Herb Pharmacother. 4(2): 1-10(2004).
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- M. Kaileh, W.V. Berghe, E. Boone, T. Essawi and G. Haegeman. Screening of indigenous Palestinian medicinal plants for potential anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity. JEthnopharmacol. 113(3): 510-16(2007).
- Bogucka-Kocka, H.D. Smolarz and J Kocki. Apoptotic activities of ethanol extracts from some Apiaceae on human leukaemia cell lines.Fitoterapia. 79(7-8): 487-97(2008).
- B.B. Aggarwal, A.B. Kunnumakkara, K.B. Harikumar, S.T. Tharakan, B. Sung and P. Anand. Potential of spicederived phytochemicals for cancer prevention. Planta Med.74(13): 1560-69(2008).
- B.B. Aggarwal and S. Shishodia. Molecular targets of dietary agents for prevention and therapy of cancer. Biochem Pharmacol. 71(10): 1397-421(2006).
Botonical Name : Gossypium hirsutum
Synonym: Gossypium religiosum L.
Sindhi Name: Kaapah
Local Name: Cotton
English Name: Cotton
Gossypium hirsutum is a harbaceous annual forming,a subshrub. It is 1.5 m tall with few haraceous branches sparsely hairy or rarely becoming glabrous leaves broadly ovate ,coriaceous, reticulate strongly cordate ,short acute the 5-7 abous extending less than half the depth blade ,narrowed at base, glandular ,dotted flowers large, regular, bisexual ,axilliary yellow with purple centre, brachteous, rounded basally and broadly triangular flawring widely from the flower,wider than long, cordate ,margin with 6-8 teeth on carsh inside ,calyx entire oe some what 5 lobed ,reduced to cup shaped structure ,petals 5 large and broad convate ,stamens numerous ,fused into a stamen tube adnate to conrolla at the base ovary superior ,1-5 locular,with 2-7 axile ovues in each locular fruits capsue about 2.5 cm long rounded without prominent shoulder ,break 3-4 chambered ,seeds large angled with grey or white fuzzy int.
It is a spread to south America. The speices is cultivated throught out tropical and sub tropical regions.
Juice of the leaves of Gossypium hirsutum is antidysentric and used in scorpion sting and snake bite.1 Seeds of the plant are frequently used in the treatment of swelling and ulceration of female organs and uninary diseses.2 A poultice made of cotton seeds with ginger and water is applied to orchitis2.Roots of the plant are used in fever, seeds used in gleet and chronic cystitis.3 Juice of the roots is given in cases of the fever.3It is used o treat burn and warts4. Root decocotion used for asthma, diarrhea, and dysentery.5 The powdered fruit is applied on the head for the treatment of fungal infections.6
Gossypium hirsutum is the very important plant and its root bark contains ceryl alcohol acidic resin, linoleic acid volatile oil, phenolic acid, , oleic and palmitic acids, isoquercitrin, quercimeritin, quercetin-3-glucoside, hirsutrin, serotonin, gossypicyanin, histamine and other compounds. Seeds leaves, flowers, roots and stems contain gossypol.
Gossypium herbaceum root bark also contains a peculiar acid resin, gum, tannin, fixed oil, sugar chlorophyll and many other substances7. (a dimeric naphthalene derivative).Other constituents of various parts includes flavonids, quercetin, betaine, choline and salicylic acid.8
In the work is done on anti-leishmanial activity of methanolic extracts of Gossypium hirsutum, was studied on Leishmania major promastigotes by the method called colorimetric assay . The biological activity of this plant extract was studied against L. major promastigotes in comparison to tartar emetic. Plant extracts inhibited the growth of promastigote stage of L.major after 72 hours of incubation. The IC50 values of G. hirsutum, were determined as 3.6, 5.9 and 7.5µg/ml, respectively. Although G. hirsutum was more active.9
- Shankar G.joshi,Medicinal plants,2000,pg 253,Mohan p,Dehli 16002,new dehli,India.
- D.M.A jayaweera ,medicinal plants ,1982,page 11,the national science council of srilanka ,45/5,maitland place ,columbo,srianka.
- C.P Khare, Indian Medicinal Plants,2007,vol.1,460,Jhankpuri,New Dew Dehli ,India.
- Duke JA. Handbook of energy crops.[updated 1998 January 7, cited April 2005] Available at: http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke-energy/gossypium-hirsutum.html
Helianthus Anus .C
Botonical Name : Helianthus Anus .C
Synonym: Helianthus annuus ssp. annuus,Helianthus annuus ssp. lenticularis
Sindhi Name: Sooraj mukhi
Local Name: Sunflower
English Name: Sunflower
Parts of plant used: Flower and seeds
Helianthus Anus .C are usually tall annuals, they growing to a height of 50-390 or more cm. They are rough and hairy stem is branched in the upper part in wild plants but is usually unbranched in domesticated cultivars. Their petiolate leaves are dentate and often sticky. There lower leaves are opposite, ovate or often heart-shaped. There upper leaves are alternate and narrower.
They bear one or several to many wide, terminal capitula (flower heads), with bright yellow ray florets at the outside and yellow or maroon disc florets inside.5
Sunflower is native to the Americas, and was naturalized in Europe in XVI century. It prefers full sun and well-drained, neutral to slightly alkaline soils.
Open, dry or moderately moist soils, usually in disturbed areas. Some information stating that it is largely limited to disturbed areas near roadsides and for that reason, it is an introduced species in the Pacific Northwest.
The seeds of the plant Helianthus Anus .C are grindid and used for the treatment of psoriasis. The leaves of the plants are used to treat wounds. The flowers are used to treat sunburn.
It is used in scorpio sting.1 Crushed root is applied to bruises.2 Internally relieves constipation, extremely on cuts and brusis.3 The tuber concentrate as food diminishes the risk of developing arteriosclerosis.4 They can be applied as an addition to therapy of colon cancer, high blood pressure and migraine headaches. As a poultice, Sunflower root is used against snake and spider bites.5 They can help reducing the symptoms of asthma, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis and help in cases of bronchial, pulmonary and laryngeal problems.6
Chemical constituents :
Helianthus Anus .C has fatty acids, the seeds contains saturated fatty acids ranged from (4.6 – 6.08 %), while, unsaturated fatty acids ranged from (23.15 – 24.78 %). The anti-nutritive factors ,cyanogenic glucosides, oxalates and in addition to them hemoglobin activity group.7Two essential amino acids, methionine and tryptophan are present at low amount in the seeds of Helianthus Anus .C while, fatty acids composite of lauric acid with palmitic acid and alpha linolenic acid.8 Helianthus Anus .C has a tannin called helianthitanic acid, diluted hydrochloric acid on boiling, fermented sugar in violet colured matter, small amount of insulin, large amount of Levulin and a dextro-rotatory sugar, carbonate of potash is present on all parts of plant.9
Sunflower oil is a triglyceride and its constituents.10 They are Stearic acid, Palmitic acid, Linoleic acid, Oleic acid. 11,12
The phosphatides present in the oil are lecithin (38.5%) and cephalin. Sunflower oil also contains lecithin, tocopherols, carotenoids and waxes.
Tryptophan Alpha linolenic acid
Lauric acid Palmitic acid
Helianthus Anus .C possess antiglycative and antioxidant properties, mainly against formation of advanced glycation end products.13
In vitro studies were done in which it was determined that ozonized sunflower oil possess every good antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, methicillin susceptible and methicillin resistant strains.14
The “In vitro” antifungal property of ozonized sunflower oil was determined on 101 samples of yeasts by the disk diffusion method. The oil showed activity against several clinical fungal strains which includes Candida parapsilosis, Candida albicans, Trichosporonasahii, Candida tropicalis and Candida guilliermondii.15.
- DR.KM.Nadkarni,Indian material medica ,1954,vol 1,pg 614, Dr.krishnan marg,New dehli,India.
- S.Kumar Bhattacharjee,Handbook of medicinal plant,2004,Pg 179,Mrs.Shashi jain,jaipur 302003,jaipur,India.
- Thomas S.C ,Medical plants,2002,Pg 23,Technonic Publishing,Roca Raton , London ,New York ,Washington D C ,USA.
- C.P Khare ,Indian Medicinal Plants,2007 pg ,vol.1,305 ,Jhankpuri,New Dew Dehli ,India.
- Chemical studies of new varieties of sunflower (helianthus annuus) LSF-11 and LSF-8 seeds
- Ingale, Satish; Shrivastava, S. K.August 2011,Agriculture & Biology Journal of North America;2011, Vol. 2 Issue 8, p1171
- Susan Wendy Nicolson,Hannelie Human Chemical composition of the ‘low quality’ pollen of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, Asteraceae), March 2013,Volume 44, Issue 2, pp 144-152
- Fred Thomas (2002). “Fats and Fatty Oils”. Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a10_17
- Not That Popular, but Truly Healthy! Sunflower Oil Benefits”. Oily Oily. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- Jump up^ “Sunflower Oil – Your Healthy Choice”. National Sunflower Association. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- Sun Z1,Chen J,Ma J, Jiang Y, Wang M, Ren G, Chen F, Cynarin-rich sunflower (Helianthus annuus) sprouts possess both antiglycative and antioxidant activities, J Agric Food Chem. 2012 Mar 28;60(12):3260-5
Botonical Name : Hordeum vulgare
Sindhi Name: Jaw
Local Name: Jow
English Name: Barley
Parts used: Fruit
Hordeum vulgare is annual grass; stems, stout, tufted, 60–120 cm tall, leaves few, alternate, linear-lanceolate, the upper one close to the spike, It has blades up to 25 cm long, about 1.5 cm broad;Its sheath is smooth, striate; ligules short, membranous; spikes terminal, linear-oblong, compressed, It is up to 20 cm long, densely flowered; spikelets sessile, it is arranged in threes on two sides of a flattened rachis, all fertile (6-rowed types), or lateral ones barren and occasionally rudimentary (2-rowed types); glumes 2, narrow, small, short-awned, enclosing 3 spikelets; lemma lanceolate, it is 5-ribbed, tapering into a long straight or recurved awn; its palea slightly smaller than the lemma with margins inflexed; it has 3stamens ; it has caryopsis ellipsoid, about 0.9 cm long, short-pointed, grooved on inner face, smooth, free or adherent to palea, or both lemma and palea. Its seeds 30,870/kg.4
Hordeum vulgare is cultivation as food crop in utar Pradesh ,West Bangal ,bihar , Madhya Pradesh and Jammu Kashmir.
It is used to treat thrombosis and atherosclerosis.1 Powered grains much employed in the form of a gruel in cases of painful and atonic dyspepsia.2 It is used as Antiinflammatory.3
Hordeum vulgare flowers are used to treat ringworm
Tocopherols and Tocotrienols with addition to content of vitamin E are the main constituents of Hordeum vulgare5. Flavonoids includes saponarin,a 7-glucoside present in the leaves.It also contains lutonarium.Lutanorium is not present in all barley.16
Lunasin is a component found in barley, it does not alter the growth of normal cancer cells but, it stop the growth of newly cancer transformed cells.6 Barley has direct impact on lipid metabolism and on blood pressure after the comsumption of certain dose it primarily effect on blood pressure which was checked daily and also weight that was also check weekly.Whole grain reduces the arterial pressure tocotrienols present in barley act as antioxidant it was found when studies was done in vivo and in vitro.
It was also found that this component lowers the lipid enzymes and lowers the cholesterol level.7 Beta-glucan is a component present in barley, slow gastric emptying time, and stabilize blood sugars, prolong the feeling of fullness.8 Barley also possess very good gastrointestinal effect. Germinated Barley Foodstuff (GBF) facilitates the growth of short chain fatty acids, thus, it is associated with growth of microbial flora in the intestinal tract.9,10 Carbohydrate than other cereals such as rice are present in the barley that reduces the hepatic glucose production and postprandial glycemia is effected11. Milled kernels produces lesser amount of glucose level and insulin responses as compared to boiled flour.12 Beta-glucan decreased glycemic and insulinemic responses on the food but not on drink.13 Barley cookies and crackers induces glycemi. 14
Barley products composed of boiled intact (rice extender) and milled kernels (porridge) has been raise satiety scores compared to white/wheat bread and for lower metabolic as well.15Hordenine is present in the roots of germinating barley possess sympathomimetic effect.
- C.P Khare ,Indian Medicinal Plants,2007,vol.314 ,Jhankpuri,New Dew Dehli ,India.
- James Duke,Duke Handbook of medicinal plants of the bibbile ,pg 207,2007 CRC press ,USA
- Ehrenbergerova, J., Belcrediova, N., Pryma, J., Vaculova, K., and Newman, C. W. Effect of cultivar, year grown, and cropping system on the content of tocopherols and tocotrienols in grains of hulled and hulless barley. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2006;61(3):145-150. 16900405
- McIntosh, G. H., Whyte, J., McArthur, R., and Nestel, P. J. Barley and wheat foods: influence on plasma cholesterol concentrations in hypercholesterolemic men. Am J Clin Nutr1991;53(5):1205-1209.
- Lupton, J. R., Robinson, M. C., and Morin, J. L. Cholesterol-lowering effect of barley bran flour and oil. J Am Diet Assoc1994;94(1):65-70
- Poppitt, S. D. Soluble fibre oat and barley beta-glucan enriched products: can we predict cholesterol-lowering effects? Br J Nutr2007;97(6):1049-1050
- Kanauchi, O., Fujiyama, Y., Mitsuyama, K., Araki, Y., Ishii, T., Nakamura, T., Hitomi, Y., Agata, K., Saiki, T., Andoh, A., Toyonaga, A., and Bamba, T. Increased growth of Bifidobacterium and Eubacterium by germinated barley foodstuff, accompanied by enhanced butyrate production in healthy volunteers. Int J Mol Med1999;3(2):175-179
- Kanauchi, O., Iwanaga, T., and Mitsuyama, K. Germinated barley foodstuff feeding. A novel neutraceutical therapeutic strategy for ulcerative colitis. Digestion2001;63 Suppl 1:60-67.
- Thorburn, A., Muir, J., and Proietto, J. Carbohydrate fermentation decreases hepatic glucose output in healthy subjects. Metabolism1993;42(6):780-785
- Poppitt, S. D., van Drunen, J. D., McGill, A. T., Mulvey, T. B., and Leahy, F. E. Supplementation of a high-carbohydrate breakfast with barley beta-glucan improves postprandial glycaemic response for meals but not beverages. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr2007;16(1):16-24.
- Granfeldt, Y., Liljeberg, H., Drews, A., Newman, R., and Bjorck, I. Glucose and insulin responses to barley products: influence of food structure and amylose-amylopectin ratio.Am J Clin Nutr1994;59(5):1075-1082
- Casiraghi, M. C., Garsetti, M., Testolin, G., and Brighenti, F. Post-prandial responses to cereal products enriched with barley beta-glucan. J Am Coll Nutr2006;25(4):313-320
- Granfeldt, Y., Liljeberg, H., Drews, A., Newman, R., and Bjorck, I. Glucose and insulin responses to barley products: influence of food structure and amylose-amylopectin ratio.Am J Clin Nutr1994;59(5):1075-1082.
- 1 The flavonoid constituents of barley (hordeum vulgare). ii. lutonarin1 margaret k. seikel, annej.bushnellj.org.chem., 1959, 24 (12),pp19951997doi:10.1021/jo01094a044publication date: december 1959
Botonical Name : Ipomoea Aquatica
Synonym: Pomoea reptans, Ipomoea natans,
Genus: Ipomoea L. (morning glory)
English Name: Swamp Cabbage, Chinese water spinach, water spinach
Ipomoea Aquatica is a annual or biennial herb with long ,prostrate stems rooting a nodes ,thick ,hallow glabous, internodes, it has 7-14 cm long , its leaves simple, alternate without stipules ,5 -12 cm long,lobes, glabrous paler, beneath, petioles as long as or longer than the leaves ,its flowers regular bisexual larger, dull purple on long glabrous pedicles, usually soliatory often 2,penduncle much shorter than the petriole,bracts small, seplas 5 free imbricate equal, it is 8 mm long 4mm broad, lanceolate, subacute, it has glabrous petals 5,fused into unequal , filament 0.8-1.2 cm long ,hairy at the base ovary superior, 1.5 mn long conical with a circular disc at the base 2 locular with two ovules in each chamber, style simple, 1.5 cm long sitgma, glabrous ,fruit capsules dehiscent, glabrous, seeds minutely pubescent.2
Ipomoea Aquatica occurs in damp places throughtout India,Ceylon ,Burma and the Philippines often cultivated as a pot herb.It also accurs in Africa and Australia in Ceylon it is very comman in shollow water and moist places in the dry region
Ipomoea Aquatica plants juice is used for liver complaints.1 The buds is applied on ringworm. The juice of the plant is employed as an emetic against arsenic and opium poisoning.3 A decoction of the leaves is used for cough by native healers.4 Used as an antidote to arsenical or opium poisoning. Plant juice is used for liver complaints; buds for ringworm.5 Is used traditionally to treat gastric and intestinal disorders.
Leaves of this plants are used to treat acne and pimples.
Alanine, glutamine, and glucose were identified from stem; while,β-carotene was identified in fruits; and hentri-acontane, β-sitosterol, and glucoside of β-sitosterol and in seeds of I.aquatic.7,14
β-carotene, xanthophyll, carbohydrate , riboflavin, taraxanthin ,vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin C, vitamin E, anthocyanins , 4′-methoxy quercetin, fat, protein, nicotinic acid ,3′-methoxy quercetin, calcium, phosphorus, iron.7,14
Including,7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-dihydroquercetin-3-O-a-D-glucopyranoside (DHQG) .15were identified from leaves of I.aquatica. saturated C15-C19 acyl moieties were known in the stem and leaves of the plant one of the compound was1-(14-methylhexadecanoyl) pyrrolidine.16,17 hexadecanoylpyrrolidine; and 1-octadecanoylpyrrolidine.18 N-trans and N-cis feruloyltyramines (cinnamoyl-β-phenethylamine, N-caffeoyl-β-phenethylamine were isolated fron this plant.19
Lutein was the major carotenoid with β-carotene, violaxanthin, neoxanthin a, neoxanthin b, antheraxanthin, mutatoxanthin, cryptoxanthin , lutein epoxide, zeaxanthin, flavoxanthin, auroxanthin, etc was known from this plant.Chlorophyll, more than 2% of total carotenoids of which 16 carotenoids were known.20,21
Terpenoid, phytol , (z)-3-hexen-1-ol , palmitic acid , n-hexacosane, alpha-humulene , and bis (2-ethyl-hexyl) sebacate (2.17%) are the main components of I.aquatic oil.22
Aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, leucine, tyrosine, lysine, histidine, and arginine are amino acids.23 Sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc are minerals.24 Sugars such as glucose, fructose, sucrose.25 and starch.7 organic acids such as malic acid, citric acid, and oxalic acid.25 They all were identified in this plant.
Myricetin, quercetin, luteolin, apigenin, and kaempferol are some polyphenols found in this plant.26,27,28
I aquatic showed an oral hypoglycemic effect in vitro studies when done on the experimental rats,the significant reduction in serum was observed at the dose of 3.4 g/kg after 2 hours.29Aqueous and dichloromethane/methanol extracts of I.aquatic (leafy stem) when orally administerated at the dose of 160 mg/kg exerted a significant inhibitory effect on glucose aborption.29I. aquatic leaves in methanol has good potent hypoglycemic activity at varoius dose.30
Crude methanolic extract (CME) of I.aquatic leaves showsaAnti-cancer activity.32 The stems and leaves of the plants I.aquatic in methanol or its aqueous extract gives good anti proliferation activity, but the water extract of the plant gives significant low antiproliferation activity.31 The methanolic extract of the leaves of the leaves shows good anti inflammatory activity in vitro. There are different results seen with a certain dose of leaf, methanolic and aqueous extracts were admisterated into rat. It shows that the methanolic extract possess the good anti inflammatory activity then aqueous extract when these results were compared with the standard results.33
The extract of leaves in methanol shows good anti arthritic activity when tested on rats.When a certain doses given to them after 30 days the acute infalammation was seen but the hiyhest dose shows high potency than the lowest dose.35 The leaf extract of the plant possess good antimicrobial activity against gram +ve and gram –bacterias.the methanolic extract shows good activity then that of aqueous extract.36,37
The ethanolic extract possess good anti ulcer activity when tested on the model of rat.When a certain dose is given it reduces the acidity level.38 Dispite this its extract also shows
Center nervous system depressant and anti-epileptic activity, Anxiolytic activity, Hypolipidemic activity, Diuretic activity, Prostaglandin inhibitory activity and Scorpion venom anti-dote activity.
- P Khare , Indian Medicinal Plants,2007,vol.330 , Jhankpuri,New Dew Dehli ,India.
- M.A Jayaweera,Medicinal plants,1980,vol 2,99,The national science council of srilanka,Colombo,Srilanka
- M.A Jayaweera,Medicinal plants,1980,vol 2,99,The national science council of srilanka,Colombo,Srilanka
- Narayan PM, Plants and peoples of Nepal ,2002,pg(274),Timber press ,Inc ,The Haseltine building 135 S.W second Avenue suit 450,Nepal.
- In: Sastri BN, editor. Ipomoea. Wealth of India, Raw Materials. Vol. 5. New Delhi: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research; 1959. p. 237-8
- Candlish JK, Gourley L, Lee HP. Dietary fiber and starch contents of some southeast Asian vegetables. J Agric Food Chem 1987;35:319-21.
- Available from: http://www. http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=IPAQ (Jul 12, 2012).
- Shah GL. Ipomoea aquatica. Flora of Gujarat State. 1 st Vallabh Vidyanagar: Sardar Patel University; 1978. p. 468.\
- http://www.lucidcentral.org/keys/FNW/FNW%20seeds/html/fact%20sheets/Ipomoea%20aquatica.htm. (Apr 29, 2005).
- Perry LM. Ipomoea aquatica. Medicinal Plants of East and Southeast Asia: Attributed Properties and Used. Cambridge: MIT Press; 1980. p. 620.
- Jayaweera DM. Convolvulaceae. Medicinal plants used in Ceylon. 1 st Srilanka: National Science Council; 1982. p. 99-100
- Manvar MN. Pharmacognostical investigations on Ipomoeaaquatica Forsk. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2011;2:2812-5.
- In: Chatterjee A, Pakrashi SC, editors. The Treatise on Indian Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. New Delhi: National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources; 2003. p. 152-3
- Tofern B, Mann M, Kaloga KJ, Siems L, Witte L, Eich E. Aliphatic pyrrolidine amides from two tropical convolvulaceous species. Phytochem 1999;52:1437-41.
- Yajima A, Yabuta G. Synthesis and absolute configuration of MQ-A3 1-(14′- methylhexadecanoyl) pyrrolidine, a novel aliphatic pyrrolidine amide from the tropical convolvulaceous species. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2001;65:463-5.
- Britta T, Petra M, Macki K, Kristina J, Ludger W, Eckart E. Aliphatic pyrrolidine amides from two tropical convolvulaceous species. Phytochem 1999;52:1437-41.
- Tseng CF, Iwakami S, Mikajiri A, Shibuya M, Hanaoka F, Ebizuka Y, et al. Inhibition of in vitroprostaglandin and leukotriene biosyntheses by cinnamoyl-beta-phenethylamine and N-acyldopamine derivatives. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1992;40:396-400.
- Wills RB, Azhari R. Determination of carotenoids in Chinese vegetables. Food Chem 1996;56:451-5
- Chen BH, Yang SH, Han LH. Characterization of major carotenoids in water convolvulus (Ipomoeaaquatica) by open-column, thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr 1991;543:147-55.
- Kameoka H, Kubo K, Miyazawa M. Essential oil components of water-convolvulus (Ipomoeaaquatica). J Essent oil Res 1992;4:219-22
- Rao TV, Vijay T. Iron, calcium, beta-carotene, ascorbic acid and oxalic acid contents of some less common leafy vegetables consumed by the tribals of Purnia district of Bihar. J Food Sci Technol 2002;39:560-2
- Duc BM, Humphries D, Mai IT, Dao AH, Co TM, Nga HH, et al. Iron and vitamin C content of commonly consumed foods in Vietnam. Asia-Pacific J Clin Nutr 1999;8:36-8
- Wills RB, Wong AW, Scriven FM, Greenfield H. Nutrient composition of Chinese vegetables. J Agric Food Chem 1984;32:413-6
- Chu YH, Chang CL, Hsu HF. Flavonoid content of several vegetables and their antioxidant activity. J Sci Food Agric 2000;80:561-6
- Daniel M. Polyphenols of some Indian vegetables. Curr Sci 1989;58:1332-3.
- Miean KH, Mohamed S. Flavonoid (myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, and apigenin) content of edible tropical plants. J Agric Food Chem 2001;49:3106-12
- Malalavidhane TS, Wickramasinghe SM, Jansz ER. Oral hypoglycaemic activity of Ipomoea aquatica. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;72:293-8.
- Sokeng SD, Rokeya B, Hannan JM, Junaida K, Zitech P, Ali L, et al. Inhibitory effect of Ipomoea aquatica extracts on glucose absorption using a perfused rat intestinal preparation. Fitoterapia 2007;78:526-9.
- Hamid K, Mohammad O, Shapna S, Amran H, Debasish B, Fatema N, etal. Evaluation of the leaves of Ipomoeaaquatica for its hypoglycemic and antioxidant activity. J Pharm Sci Res 2011;3:1330-3
- Prasad KN, Ashok G, Raghu C, Shivamurthy GR, Vijayan P, Aradhya SM. In vitrocytotoxic properties of Ipomoeaaquatica Indian J Pharmacol 2005;37:397-8.
- Dong-Jiann H, Hsien-Jung C, Chun-Der L, Yaw-Huei L. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of water spinach (Ipomoeaaquatica Forsk) constituents. Bot Bull Acad Sin 2005;46:99-106.
- Dhanasekaran S, Palaya.M, Shantha Kumar S. Evaluation of anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activity of methanol leaf extract of Ipomoeaaquatica Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2010;1:258-6
- : http://www.interscience.org.uk/index.php/ijcc/article/view/51.
- Sivaraman D, Muralidaran P. Anti-ulcerogenic evaluation of the ethanolic extract of water spinach (IpomoeaaquaticaForsk) in aspirin ulcerated rats. J Pharm Res 2008;1:143-
Botonical Name : kaempferia galangal
Synonym: Kaempferia humilis Salisb., Kaempferia ses silis Koenig.
Local Name: East Indian galingale, Galanga, Lesser galangale
English Name: kencur, aromatic ginger, sand ginger, cutcherry or resurrection lily.
Parts used: Flowers, leaves
kaempferia galanga L. is a small herb with short underground stems.Its leaves are usually in pairs, oval, glabrous, pointed, 6-15 cm long, and spread out above ground with prominent veins. Its flowers are in short stalked spikes. Its the corolla is white or pinkish, with violet spotted lip.5
kaempferia galanga L. is cultivated in southeast asia especially in Indonesia, southern China, Taiwan, Cambodia and India. Economically important species among the plantfamilies, the Zingiberaceae, which are perennialrhizomatous herbs, widely distributed throughout the tropics and sub-tropics particularly in Africa andSouth East Asia (Holltum, 1950) where grownnaturally in damp, shaded parts of the lowland or on hill slopes, as scattered plants or thickets.
Kaempferia (Zingiberaceae) is a genus of about 70species of rhizomatous, aromatic perennial herbs, found in Africa and South East Asia (Southern China, Indonesia, Malaysia and India). The genus Kaempferia, a native of India comprisingmore than 60 species, has distributed in tropics andsub-tropics of Asia and Africa. A few species are grown as ground cover in thetropics or under cover in cold areas. They need highhumidity and do well in pots alongside warmgrowing orchids or in beds beneath green housestaging.
Kaempferia as a remedy for toothache.It is used for a wash for dandruff or scabies on the head. It appears to destroy lice.1Roasted rhizomes are applied hot for festering tumors.2In the form of powder or ointment it is applied to wounds and bruises to reduce swellings.They are used to wash dandruff and for relieving irritation produced by stinging caterpillars. Leaves are used in lotions and poultice for sore eyes, sore throat, swelling, rheumatism and fever3.Diuretic used for cough and asthma.4Dusol plant has antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties.6
Kaempferia (Zingiberaceae) leaves are used to treat hairfall.
Sterols, Triterpenoids and resins are the main components present in the petroleum ether extract of this plant.In chloroform extract sterols, Triterpenoids, Flavanoids and resin are observed, While, in methanolic extract Steroids, Triterpenoids, alkaloids, Flavanoids, carbohydrates, resins and proteins are present. Saponins, carbohydrates and protein are comman in water extract of the plant while,tanninn was not observed.7
Thyl-p-methoxycinnamate, methylcinnamate, carvone, eucalyptol, pentadecane are the main components present in the water distilled extract of the plant8.
kaempferia galanga.L is mainly composed of essential oils. ethyl cinnamate, ethyl-p- methoxycinnamate, pmethoxycinnamic acid , monoterpene ketone compound and 3-carene-5-one are main components of that. camphene, d-3-carene, p-methoxy styrene, gpinene, b-myrcene, p-cymene, 1,8-cineole, isomyrcene, camphor, a-terpineol, pcymene-8-ol, eucarvone, d-cadinene, hexadecane, heptadecane, limonene, octanol,tetradecane, 2-3-dehydro benzofuran, vanillin-p-methoxy phenol, caravacrol, carveol,myrtenol, b-cymene, p-methoxybenzaldehyde, b-cadinene, carcine, m-anisaldehyde, quinasoline-4- phenyl-3-oxide, sandaracopimaradiene-9-ol-1-one, sandaracopimaradiene-1, 9-diol, 6-acetoxy sandaracopimaradiene-9-ol-1-one (and its isomers), kaempferol, quercetin, cyanidin and delphinidin. The camphor present has been characterized as ethyl-p-methoxy-trans-cinnamate are the main components present in the leaves of the plant.9
K. galanga extracts has antioxidant.10 Antiinflammatory11, and analgesic activities.12, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antifungal, analgesic, antiviral, antihypertensive, anticarcinogenic, antispasmodic, antinociceptive, anti-tuberculosis, larvicidal and insecticidal are the main biological activities shown by this plant.
- Lily M.Pessy,Medicinal plants of east and southern Asia,1980,pg 442,The MIT press perry ,lily may 1895,Cambridge ,mass achusettes and London,England.
- S.P Ambasta,The useful plants of India ,1974,pg 307,Publication and information directorate ,CRSIR,Dr k.s Krishnan marg,new dehli 110012,india.
- Shankar Gj,medicinal plants ,2000.pg 411,mohan promlani for oxford &iBH publishing Co Pvt ,68 Janpath ,New Dehli 1100001,New Dehli ,India.
- C.P Khare ,Indian Medicinal Plants,2007,vol 1,351,Jhankpuri,New Dew Dehli ,India.
- Phytochemical Screening of The Rhizome of Kaempferia Galanga
- Rajendra CE, Gopal S Magadum, Mahaboob Ali Nadaf, Yashoda S.V, Manjula M
- Drug Control Department (Drugs Testing Laboratory), Banglaore-560 001. Department of Pharmacogonsy, Government College of Pharmacy, Bangalore-560 027.
- Tewtrakul, S., Yuenyongsawad, S., Kummee, S., and Atsawajaruwan, L.Chemical components and biological activities of volatile oil of Kaempferia galanga Linn.Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 2005, 27(Suppl. 2) : 503-507
- Butkhup L., Samappito S. “In vitro free radical scavenging and antimicrobial activity of some selected Thai medicinal plants” Research Journal of Medicinal Plant 2011 5:3 (254-265)
- Ridtitid W., Sae-Wong C., Reanmongkol W., Wongnawa M.”Anti-inflammatory activity of the methanol extract of Kaempferia galanga Linn. in experimental animals.” Planta Medica 2009 75:9
- Vittalrao A.M., Shanbhag T., Meena Kumari K., Bairy K.L., Shenoy S. “Evaluation of antiinflammatory and analgesic activities of alcoholic extract of Kaempferia galanga in rats”. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 2011 55:1 (13-24)
Botonical Name : Lawsonia inermis
Synonym: Lawsonia alba .Lann,Rotantha combretoides Baka,Alcanna spinosca Gaerth.
Sindhi Name: Mehndi
Local Name: Henna,Cypress shrub ,Eyptian pivet,aklanna.
English Name: Heena
Part used: Leaves
Lawsonia inermis is a glabrous much branched shrub or qiuet a small tree with grayish brown bark leaves are apposite , subsessile , eiptic or broadly lanceolate , entice aculte or abtuse 2-3cm long and 1-2 cm wide . Its flowers are numerous, small white or rose coloured fragmented white or pinkish in colour.1 This is much breached shrub, branced are usually 4 angled which are ending in shrubs point leaves are 3 cm long ,opposite , acute and sharp pointed, fruits are pea sized , round, many seeded.2
It is used externally to treat skin infection (tinea). It is used to treat hair fall. It is used to treat ulcers , prurigo and other obstinate skin disease. The leaf is also recommended in giddiness and vertigo1. Its twig used for dental care /problems.2 It is used in Athletes foot. It is used for fungal infections. It is used for soles and palms.3 They are applied on boils, burns and skin diseses4. It is alternative in skin diseses and leprosy.5 The main uses of henna are as a cooling agent, astringent, anti-fungal and anti-bacterial herb for the skin and hair.
It grows wild and is also cultivated all over India as well as it grows wild as garden plants.
Eugenol, hexadecanoic acid, phytol, α-terpineol and etherphenylvinyl were the major components of the Lawsonia inermis oil. Bisabolene was isolated from n– hexane extract ofLawosonia inermis.7 Esculetin, fraxetin, isoplumbagin, scopoletin, betulin, betulinic acid, hennadiol, lupeol, lacoumarin, quinone and napthaquinone are the main components of Lawsonia inermis.8
Quinones, phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, terpenoids, phenolic compounds and fatty acids are also present in this plant.9 The n-butanolic fraction of the plant Lawsonia inermis contains five phenolic glycosides were known in this fraction. The new compound was developed as 1,2,4-trihydroxynaphthalene-1-Ο-β-d-glucopyranoside. In addition, the known 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone-2-Ο-β-d-glucopyranoside was reported firstly.10
Lawsonia inermisshow good antibacterial specially against Bacillus cereus, Bacillus pumilus, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Escherichia coli, Kiebsiella pneumonia, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonus fluorescens, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis It shows strong activity against Bordetella bronchiseptic.11 Crude extract of the leaves of the plants have good antimicrobial activity specially against Shigella sonnei.12 Ethanol extracts also possess very good activity against various bacterias. Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosaare the primary invaders of the wound are inhibited by the aqueous extract of the leaves of the plant.13
Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. tonsurans, T. violaceum, T. verrocosum, T. schoenleinii, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum ferrugineum, M. canis, sporotrichum schenckii are the fungi which are sensitive toward Lawsonia inermis.14 Petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, methanol and ethanol extract of the plant have good antifungal activity against A.flavus.15 Ethanolic extract of the plant possess good wound healing activity. Invitro studies it was found in rats model.16 The extract has the ability to inhibit Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it was tested invivo as well as in vitro models.17
The antitumour activity of L. inermis leaf extract was studied on albino rats. It reduces the weight of pappilomas with a certain dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight.the extract of Lawsonia inermis also have protective property against skin tumours.18Lawsonia inerrmis possess several other biological activities too such as, nootropic activity, antifertility activity,antidermatophytic activity, antitrypanosomal activity, molluscicidal activity, antiviral activity and Protein glycation inhibitory activity.
- C.P Khare ,Indian Medicinal Plants,2007,vol.366 ,Jhankpuri,New Dew Dehli ,India.
- P.C Trivedi,Ethnomedicinal plants,2004,100,Mrs.Shashi j,jaipur ,India
- Selected medicinal plants pg 195
- Kumar Bhattacharjee,Handbook of medicinal plant,2004,Pg 203,Mrs.Shashi jain,jaipur 302003,jaipur,India.
- Shankar Gj,medicinal plants ,2000.pg 245,mohan promlani for oxford & iBH publishing Co Pvt ,68 Janpath ,New Dehli 1100001,New Dehli ,India.
- Tekle Kebede Kidanemariam1, Tesfahun Kebede Tesema2, Kesatebrhan Haile Asressu2*, Aman Dekebo Boru3,Chemical Investigation of Lawsonia inermis L. Leaves from Afar Region, Department of Chemistry, Samara University, P.O. Box, 132, Samara, Ethiopia. Department of Chemistry, Haramaya , Ethiopia
- Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2013 Mar;38(6):795-9.[Advances in studies on chemical constituents and biological activities of Lawsonia inermis].Li Q1, Gao WQ, Zhao YQ. College of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, China. email@example.com
- 10.Anis Ben Hsounaa, Mohamed Trigui, Gérald Culiolib, ves Blacheb, Samir Jaouaa,,Antioxidant constituents from Lawsonia inermis leaves: Isolation, structure elucidation and antioxidative capacity, Volume 125, Issue 1, 1 March 2011, Pages 193–200
- Bonjar S. Evaluation of antibacterial properties of some medicinal plants used in Iran. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2004:94(2-3):301-305.
- Habbal OA, Ai-Jabri AA, El-Hag AH, Al-Mahrooqi ZH, Al-Hashmi NA. In-vitro antimicrobial activity of Lawsonia inermis Linn (henna) – A pilot study on the Omani henna. Saudi Medical Journal 2005:26(1):69-72.
- Muhammad HS, Muhammad S. The use of Lawsonia inermis linn. (Henna) in the management of burn wound infections. African Journal of Biotechnology 2005:4(9):934-937.
- Natarajan MR, Lalitha DK. Leaf extracts of Lawsonia inermis as antifungal agent. Current Science 1987:56(19):1021-1022.
- Raveesha KA, Satish S, Mohana DC, Raghavendra MP. Antifungal activity of some plant extracts against important seed borne pathogens of Aspergillus sp. Journal of Agricultural Technology 2007:3(1):109-119.
- Nayak BS, Isitor G, Davis EM, Pillai GK. The evidence based wound healing activity of Lawsonia inermis Linn. Phytotherapy Research 2007:21(9):827-831.
- Sharma VK. Tuberculostatic activity of henna Lawsonia inermis Linn. Tubercle 1990:71(4): 293-296
- Wasim R, Agrawal RC, Ovais M. Chemopreventive action of Lawsonia inermis Leaf Extract on DMBA-induced skin papilloma and B16F10 Melanoma Tumour. Pharmacologyonline 2009:2:1243-1249.
Botonical Name : Luffa acutangula.Roxb
Sindhi Name: Toori
Local Name: Turai
Parts used: Fruit
Luffa acutangula is trailoring herb ,stem round in cross section or five angled tendrils trifid.Is leaves are stalked ,five or seven lobed, they are deeply cordate .Its flowers are yellow and ,fruits are linear ridged.
It is 5 angled, finely hairy to glabrous ,leaves pale green ,glabrous roundish ,palmatelt 5-7 lobed ,glabrous.Its petiole is 8-12 cm long, Its fruits acutely 10-angled ,Its seeds are black emarginated2.
Luffa acutangula is indigenous in India , and in Mealey archipelago .its is frequenltly cultivated in Ceylon in the mid and low country and also in other tropical countries.
Luffa acutangula juice is used as a natural remedy for jaundice.1 Its very useful vegetables in throat and lungs problems, the pain killing fruit fiber treats uterine bleeding, haemorrhoids and dysentery.3Powdered leaves are applied to splentis haemorrhoed and leprosy.4Decoction of leaves is used in uraemia and amenorrhea.4It is used for oedema , splenic enlargement cough and asthma.5 It is reported to exhibit antitumor activity5. The fruit is used in combination with other drugs in the treatment of snake bite.The oil extract from the dry seeds is used in skin disease.
Luffa acutangula leaves are grinded and applied to treat ringworm.
Luffa acutangula contains luffin.Seeds contains , ,glycoside, saponin, enzyme and a fixed oil. Free, arginine, glycine, threonine, lysine, amino acids alanine, aspartic and glutamic acids and leucines,asparagines are present in its flowers. Bitter glycosidic principles, oleanolic acid cucurbitacins B, D, G and H (luffins) and; roots contain cucurbitacin B and traces of C are indentified in its riped seeds.7
Fruit of Luffa acatungula has very good anticancer and antiangiogenic activities.This activity is shown on human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line (A-549) in vitro, chick chorioallantoic membrane ( CAM ).8Luffa acatangula possess many other activities like epatoprotective activity, antidiabetic activity, antioxidant activity, fungistatic property, CNS depressant activity and many more other biological activities.9The choloform extract of this plant possess good antimicrobial activity than water extract of this plant. While, both of these extracts shows weak antifungal activity.10The methanolic and water extract of Luffa acatangula possess very good antioxidant, antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic.11
- Nepal 300
- Zabta khan S,A pictorial guide to medicinal plant of Pakistan,2006,pg 258,kohat university of science and technology kohat,kohat ,Pakistan.
- Shankar G.Joshi,Medicinal plants,2000,pg 163,Mohan primlani for oxford & IBH publishing co.PVT LTD, New Dehli 110001,New Dehi,india.
- C.P Khare, Indian Medicinal Plants,2007,vol 1,384,Jhankpuri,New Dew Dehli ,India.
- D.M.A jayaweera ,Medicinal plant ,1980,pg 147,the national sciences council of srilanka , 47/5,columbo,srilanka.
- Antidibetic and hyperglycedemic activity of Luffa acatangula fruit extracts streptozotocin induced niddm rats pimples , B. P.; KADAM, P. V.; PATIL, M.J.April 2011.Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical & Clinical Research;Apr2011 Supplement, p156
Botonical Name : Mangifera indica.L
Synonym: Mangifera domestica Gaertn.
Sindhi Name: Amab
Local Name: Amm
English Name: Mango
Parts used: Fruit
Mangifera indica is large evergreen tree leaves oblong or lanceolate, entire, crowded often undulated, petiole swollen at the base, flowers yellowish green interminal panicle, longer than the leaves, drup compressed fibrous.1
Mangifera indica has been in cultivated on the Indian sub continent for well over 4,000 years.It is a native of tropical Asia and introduced where ever the climate,is sufficiently warm and damp.It is now completely naturalized in many parts of the tropics and sub tropics and here and there a component of mature secondary vegetation.
Bark juice is heated and applied for rheumatism.2 Ash is applied on burn for quick recovery2. Gum mixed with mustard oil is applied for scabies, warts and other skin diseases. Seeds are used in asthma.3 It is used in diphtheria4. Leaves are anti inflammatory,anti bacterial.5 It is used in diabetics, externally in bruises and scalds.5 Kernet astringents, anti inflammatory, anti fungal and anthelmintic.5 Various effects like antibacterial, anti fungal, anthelmintic, anti parasitic, anti tumor, anti HIV, antibone resorption, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, antiallergic, immunomodulation, hypolipidemic, anti microbial, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective have also been studied.6 Butter seeds is a material derived from Mango Seeds,it can remoisturizes and provides highly antioxidant actions, promotes skin regeneration and healing.7
Mangifera indica L. leaves paste is used to treat boils. The extract of mango (Mangifera indica L.) tree is used to treat acne and pimple. Burnt mango (Mangifera indica L.) leaves are used to treat infection on skin. Burnt mango leaves (Mangifera indica. L.). are used to cure itching.
Chemical Constituents :
Mangiferin (a pharmacologically active flavonoid, a natural xanthone C-glycoside) is identified from Mango leaves.8Allergenic urushiols are present in the fruit peel. Terpene hydrocarbons are the major volitile components of the plant addition to it limonene, both terpenes, terpinolene, and α-phellandrene. polyphenolics, flavonoids, triterpenoids. Mangiferin a xanthone glycoside are the most bioactive components. Isomangiferin, tannins & gallic acid derivatives, protocatechic acid, catechin, mangiferin, alanine, glycine, γ-aminobutyric acid, kinic acid, shikimic acid and the tetracyclic triterpenoids cycloart-24-en-3β,26diol, 3-ketodammar-24 (E)-en-20S,26-diol, C-24 epimers of cycloart-25 en 3β,24,27-triol and cycloartan-3β,24,27-triolare present in the bark of theplant.9
Indicoside A and B, manghopanal, mangoleanone, friedelin, cycloartan-3β-30-diol and derivatives, mangsterol, manglupenone, mangocoumarin, n-tetacosane, n-heneicosane, n-triacontane and mangiferolic acid methyl ester are present in the stem.10 Mangostin, 29-hydroxy mangiferonic acid and mangiferin are identified from stem bark11. Alkyl gallates such as gallic acid, ethyl gallate, methyl gallate, n-propyl gallate, n-pentyl gallate, n-octyl gallate, 4-phenyl gallate, 6-phenyl-n-hexyl gallate and dihydrogallic acid. Root of mango contains the chromones, 3-hydroxy-2-(4’-methylbenzoyl)-chromone and 3-methoxy-2-(4’-methyl benzoyl)-chromone are present in flowers. Humulene, elemene, ocimene, linalool, nerol and many others are yielded from the leaves and flowers of the plant. Vitamins A and C, β-carotene and xanthophylls are present in the fruit pulp.12 Phenolic Antioxidants, Free Sugars and Polyols are also isolated from mango.13
C-glucoside xanthone mangiferin [2-C-β-Dgluco-pyranosyl-1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone are identified from various parts of the plant.14
Homomangifirin is a phenolic compound present in the leaves of the plant.15
Mangifera indica possess good Antioxidant activity It may be beneficial to prevent several chronic disorders.16
Many work has been done to investigate the pulp composition of four mango cultivars at the ripening stage in relation to three components with antioxidant potential.17 Mangiferin possess a very good antioxidant activity.18
Ethanolic extract of the leaves of MI produces good antidiabetic activity at dose of 250 mg/kg in animals19. Leaves possess good Hypoglycaemic activity.20
The stem-bark of aqueous extract of MI was used to identify the analgesic, antiinflammatory, and antidiabetic properties. It is also used to control of painful, arthritic and other inflammatory conditions, as well as in the management of adult-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus.21
Mangiferin has great antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, antiatherogenic and antioxidant properties without causing hypoglycaemia.22 Vimang and mangiferin are the two components in the bark of the plant posses Anthelminthic and antiallergic activities when tested on animal models.23
Mangiferin at 100 mg/kg shows good antiparasitic activity.24 It is also significant against colon cancer cell lines and renal cancer cell lines.25 In mouse model when ethanolic extract of dried parts of the mango is given intraperitoneally at the dose of 250.0 mg/kg inactives Leuk-P38826. Antiplasmodial activity was tested in vitro.The stem bark of the plant has good antiplasmodical activity.Antipyretic activity was tested on mice. Extract produced a reduction in yeast-induced hyperpyrexia.27 Methanolic (MMI) and aqueous (AMI) extracts of seeds of MI possess good anti-diarrhoeal activity in vitro.28 Mangnifra indica posess anti-inflammatory activity in acute, subacute and chronic cases of inflammation. Leaves of Mangnifra indicaalso posses good activity against various bacterias Bacillus subtilis, staphylococcus albus and Vibrio cholera.29 Mangiferin has proven activity against 7 bacterias Bacillus pumilus, B.cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, S. citreus, Escherichia coli, Salmonellaagona, Klebsiella pneumonia.30
Chemopreventive properties of pulp of mangnifra indica has good hepatoprotective activity when tested in vitro.31
Glucosylxanthone is present in the Mangnifra indica was tested on mice for curing gastric injury.32
- Zabta khan S,A pictorial guide to medicinal plant of Pakistan,2006,pg 267,kohat university of science and technology kohat,kohat ,Pakistan
- Narayan P. Manahar,Plants and peoples of Nepal ,2002,pg 309,timber press inc,Nepal.
- Zabta khan S,A pictorial guide to medicinal plant of Pakistan,2006,pg 267,kohat university of science and technology kohat,kohat ,Pakistan
- Ravindra S,Medicinal plants of india,2003,pg 151,Daya publishing house ,1123/74,deva ram park,new dehli,india.
- P Khare ,Indian Medicinal Plants,2007,vol 1,396,Jhankpuri,New Dew Dehli ,India
- Barreto J.C., Trevisan M.T.S., Hull W.E., Erben G., De Brito E.S., Pfundstein B., Würtele G., Spiegelhalder B., Owen R.W. (2008). “Characterization and quantitation of polyphenolic compounds in bark, kernel, leaves, and peel of mango (Mangifera indica)”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56 (14): 5599–5610. doi:10.1021/jf800738r. PMID18558692
- Scartezzini P, Speroni E. Review on some plants of Indian traditional medicine with antioxidant activity.J Ethnopharmacol.2000;71:23–43
- Khan MN, Nizami SS, Khan MA, Ahmed Z. New saponins from Mangifera Indica. J Nat Prod.1993;56:767–70
- Shankarnarayanan D, Gopalakrishman C, Kameswaran L, Arumugum S. The effect of mangostin, mangostin-3, 6-di-O-glucoside and Mangiferin in carbon tetrachloride liver injury. 1979;22:65
- Ross IA. Vol. 1. New Jersey Totowa: Human Press; 1999. Medicinal plants of the world; pp. 199–200.
- Nunez Selles AJ, Vélez Castro HT, Agüero-Agüero J, Gonzalez-Gonzalez J, Naddeo F, De Simone F, et al. Isolation and quantitative analysis of phenolic antioxidants, free sugars, and polyols from Mango (Mangifera Indica ) stem bark aqueous decoction used in cuba as a nutritional supplement. J Agric Food Chem.2002;50:762–6
- Diplock AT, Charleux JL, Crozier-Willi G, Kok FJ, Rice-Evans C, Roberfroid M, et al. Functional food science and defense against reactive oxidative species.Br J Nutr.1998;80:S77–112
- Desai PD, Ganguly AK, Govindachari TR, Joshi BS, Kamat VN, Manmade AH, et al. Chemical investigation of some Indian plants: Part II. Indian J Chem.1966;4:457–549.
- Subbarayan C, Cama HR. Isolation & characterization of a carotenoid-protein complex from Mangifera indica(mango) Indian J Biochem. 1966;3:225–7
- Rocha Ribeiro SM, Queiroz JH, Lopes Ribeiro ME, Campos FM, Pinheiro Santana HM. Antioxidant in mango (Mangifera indican) pulp. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2007;62:13–7
- Gabino G, Deyarina G, Cheyla R, Nunez-Selles AJ, Rene D. Scavenger effect of a mango (Mangifera indica) food supplement’s active ingredient on free radicals produced by human polymorphonuclear cells and hypoxanthine–xanthine oxidase chemiluminescence systems.
- Sharma SR, Dwivedi SK, Swarup D. Hypoglycemic potential of Mangifera indica leaves in rats.Int J Pharmaco. 1997;35:130
- Aderibigbe AO, Emudianughe TS, Lawal BA. Antihyperglycaemic effect ofMangifera indica in rat.Phytother Res. 1999;13:504–7
- Amrita B, Liakot A, Masfida A, Begum R. Studies on the antidiabetic effects ofMangifera indica stem-barks and leaves on nondiabetic, type 1 and type 2 diabetic model rats. Bangladesh J Pharmacol. 2009;4:110–4.
- Rolo AP, Palmeira CM. Diabetes and mitochondrial function: Role of hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2006;212:167-78.
- Garcia D, Escalante M, Delgado R, Ubeira FM, Leiro J. Anthelminthic and antiallergic activities of Mangifera indica stem bark components Vimang and mangiferin. Phytother Res 2003;17:1203-8.
- Perrucci S, Fichi G, Buggiani C, Rossi G, Flamini G. Efficacy of mangiferin against Cryptosporidium parvum in a neonatal mouse model. Parasitol Res 2006;99:184-8
- Khan MA, Khan MN. Alkyl gallates of flowers of Mangifera Indica. Fitoterapia 1989;60:284
- . Aswal BS, Bhakuni DS, Goel AK, Kar K, Mehrota BN, Mukhrjee KC. Screening of Indian plants for biological activity: Part X. Indian J Exp Biol 1984;22:312-32
- Awe SO, Olajide OA, Oladiran OO, Makinde JM. Antiplasmodial and antipyretic screening of Mangifera indica Phytother Res 1998;12:437-8
- Sairam K, Hemalatha S, Kumar A, Srinivasan T, Ganesh J, Sarkar M, et al. Evaluation of anti-diarrhoeal activity in seed extracts ofMangifera indica. J Ethnopharmacol 2003;84:11-5.
- Das PC, Das A, Mandal S. Anti inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of the seed kernel of Mangifera indica. Fitoterapia 1989;60:235-40.
- Stoilova I, Gargova S, Stoyanova A, Ho L. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the polyphenol mangiferin. Herb Polonica 2005;51:37-44
- Prasad S, Kalra N, Shukla Y. Hepatoprotective effects of lupeol and mango pulp extract of carcinogen induced alteration in Swiss albino mice. Mol Nutr Food Res 2007;51:352-9.
- Carvalho AC, Guedes MM, De Souza AL, Trevisan MT, Lima AF, Santos FA, et al. Gastroprotective effect of mangiferin: A xanthonoid fromMangifera indica, against gastric injury induced by ethanol and indomethacin in rodents. Planta Med 2007;73:1372- 6.
Nicotiana Rustica L:
Botanical Name: Nicotiana Rustica L
Synonym: Tabaci Folia.
Local Name: Tambaku
Sindhi Name: Tamak
English Name: Tobbaco
Parts Used: Leaves, cured and dried.
Erect, branched, annual herb, up to 1.8 m tall, bearing multicellular, viscid-glandular hairs. Root system extensive but rather superficial.1. the leaves are simple (lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets),arranged alternate: there is one leaf per node along the stem the edge of the leaf blade is entire (has no teeth or lobes). there are two or more ways to evenly divide the flower (the flower is radially symmetrical).flower petal color changes from green to brown or yellowish, stamen 5 ,fruit length 0.7-1.6 mm.2
A native of N. America. cultivated elsewhere3. It is mostly cultivated in Thrace, now divided into Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey and Macedonia. But it is also cultivated on black sea coast of Turkey, Egypt and in South Africa.5
It is used to treat acne.
Nicotiana Rustica. L is used as seductive, diuretic and emetic.It is beneficial to treat hernia, constipation. It is used in the problems of urine. The paste of its leaves is used to treat many cutaneous diseases. When the leaves of this plants are combines with the leaves of stramonium it is best used for the obstinate ulcers, painful tumours, spasmodic effects. The leaves of tobacco are apllied to trat piles. The juice of the leaves of the plants are used to cure facial neuralgia when they are rubbed along the track of the nerve. The leaves of the plant are used to relax muscles spasm. It is also used to treat bowels.4
The main constituents of Nicotina rustica is the Nicotine which is a alkaloid, other than that nocotianine, nicotinine, nicoteline, nicoteine, harmaline. When the leaves of Nicotiana rusticaare smoked nicotine is decomposes into collidine, furfurol , pyridine, hydrocyanic acid, carbonmonoxide and others.4 S-(-)-2-Isopropyl-5-oxohexanoic acid is isolated from the leaves of the tobacco by ozonolysis of (+) -solanone , S- (-) – 2-Isopropyl-5-oxohexanoic acid is obtained.
Total volatile bases as ammonia, Nicotine, Ammonia, Glutamine as ammonia, Asparagine as ammonia, Amino nitrogen as ammonia, Protein nitrogen as ammonia, Nitrate nitrogen as N03 trace , Total nitrogen as ammonia , Total volatile acids as acetic acid, Formic acid , Malic acid, Citric acid , Oxalic acid , Volatile oils, Alcohol-soluble resins, Reducing sugars as dextrose, Pectin as calcium pectate, Crude fiber, Ash, Calcium as CaO , Potassium, Magnesium, Chlorine, Phosphorus , Sulfur , Alkalinity of water-soluble ash.7
Nicotiana Rustica has good anti inflammatory and antinociceptive activities as these activities were studied on mice. These activities were determined when the certain doses of extract of this plant was administrated into mice.8 Its main constituent. Nicotine is a neurotransmitter and active in nervous system, as well as in junctures. The constituents of this plant increases arousal and enhances the learning and performance of simple tasks.
Antibacterial activity of Nocotiana rustica was determine in in vitro animal model.Different extract such as ethyl acetate, butanol, ethanol, acetone or hexane,, Among them ethyl acetate gave most significant anti bacterial activity fallowed by butanol extract, very small by ethanoic extract and no activity was shown by acetone and hexane extracts. But, the ethyl acetate extract was found to be most active when their antibacterial potential was tested against gram positive and gram negative bacterias Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Erwinia carotovora where as, the acetone and hexane extract donot have the potential to inhibit gram positive or gram negative bacterias.10
- Biol. Chem., Vol. 31, No. 5, p 607•`610, 1967] Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Tobacco Leaves .Part III. Isolation of (-)-2-Isopropyl-5-oxohexanoic Acid from Turkish Tobacco Leaves and Absolute Configuration of Solanone*By Tetsuo FUKUZUMI, Hajime KANEKO and Hiroyasu TAKAHARACentral Research Institute, Japan Monopoly Corporation , Nishi-shinagawa, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Received January 7, 1967
- J. Bot45(2): 643-648, 2013. ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF DIFFERENT SOLVENT EXTRACTS OF TOBACCO NICOTIANA RUSTICA AGAINST GRAM NEGATIVE AND POSITIVE BACTERIA JEHAN BAKHT AZRA AND MOHAMMAD SHAFI Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, University of Agriculture Peshawar, KPK Pakistan Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture Peshawar, KPK Pakistan.
Olea europea .Linn
Botonical Name: Olea europea.Linn
Synonyms: Olea Oleaster hoffm et link
Local Name: Zaitoon
English Name: Olive
Parts used: Fruit, leaf oil.
Olea europaea is an evergreen plant. This palnt is short and rarely exceeds from 8–15 m (26–49 ft) in height. It consists of silvery green leaves that are oblong and 4 8–15 m (26–49 ft). Its trunk is usually twisted. It has feathery flowers with ten cleft calyx and corolla.I has two stamens and sitgma is bifid. Fruits are 1–2.5 cm (0.39–0.98 in) long, thinner.3
Olea europea.Linn is found in Mediterranean region. Tree are grown in peninsular Malaysia. The shrub is grown in dry rocky places. Olea europaea contains a seed commonly referred to in American English as a pit or a rock, and in British English as a stone.3
Olea europea, gives relieve against the insect sting and helps to treat rheumatism. Externally its applied to treat prusitis, scalds and burns. Orally it is given pectic ulcer and applied on dry skin to treat dandruff , abrasions.The leaves of the plants are injested orally to treat fever, hypertension and nervous tensions1.It is diuretic and used for the treatment of condition like cystitic . Its oil is useful against the dry skin.2
Olive oil (Olea eurapica) is applied on the infected area of skin.
It contains Oleorophines, Oleasterol and leine about 75% oleic acid and has monounsaturated fatty acids2. Flavonoids, tannins, saponosides, iridoids, anthracene, heterosides, cardiotone and alkaloids are isolated from olive leaves.4
Polyphenolics, squalene, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, oleuropein are present in hiyh amount in virgin olive oil and are major phenolic compounds. Secoiridoids, and lignans are the simple phenols.12
The simple phenols hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol are formed from the hydrolysis of the secoiridoid aglycones of oleuropein and ligstroside.13
Methanolic and chloroformic extract of (Olea eurapicea) leaves shows good anti inflammatory activity. Chlorofoermic extract shows more significant activity as compared to methanolic extract. This activity was determined when in vitro studies were done.5,6 This plant possess a good antinociceptive effects in in vitro model.7 Anti inflammatory and antinociceptive are possess by the flavonoids and iridoids present in the plant extract.8,9,10
The fruits of Olea europea in the powdered form and in its extract form aswell shows a significant activity aganist bacterias and fungi aswell. It shows activity against Staphylococcus aureus , Enterococcus feacalis , Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii , Proteus mirabilis and Salmonella typhemurium, and the fungi Cladosporium herbarum , Alternaria alternaria , Aspergillus fumigates, Aspergillus flavus .The extract of this plant shows a combined antifungal and antibacterial activity.11
Olive oil is used to prevent atherosclerosis.14 It shows low incidence of certain cancers, including breast, skin, and colon.15,16 This plant has chemoprotective effect against breast cancer and the low incidence of breast cancer in mediterranean countries.17,18.
Recent studies was done to determine the activity of this plant against helicobacter pylori.19 Olive oil has ability to reduce inflammation due to its antioxidant property. Olea europea has good activity to reduce Rheumatoid arthritis (RA).20 Further antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Olea europea against different microbes like, schizosaccharomyces pombe, sacchromyces uvrum, candida olephila, metschnikowia fructicola and kloeckera apiculata. It was determined by disc diffusion method in which MIC and MFC was determined. All extracts shows significant activity except water extract. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was most resistant among all yeasts.21
- Mahattar M, compendium of medical plants used in Malaysia, pg 180, 2002, vol 11, published by herbal medicinal reaserch centre (HMRC), Institute of Medicinal researcher (IMR), Jalan Pahang 50588, Kaula lumpur. Malaysia
- Narayan das prajapati, A handbook of medicinal plants, 2003, 368, Dr. upesh purohit for agrobios, jodhpur, India.
- Winter CA, Risley EA, Nuss GW. Carrageenin-induced edema in hind paw of the rat as an assay for antiiflammatory drugs. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. 1962;111:544–547.
- John, Nodine, MD. (Chicago: Year Book Medical. Publishers Inc), 1999
- Deraedt R, Jouquey S, Delevallee F, Flahaut M. Release of prostaglandins E and F in an algogenic reaction and its inhibition. European Journal of Pharmacology.1980;61(1):17–24.
- Marzouk B, Marzouk Z, Haloui E, Fenina N, Bouraoui A, Aouni M. Screening of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Citrullus colocynthis from southern Tunisia.Journal of Ethnopharmacology.2010;128(1):15–19.
- University, BP 119 Imama, Tlemcen, Algeria , Laboratory of Natural Products. Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Abu Bakr Belkaid University, BP 119 Imama, Tlemcen, Algeria.
- Perona, JS, Cabello‐Moruno R, Ruiz‐Gutierrez, The role of virgin olive oil components in The modulation of endothelial function. J Nutr Biochem 2006;17:429‐445.
- Romero C,Medina E,Varga J, et al. In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori. J Agric Food Chem 2007;55:680‐686.
- PatrickL,UzickM. Cardiovasculardisease: C‐reactiveproteinandtheinflammatorydisease paradigm: HMG‐CoA reductase inhibitors, alphatocopherol, red yeast rice,and oliveoilpolyphenols.Areviewoftheliterature.AlternMedRev2001;6:248‐271.
- Harwood JL, Yaqoob P. Nutritional and health aspects of olive oil. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol, 2002;104:685‐697.
- Owen RW, Giacosa A, Hull WE, etal. Oliveoil consumption and health: the possible role ofantioxidants. Lancet Oncol 2000;1:107‐112.
- SieriS, KroghV, Pala V, etal.Dietary patterns and risk of breast cancerin
- The ORDET cohort.Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004;13:567‐572.
- Masala G, Ambrogetti D, Assedi M, et al.Dietary and lifestyle determinants of Mammographic breast density.A longitudinal study in a Mediterranean population. Int JCancer 2006;118:1782‐1789
- Romero C, Medina E, Vargas J, et al. In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori. J Agric Food Chem 2007;55:680‐686.
- Darlington LG, Stone TW. Antioxidants and fatty acids in the amelioration of rheumatoid arthritis and related disorders.Br JNutr 2001;85:251‐269.
Botonical Name :Origanum vulagare.linn
Sindhi Name: Sathar
Local Name: Jangli majorum
English Name: Comman majorum
Parts used: Whole plant
Origanum vulagare. linn is a tall herb, and about 50 cm tall. Its leaves are ovate, stalked, bracts and and toothed.Its flowers are white pale pink in colour.1
Origanum vulgare.L is found from Asia.It is cultivated in mkany regions of world.it is found 600-3000 meters across the country.
To treat candida infection, sathar (Origanum vulgare L.), misri, and some snails are first burn snails and then sathar with misri is grinded this powder is mixed with snail ash and is placed intraviginally.
Origanum vulgare is used to treat phthisis, liver disorders, sterility and epilepsy. The flowers of this plant is used to treat paralysis and cutaneous effection. The seeds of this plants are diuretic and laxative2.It is used to treat cough, asthma,brochilitis and tonsillitis.It is used to treat the problem of tooth3.It is antifungal, antiseptic and antispasmodic. It is strong anti microbial agent.It is used to treat athma, tuberclousis, amenorrhea.4
Palmatic acid, DL-pinene, dipentene, linalool. Some bicyclic and tricyclic sesquiterpenes are some constituents that are reported from the oil extract of the plant.1Geranyl acetate , cymene , tripinene and origanene.4
Thymoquinone as the major component. Other important aglycones were benzyl alcohol, eugenol, 2-phenyl-ethanol, thymol, 3-hexen-1-ol and carvacrol. pure thymol, thymoquinone and also to α-tocofero are also the components of this plant. 3-Hexen-1-ol, 1-Octen-3-ol, Benzaldehyde, Thymoquinonec, Methyl salycilate, Benzyl alcohol, 2-Phenyl ethanol, Eugenol, Thymol, Carvacrol, 1-H-Indole, 2-(p-Metoxyphenyl) ethanol5. Biogenetic precursors, p-cymene and γ-terpinene, were the most aboundant monoterpenes.6
α-Thujene, α-Pinene Sabinene, β-Pinene, 1-Octen-3-ol, Myrcene , α-Terpinene , p-Cymene β-Phellandrene 1,8-Cineole, (Z)-β-Ocimene , (E)-β-Ocimene , γ-Terpinene, cis-Sabinene hydrate, Terpinolene, Linalool, Terpinen-4-ol, β-Terpineol, Thymol, β-Bourbonene , β-Elemene, β-Caryophyllene β-Gurjunene , α-Humulene , allo- Aromadendrene, Germacrene D , Bicyclogermacrene α-Muuralene, α-Farnesene, β-bisabolene, δ-Cadinene, Spathulenol , Caryophyllene oxide, α-Cadinol , Monoterpene, Hydrocarbons, Monoterpenoids , Caryophyllanen are essential oils constituents of aerial parts of Origanum vulgare L.7
The antioxidant activity of different plant extracts of O. vulgare was determined using the stable radical, DPPH reagent. The ethanol extract was the most active than activity showed acetone extract.
By microdilution method we determined in vitro antimicrobial activity of five extracts from O. vulgare against various strains of bacterias and fungi. Antimicrobial activity depends upon the type of bacteria used. Water extracts showed a good antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive than Gram-negative bacterias. The most significant results were seen from genusBacillus, especially against Bacillus pumilis NCTC824.The extract of this plant also shows good antimicrobial activity against Sarcina lutea. Almost all the stains of s.aureus shows high sensitivity to all oregano extracts. S.aureus PMFKGB12 was most sensitive. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae,Enterococcus faecalis are low sensitive to all oregano extracts. The methanol extracts of aerial parts of oregano did not show antimicrobial activity. Water extract was the least active against the yeasts. Invitro studies concluded the administration of all aregano extract in the treatment of candidiasis. The growth ofAspergillus niger was inhibited by the essential oil of the plant. Aspergillus restrictus andPenicillium chrysogenum are found to be sensitive.8
The antioxidant properties of five different extracts (Et₂O, CHCl₃, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and H₂O) of Origanum vulgare L. were studied. Six different model systems were prepered to determine the antioxidant activity. By the levels of phenolics and flavonoids in the investigated O. vulgare extracts the observed diffreneces in the antioxidant activity could be determined.9
- ZabtaK.Shinwari, A pictroitic guide to medicinal plants of Pakistan, 2006, 300, Kohat university of science and technology, Kohat, Pakistan.
- Lily M.perry, medicinal plants of east and southeast asia,1980,190,printed and bounded in USA, USA , America.
- Ak. shrivastava, medicinal plants, 22, 2006, SB.nangia, APH publishing copertion 5 ansari road, Darya ganj New Dehli-110002, New Dehli, India.
- Dan kenner, Botanical medicine , 1996, 227, Paradigm publications brookline, Massachuselts, USA, America.
- M Milos, , J Mastelic, I Jerkovic, Chemical composition and antioxidant effect of glycosidically bound volatile compounds from oregano (Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum) faculty of Chemical Technology, Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Split, Teslina 10/V, 21000 Split, Croatia, Received 21 October 1999, Revised 21 April 2000, Accepted 2 May 2000, Available online 23 August 2000
- Poiuytresa7. D. Mockutë, G. Bernotienë, A. Judþentienë, Chemical composition of essential oils of Origanum vulgare L. growing in Lithuania, Institute of Chemistry, A. Goštauto 9, LT-01108 Vilnius, Lithuania, 2004. Nr. 4. P. 44–49
- Braho Z. Ličina, Olgica D. Stefanović, Sava M. Vasić, Ivana D. Radojević, Milan S. Dekić, Ljiljana R. Čomić, Biological activities of the extracts from wild growing Origanum vulgare L,Department of Biomedical Sciences, State University of Novi Pazar, Vuka Karadžića bb, 36300 Novi Pazar, Serbia
- Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Kragujevac, Radoja Domanovića 12, 34000 Kragujevac, Serbia, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, University of Niš, Višegradska 33, 18000 Niš, Serbia, Department of Chemical-Technological Sciences, State University of Novi Pazar, Vuka Karadžića bb, 36300 Novi Pazar, Serbia, Received 10 September 2012, Revised 5 March 2013, Accepted 12 March 2013, Available online 28 March 2013
- Kaurinovic B,Popovic M,Vlaisavljevic S, Trivic S, Antioxidant capacity of Ocimum basilicum L. and Origanum vulgare L. extracts, Molecules. 2011 Aug 30;16(9):7401-14. doi: 10.3390/molecules16097401.
Botonical Name : Papaver somniferum.Linn
Synonyms: Papaver officinale g mel.
Local Name: kashkhash
English Name: Opium poppy
Parts used: Capsules, flowers, seeds, latex.
Papaver somniferum, var.album is found in Asia Minor, and is cultivated in European and Asiatic Turkey, Persia, India and China for the production of Opium.
It has been growing on the cliffs between Folkestone and Dover in large. It is cultivated in large scale in the most of the parts of the world including india, iran, turkey, yogosalvia, USSR, Australia, Poland, Belgium, france and spain. This is also cultivated in hiyhlands naturally it is grown in waste lands
Papaver somniferum, var. album is an erect, herbaceous annual, its flowers are of different colours from pure white to reddish purple, but in wild plant they are pale lilac with a purple spot at the base of each petal, as well as in the shape of the fruit and colour of the seeds also varies. They are small kidney shaped they are small and very numerous usually attached in the inner walls of the capsules. Its capsules vary much in shape and size, it is depressed at the top and hemispherical, stigma occupies the centre are the swollen ring, some are ovoid1.
It is used to treat headchae. It is used as a pain killer.it is used to treat diaarhaea, dysentery and all kinds of coughs2.It is used as haemostatic , antibacterial , antihypertension , a seductive and tonic. Medically it is used to treat gastralgia, colic ententis and rectal inflammation. It is used to control nausea diarhoea and dysentery. It is a medicine used to treat cough, fever, cold, catarrh, asthma, headache, pertussis, otitis, conjectivitis, dysmenorrhoea, leucorrhoea, hysteria, insomnia, rheumatism, spasm, malaria and snake bite. Externally it is used to treat haemorrhoids, leprosy, eye wounds, toothaches, ulcers, painfull swellings, warts, bruises, inflammation and sprains, It is also used to treat tumours. It is also used effective in treatment of dyspnoea due to heart failure
Barri harrer, poppy seeds, choti hareer, sonf , mint leaves are grinded and applied its paste on the scabies affected skin.
Papaver somniferum, var. album has the important constituents which are alkaloids.The principal alkaloid is Morphine, Second is Narcotine and Codeine are important. Others are thebaine, narceine, papaverine, codamine and rhoeadine. Meconic acid is present to the extent of about 5 per cent combined with morphine. Meconiasin and Meconin are present in small quantity. Starch, tannin, oxalic acid and fat are commonly present in the plant, Sugar, wax, caoutchouc and salts of calcium, mucilage and magnesiumare are present in the poopy and presences of sulphuric acid has been determined in the ash1.
Aporeine, codamine, cryptopine, gnoscopine, hydrocotarnine, lanthropine, laudanidine, laudanine, landanosine, meconidine, narcotoline, neopine, papaveramine, prophyroxine, protopine, reticuline, rhoeadine, xanthaline and methyl transferase enzyme were reported in this plant3.
Papaver somniferum has very good antimicrobial activity , it produces a compound that has been studied to have a very strong antimicrobial effects against gram negative and gram positive bacterias. Antineoplastic effects of Papaver somniferum was studied on invitro model. Papaver somniferum has very good sedative properties. Alkoloids found in poppy seeds have the very good analgesic activity. Antineoplastics activity was studied invitro on animal model . Antibacterial activity of Papaver somniferum was tested against different bacterias Salmonella Typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermis, Enterococcus fecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Citrobacter diversus and bacillus cereus by agar well diffusion method and concluded that all the bacterias shows dose dependent activity5.
- Zabta k.Shanwari,A picrotic guide to medicinal plants of Pakistan, 2006, 308, kohat university of science and technology , kohat, Pakaistan.
- Prof supriya kumar bhattacharjee, hand book of medicinal plants, 2004, 251,252, 4th edition, pointer publications jaipur, jaipur , india.
- . Dr.Mahattar M, compendium of medical plants used in Malaysia, pg 197, 2002, vol 11, published by herbal medicinal reaserch centre (HMRC), Institute of Medicinal researcher (IMR), Jalan Pahang 50588, Kaula lumpur. Malaysia
Botanical Name: Peganum hermala
Synonym: Harmala syriaca Bubani
Local Name: hermal
Sindhi Name: Hermalo
English Name: Wild rue
Parts Used:Seed and roots.
It is native from the eastern Iranian region west to India. It has spread through Arizona, Montana, California, Nevada, , Texas, Oregon and Washington.2 5
Peganum hermala is a much branched, densely leafy, glabous, 30,90 cm tall perennial herb, leaves mutifid with narrow linear segments, flowers are white, capsules glabose, about 8mm in diameter.1
Harmal (Peganum harmala) is mixed in goat milk, 5 tola gond, 1 tola black pepper and 2 tola desi ghee in a clay pot and 1-2 tables spoons are taken orally for 10 days.
The plant in used to rheumatism , fever, retention of urine, cough, lumbago, jaundice and colic.1 It is used to treat eye disorders.14 It is useful to treat various conditions, such as asthma, and as a stimulant emmenagogue.15
Alkoloids, harmalo, harmaline, and peganine an alkoiloids peganidine were isolated and determined as 3- hydroxyl- 9 (2- oxypropyl) pyrrolidino- (2, 1- b) quinozoline. A new alkaloid was deoxypeganine isolated during flowing along with 1- peganine. Dl- peganine, vasicinone deoxyvasicinone and harmine were isolated and structure elucidation of pegamine. A new alkaloid ruine isolated from seedlings and characterized as 8- hydroxyharmine b-D- glucoside. Pegaline isolated and identified as L- (-) 4- hydroxypipecolic acid, another alkoiloid – deoxypeganidine isolated and its structures determined, isopeganidine, a eacemic diasterereoisomers of peganidine quinoline and quinoldine also isolated, 9, 14- dihydroxyoctadecanoic acid isolated from seed oil.2
Vasicine and vasicinone are quinazoline alkaloids and were first discovered in flowers and stems of P. harmala.3 A ß-carboline is a alkaloid derivative which has been isolated from the aerial parts of P. harmala is called as l-thioformyl-8- ß-D-glucopyranoside-bis2,3-dihydro-isopyridinopyrrol.4 7-O-rhamnoside, 7-O-6”-Oglucosyl-2 ”-O-(3”’-acetylrhamnosyl) glucoside, 7-0-(2”’-0rhamnosyl-2”-O-glucosylglucoside) 2”’-O rhamnosyl-2 ”-O-glucosylcytisoside are four new flavonoids and the glycoflavone which are present in aerial parts of P. harmala.5
3,6-dihydroxy-8-methoxy-2-methylanthraquinone (peganone1) and 8-hydroxy-7-methoxy-2methylanthraquinone (peganone2) are the structures of two new anthraquinones which are isolated from the seeds of Peganum hermala.6 Isopeganin, Peganine, dipeganine and deoxypeganine are also identified in the P. harmala.7
harmala, including seed, root, flower, leaf and stem shows very good antibacterial activity, the most significant antibacterial activity was shown by the extracts of seeds and roots of the plant against various gram negative and positive bacterias like Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Listeriamonocytogenes and Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Brucella melitensis, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. The extracts shows good activity against all these bacterias except L. monocytogenes.8
Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of P. harmala had the ability to inhibit the growth of Lactobacilli and Candida albicans commonly found in the mouth9. In vitro examination it was found that P. harmala possess the activity to inhibit the the growth of 6 and 3 species of Candida and Aspergillus.10
Ethanolic extract of P. harmala seed, has good antidibetic activity and lowered blood glucose level determined in vitro animal model with a normal diabties. The extract utilize the external load sucrose and works as metaformin which is and hypoglycemic agent in normal and and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.11Ethanol and chloroform extracts of P. harmala hassignificant cytotoxic effects on thiourea-induced diseases in adult male rat. It also having effects against cancer, hypolipidemic. It also have effective anti aging and anti-inflammatory activities.12
Except petroleum and ether extracts all other extracts of leaves of P.hermala also possess anticytomegalovirus (HCMV) activity in different concenteration and among them the most active extract was of methanol. Determination of antiviral activity of P.hermala by in vitro studies. P. harmala seeds are useful to treat many types of cancers. Spinal Z is the mixture of seeds of P.hermala and leaves of Dracocephalum kotschyii. The activity of this mixture has been tested in vitro.This mixture shows cytotoxicity against various cell lines. Harmaline was found to be most effective compound against different cancers.13
The seeds were known to posses hallucinogenic and hypothermic properties.16,17 P. harmala possess anti-tumor effect, insecticidal effect curing malaria 18 , antileishmanial.19
Anti-spasmodic, anti-histaminic, vasorelaxant effects.20 Wound healing, anti-oxidant activity, immunomodulator properties, leukemia healing.21 Hypoglycemic effects .11 Analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, antinociceptive effects.22Antitumor activity.23 Hepatoprotective effect24, and cytotoxic activity among others. Also, it has been reported that this plant had antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral effects.8 Peganum harmala, has many active compounds with antiprotozoal properties. For the antileishmainial activity the extracts of P.hermala as tested in comparision to potassium antimonyl tartrate on L. major promastigotes and extracts of P.hermala inhibit the growth. The antileishmanial activity of P.hermala was studied in vitro.
Thus, the leishmanial activity of P. hermal greatly dependent on the concenteration of the extracts.26
- Zabta shinwari, A pictorial guide to medicinal plants, 2006, pg 310, Kohat university of science and technology kohat, Pakistan.
- Ram p Rastagi, Compendium of Indian medicinal plants , 1979, pg 518, vol 2, publication year 1991, New dehli , India.
- Madadkar Sobhani A, Ebrahimi SA, Mahmoudian M (2002). An invitro evaluation of human DNA topoisomerase I inhibition by Peganum harmala seeds extract and its beta-carboline alkaloids. J. Pharm. Pharmaceut. Sci., 5(1): 19-23.
- Abdel-Aziz HG, Abdel Kader SM, El-Sayed MM, EL-Malt EA, Shaker ES (2010). Novel beta-carboline alkaloid from Peganum harmala as antibacterial agant. Tenth Radiation Physics and Protection Conference, 4(1): 27-30.
- Sharaf M, El-Ansari MA, Matlin SA, Saleh NA (1997). Four flavonoid glycosides from Peganum harmala. , 44(3): 533-536.
- Pitre S, Srivastava SK (1987). Two new anthraquinons from the seeds of Peganum harmala. Planta Medica, 53(1): 106-107.
- Fathizad F, Azarmi Y, Khodaie L (2007). Pharmacological Effects of Peganum harmala Seeds Extract on Isolated Rat Uterus. Iranian J. Pharm. Sci., 2(2): 81-86.
- Darabpour E, Poshtkouhian Bavi A, Motamedi H, Seyyed Nejad SM (2011). Antibacterial activity of different parts of Peganum harmala growing in Iran against multi-drug resistant bacteria. Excl. J., 10: 252263.
- Minan YH (2010). Antimicrobial Effects of Aqueous and Alcoholic Extract of Peganum Harmala Seeds on Two Types of Salivary Isolated Microorganisms in Al-Ramadi City. Pharmacol. JKAU Med. Sci., 17(4): 3-17.
- Diba K, Gerami Shoar M, Shabatkhori M, Khorshivand Z (2011). Anti fungal activity of alcoholic extract of Peganum harmala J. Med. Plants Res., 5(23): 5550-5554.
- Singh AB, Chaturvedi JP, Narender T, Srivastava AK (2008). Preliminary studied on the hypoglycemic effect of Peganum harmala seeds ethanol extract on normal and streptozocine induced diabetic rats. Indian J. Clin. Biochem., 23(4): 391-393
- Rhee et al., 2009; Wiseman et al., 1997; Hogg,1998; Mates et al., 1999; Aruoma, 2003Cho et al.,2006
- Bailey ME (1979). Major poisonous plant problems in cattle. BovinePract., 14: 169-175.
- Bukhari N, Choi JH, Jeon CW, Park HW, Kim WH, Khan MA, Leet SH (2008). Phytochemical Studies of the Alkaloids from Peganum Harmala. Appl. Chem., 12(1): 101-104.
- Sharaf M, El-Ansari MA, Matlin SA, Saleh NA (1997). Four flavonoid glycosides from Peganum harmala. Phytochem., 44(3): 533-536.
- Lamchouri F, Settaf A, Cherrah Y, Hasser M, Zemzami M, Arif N, Nadori EB, Zaid A, Lyoussi B (2000). In vitro cell toxicity of Peganum harmala alkaloids on cancerous cell lines. Fitoterapia, 71: 50-54.
- Goel N, Singh N, Saini R (2009). Efficient in vitro multiplication of Syrian Rue (Peganum harmala L.) using 6-benzylaminopurine preconditioned seedling explants. Nat. Sci. 7:129-134.
- Mirzaie M, Nosratabadi SJ, Amin Derakhshanfar A, Sharifi I (2007). Antileishmanial activity of Peganum harmala extract on the in vitro growth of Leishmania major promastigotes in comparison to a trivalent antimony drug. Veterinarski Arhivir., 77(4): 365-375.
- Asghari G, Lockwood GB (2002). Stereospecific biotransformation of (±) phenylethyl propionate by cell cultures of Peganum harmala L. Iran Biomed. J., 6: 43-46.
- Zaker F, Oody A, Arjmand A (2007). A study on the antitumoral and differentiation effects of Peganum harmala derivatives in combination with ATRA on leukaemic cells. Arch. Pharm. Res., 30(7): 844-849.
- Monsef HR, Ghobadi A, Iranshahi M (2004). Antinociceptive effects of Peganum harmala L. alkalid extract on mouse formalin test. J. Pharm. Pharmaceut. Sci., 7(1): 65-69.
- Madadkar Sobhani A, Ebrahimi SA, Mahmoudian M (2002). An in vitro evaluation of human DNA topoisomerase I inhibition by Peganum harmala L. seeds extract and its beta-carboline alkaloids. J. Pharm. Pharmaceut. Sci., 5(1): 19-23.
- Khaled HK, Masmoudi H, Ellouz F, ElFeki A, Carreau S (2008). Protective effects of Peganum harmala extracts on thiourea-induced diseases in adult male rat. J. Environ. Biol., 29(1): 73-77.
Zingiber officinale Rosocea.
Botanical Name: Zingiber officinale Rosocea
Synonym: Gan Jiang, Zingiber
Sindhi Name: Adrak
Local Name: Adrak, Soonth
English Name: Ginger
Part Used: Rhizome and its juice
Zingiber officinale Rosocea is a perennial and erect herb, with horizontal jointed tuberous rhizomes. Its stems are leafy, erect and about 15-150cm long (1). The leaves are 10-30cm long and flowers are bisexual capsules. The fruits are oblong. Seeds are many endospermic and arillate. Ginger is herbaceous rhizomatous, reaching up to 90 cm in height under cultivation. Rhizomes are aromatic, thick lobed, pale yellowish, bearing simple alternate distichous narrow oblong lanceolate leaves. The herb develops several lateral shoots in clumps, which begin to dry when the plant matures. Leaves are broad with sheathing bases, the blade gradually tapering to a point.
Zingiber officinale Rosocea is widely cultivated in India upto an altitude of 1500m. Ginger is indigenous to southern China, from whence it is spread to the Spice Islands and other parts of Asia, and subsequently to West Africa and to the Caribbean. Ginger appeared in Europe, via India, in the 1st century CE as a result of the lucrative spice trade.
The Ginger mixed with salt in equal parts is taken just before meals to increase apetite (1). Ginger is used in the prevention of nausea and vomiting (2).It is used in the treatment of headache and tonsils (3). It has anti-inflammatory and antiseptic property (4). Ginger is anti allergic, antibacterial and fungicide (5). It treats wound.When used topically, ginger stimulates circulation in the skin, and the volatile oils travel into underlying tissues (6).Applying fresh ginger juice can give relief from the pain as well as heal burnt skin by restoring it to the natural position. Fresh ginger slice can be rub on the skin 2 to 3 times a day to fade the scars within 6 to 12 weeks. Ensure to use a fresh ginger slice each time for topical application (7).Being a powerful antiseptic and cleansing agent, ginger helps to keep the skin clean, smooth and free of blemishes. Besides, it also invigorates and stimulates the skin. It is also the best natural acne fighting weapon as it minimizes the rate of acne formation and eruption by killing and clearing the acne causing bacteria (7).Ginger root is a great remedy for hair loss. Ginger extracts make your hair stronger as well as pleasant smelling (7).
The dry ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosocoe) powder along with oil is applied topically on the Ringworm disease. The grinded paste of ginger is applied on the wound infection.
Chemical constituents of Zingiber officinale Rosocoe:
The active constituents of ginger are Gingerols, shogaols zingiberene, gereniol, amaldehyde,and paradol..The Chinese ginger contains two novel gingerdione dimers, bisgingerdiones A (1) and B (2); two new gingerol derivatives, (5R)-5-acetoxy-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)heptan-3-one (3) and methyl (Z)-neral acetal--gingerdiol (4); and 38 known compounds from rhizomes of ginger has been isolated. The principal components of ginger are -gingerol (1-[4′-hydroxy-3′-methoxyphenyl]-5-hydroxy-3-decanone).The one third part of the ginger contains of volite oils those main components are sesquiterpenoids, with (-)-zingiberene ,other sesquiterpenoids (β-sesquiphellandrene, bisabolene and farnesene) and a small terpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene, cineol, and citral) are identified in little amount. The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of zingerone, shogaols and gingerols, volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger. Other identified components are Phenylalkylketones or vanillyl ketones of ginger include 6-gingerol 8-gingerol and 10-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-shogaol, 10-shogaol and zingerone. 6-paradol, 6- and 10- dehydrogingerdione and 6- and 10-Gingerdione.14.
Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoid and phlobotannins.The nonvolatile components of ginger are which give ginger flavor and aroma includes gingerols including (6)-gingerol (6)-shagaol (a dehyroxylated analog of (6)-gingerol), (6)- and (10)-dehyro-gingerdione, (6)- and (10)-gingerdione, (6)-paradol, vallinoids, galanals A and B, and zingerone. Other compounds present include carbohydrates, fats, minerals, oleoresins, vitamins, waxes, and zingibain (a proteolytic enzyme). After performing GLC the following compounds were identified: n-heptane, n-octane, n-nonane, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, n-butyraldehyde, isovaleraldehyde, acetone, n-propanol, n-nonanol, diethyl sulfide, ethyl isopropyl sulfide, methyl allyl sulfide, methyl and ethyl acetates, α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, limonene, β-phellandrene and 1,8-cineole. Ginger rhizome contains the 60% stach, 10% proteins, 10% fats, 5% fibers, 6% inorganic material, 10% residual moisture, 1-4% essential oils 31.
Pharmacology of Zingiber officinale Rosocoe:
(Zingiber officinale Rosocoe) possess the anti cancer and neuro protective property. The gingerol component of ginger increase the gastrointestinal motility. It also has analgesic, sedative, antipyretic and antibacterial properties. Gingerol content can also inhibit the ovarian cancer 9,10,11. Ginger also contain sialagogue action which helps in swallowing by stimulating saliva. Ginger is useful in the ailments including vomiting, pain, indigestion, and cold-induced syndromes .It is also reported that it is helpful in -cancer, anticlotting, anti-inflammatory activities.Ginger is found less beneficial in metabolic disorders and its complications.Ginger has the known effect on the diabetic mellitus.
Ginger has many benificial effects on different diseases such as diabetese millitus and other pulmonary disorders.14. The constituents vallinoids, (6)-gingerol and (6)-paradol, shogaols, zingerone, and Galanals A and B.15,16,17 are responsible to induce anti cancer effects. Galanals A and B. are the only component that induce potent apoptosis inducers of human T lymphoma Jurkat cells.17. The increase number of platelets is controlled by ginger 17,18,19,.20.The main components of ginger that exhbits the ability to decrease platelets counts are Gingerol, (8)-shogaol, (8)-paradol, and gingerol analogues (1 and 5)19 while there is no effect of ginger on plateles fibrinolytic activity, or fibrinogen levels.21
Ginger is most effective in nousea and vomiting. Gingerols, shogaols, and galanolactone, a diterpenoid of ginger are the key components responsible for the antiemetic effect of ginger.22, 23,24. Antiserotoninergic is the well known activity of ginger.25,26,27 .Ginger has no effect on deodunal 28.Ginger has significant anti inflammatory properties .It is one of the well known and useful spices29. Ginger extract is derived from Zingiber officinale (and Alpina galanga) that has ability to inhibits the induction of various genes responsible for the inflammatory action20. Gingerols and the related shogaols at the lowest dose have anti cardiovascular activity. These both shows anti inflammatory where as the essential oil has some polar compunds which get normal with -gingerol contents which prevents the infalmmation of joints. Antiarthritic effects effect is inhenced by the Non-gingerol components30
- A.K.Dhiman, Ayurvedic drug plants, 2006, 363-364, Daya publishing house Delhi-110 035, India.
- Dr.Nigel.C.V, Herbal Medicines, 2000, p.344, Pharmaceutical press.U.K
- S.G.Joshi, Medicinal plants, 2000, 413, published by Mohan Primlani Oxford & IBH publishing Co. Pvt.Ltd.66 Janpath, New Delhi 110001, India.
- Thomas S.S.Li, Medicinal Plants, 51,
- J.A.Duke, Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, 2002, II, 327-328, CRC press, New York, Washington, DC, U.S.A.
- “Spices: Exotic Flavors & Medicines: Ginger”. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Nov 9;59(21):11690-5. doi: 10.1021/jf202544w. Epub 2011 Oct 7.
- O’Hara, Mary; Kiefer, David; Farrell, Kim; Kemper, Kathi (1998). “A Review of 12 Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs”. Archives of Family Medicine 7 (7): 523–536. doi:10.1001/archfami.7.6.523.PMID 9821826.
- McGee, Harold (2004). On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (2nd ed.). New York: Scribner. pp. 425–426. ISBN 0-684-80001-2.
- Wood, George B. (1867). “Class IX. Sialagogues”.A Treatise On Therapeutics, And Pharmacology Or Materia Medica: Volume 2. J. B. Lippincott & Co. Retrieved 2 March 2013.
- INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND CHEMICAL SCIENCES ISSN: 22775005
- Yiming Li, Van H. Tran, Colin C. Duke, and Basil D. RoufogalisFaculty of Pharmacy, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, AustraliaReceived 16 August 2012; Accepted 21 October 2012Academic Editor: I-Min Liu
- Aggarwal BB and Shishodia S. Molecular targets of dietary agents for prevention and therapy of cancer. Biochem Pharmacol. 5-142006;71(10):1397-1421.
- Miyoshi N, Nakamura Y, Ueda Y, Abe M, Ozawa Y, Uchida K and Osawa T. Dietary ginger constituents, galanals A and B, are potent apoptosis inducers in Human T lymphoma Jurkat cells. Cancer
- Shukla, Y and Singh M. Cancer preventive properties of ginger: a brief review. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007;45(5):683-690.
- Wang CC, Chen LG, Lee LT and Yang LL. Effects of 6-gingerol, an antioxidant from ginger, on inducing apoptosis in human leukemic HL-60 cells. In Vivo. 2003; 17(6):641-645.
- Mahady,G B, Pendland SL, Yun GS, Lu ZZ and Stoia A. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and the gingerols inhibit the growth of Cag A+ strains of Helicobacter pylori. Anticancer Res. 2003;23(5A):3699-3702.
- Nurtjahja-Tjendraputra E, Ammit AJ, Roufogalis BD, Tran VH and Duke CC. Effective anti-platelet and COX-1 enzyme inhibitors from pungent
- constituents of ginger. Thromb Res. 2003;111(4-5):259-265
- Miyoshi N, Nakamura Y, Ueda Y, Abe M, Ozawa Y, Uchida K and Osawa T. Dietary ginger constituents, galanals A and B, are potent apoptosis inducers in Human T lymphoma Jurkat cells. Cancer Lett. 9-252003;199(2):113-119.
- Bordia A, Verma SK and SrivastavaKC. Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinaleRosc.) and fenugreek (Trigonellafoenumgraecum L.) on blood lipidsblood sugar and platelet aggregationn patients with coronary arterydisease. Prostaglandins LeukoEssent Fatty Acids.1997;56(5):379384.
- Bhattarai S, Tran VH and Duke CC. The stability of gingerol and shogaol in aqueous solutions. J Pharm Sci. 2001;90(10):1658-1664.
- Yamahara J, Rong HQ and Iwamoto M. Active components of ginger exhibiting anti-serotonergic action. Phytotherapy Res.1989;3(2):70-71.
- Huang Q, Iwamoto M and Aoki S. Anti-5-hydroxytryptamine3, effect of galanolactone, diterpenoid isolated from ginger. Chem Pharm Bull. 1991;39(2):397-399.
- Yamahara J, Rong HQ and Iwamoto M. Active components of ginger exhibiting anti-serotonergic action. Phytotherapy Res.1989;3(2):70-71.
- Huang Q, Iwamoto M and Aoki S. Anti-5-hydroxytryptamine3, effect of galanolactone, diterpenoid isolated from ginger. Chem Pharm Bull. 1991;39(2):397-399.
- Lumb AB. Mechanism of antiemetic effect of ginger. Anaesthesia. 1993; 48(12):1118.
- Wang CC, Chen LG, Lee LT and Yang LL. Effects of 6-gingerol, an antioxidant from ginger, on inducing apoptosis in human leukemic HL-60 cells. In Vivo. 2003; 17(6):641-645.
- Yamahara J, Miki K, Chisaka T, Sawada T, Fujimura H, Tomimatsu T, Nakano K, and Nohara T. Cholagogic effect of ginger and its active constituents. J Ethnopharmacol. 1985;13(2):217-225
- Funk JL, Frye JB, Oyarzo JN, Timmermann BN. Comparative Effects of Two Gingerol-Containing Zingiber officinale Extracts on Experimental Rheumatoid Arthritis. J Nat Prod. 2009; 72:403-407.
- Srivastava, K.C. and Mustafa, T. (1992) Ginger (Zingiber Officinale) in Rheumatism and Musculoskeletal Disorders. Medical Hypothesis, 39: 342-348.
Phyla nodiflora Linn.
Botanical name: Phyla nodiflora Linn.
Synonym: Verbena nodiflora Linn.
Sindhi name: Bukan
Local name: Bukan
English name: Cape weed, fog fruit
Part used: Leaves and roots
Phyla nodiflora Linn. is a small creeping much branched herb. Its leaves are subsessile, opposite and spatulate. Its flowers are pinkish in dense. The flowers and fruits of cape weed are propagated by seeds or nodal rooting of the stems1. This perennial herb is with sub quadrangular stem, rooting at the nodes, rounded at the apex and serrate. The flowers are densely packed in long peduncle axillary head. Fruit of fog fruit is globose and oblong2.
Phyla nodiflora Linn. is distributed throughout Nepal to about 1400m on moist or dry places, also cultivated in India, Bhutan, Srilanka, China, Japan, Mayanmar, Malaysia, Africa, North and South America1. It is also found in Pakistan from plains to 1600m, common in hedges2,3. Flowering and fruiting are in April- November1.
The plant of Phyla nodiflora Linn. is demulcent and is used as a cooling drug1. This plant is diuretic, febrifuge; given to children to improve digestion and to women after delivery2. It promotes healing of wound3. A paste from the fresh plant is applied a suppurant for boils3. It is also spasmolytic, antibacterial, antiseptic and fungicide. If the paste of leaves is applied topically, it treats chicken pox, dermatosis, eczema, itch, leprosy, scabies and wound5. It is used in the treatment of hookworm6.The juice of the plant is cooling and is used to relieve fevers, coughs and colds. The aroma of the inhaled plant is breathed in to treat coughs and colds. The juice of the root is used in the treatment of gastric troubles.
The grinded leaves of bukan (Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene) herb are applied on face for the treatment of acne and pimples.
Steroids, alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, essential oils, salts and potassium are abundantly found in the methanolic, petroleum ether and water extract of Phyla nodifloraLinn. .In the present study, ten compounds, namely, 3,7,4′,5′-tetrahydroxy-3′-methoxyflavone, nodifloretin, 4′-hydroxywogonin, onopordin, cirsiliol, 5,7,8,4′-tetrahydroxy-3′-methoxyflavone, eupafolin, hispidulin, larycitrin, and β-sitosterol were isolated from the methanolic extract of the aerial part of P. nodiflora7.
Two new flavone glycosides lippiflorin A and lippiflorin B, along with the known compound nepetin and batalilfolin from the ethanol extract of L. nodiflora. were isolated.8 . The flowers ofL.nodiflora, contain two flavones glycosides, 6 hydroxyluteolin-7-Oapioside and luteolin-7-O-glucoside, and three flavones6-hydroxyluteolin, nepetin, and batatifolin.9 Halleridone and Hallerone as their acetyl derivatives from the leaves of L. nodiflora were isolated10.
The methanolic extract of the plant Phyla nodiflora was evaluated for antibacterial assay of the given bacteria (S.aureus, M.luteus, P.mirabalis), which showed moderate activity. But the ethanol extract showed significant antibacterial activity due to the presence of bio-active compounds when compared with petroleum – ether and aqueous extract11. The antibacterial activity against E. coli, P.aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus was also evaluated12. The essential oils and methanolic extracts of the seeds of this plant also showed significant antibacterial activity13. The crude extracts were evaluated for antifungal activity against the human pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus niger, A. Flavus, Paecilomyces varioti, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum). All crude extract had significant inhibition activity against most of the fungi. But comparatively the ethanol extract had maximum inhibition activity (100 %) against these test organisms. The terpenoids content of L nodiflora composition is responsible for antifungal activity. Sesqueterpenes of this plant possess high antifungal activity14.
The methanolic extract of Lippia nodiflora has been evaluated for antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects in paracetamol induced liver injury. The methanolic extract of Lippia nodiflora showed significant activity. Cyclo pentano phenanthrenol compound was concluded to be responsible factor for anti-inflammatory activity of this plant15. Anti-inflammatory and anti neoceptive activities of methanolic extract of Lippia nodiflora Linn was also seen16. A study suggested that L.nodiflora contains nodifloretin, β-sitosterol glucoside, stigmasterol, glucoside, nodifloridin A, and nodifloridin B, which could be used in proper doses for the treatment of hepatitis17. The crude methanol extract and the isolated compound of cyclo-pentano phenanthrenol from P.nodiflora were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity, which proved to be very significant.
1-Manandhar N.P., Plants and People of Nepal, 2002, 359, Timber publishers, Nepal.
2- M.Rehman, A Pictorial Guide to Medicinal Plants of Pakistan, 2006, P.314, published by Kohat University of Science and Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan.
3- Joshi S. G., Medicinal plants, 2000, 397, published by Mohan Primlani Oxford & IBH publishing Co. Pvt.Ltd.66 Janpath, New Delhi 110001, India.
4-C.P.Khare, Indian Medicinal plants, 2012, P.480-481, New Delhi-110058, India.
5- J.A.Duke, Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, 2002, II, 781-782, CRC press, New York, Washington, DC, U.S.A.
6- Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China.
7- The Scientific World Journal; Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 528653, 8 pages.
8-Nair AGR, Ramesh P, Nagarjan S and Subraimanam S. A new flavones glycosides from
Lippia nodiflora. Indian journal chem., 2, 1973. 1316-1317.
9–Barnabas C, Gunasingh G, and Nagarajan S,Flavonoids from the flowers of Phyla nodiflora Linn. Indian Journal of Chemistry, Section B: Organic Chemistryincluding Medicinal Chemistry, 19B(9),1980, 822.
10- Ravikanth V,Ramesh P, Diwan PV and Venkateswarlu Y. Halleridone and Hallerone from Phyla nodiflora as taxonomic markers. Biochemical Systematic and Ecology, 28(9), 2000 .905-906.
11- Durairaj A K, Vaiyapuri TS ,Mazumder UK, Gupta M,.Antimicrobial and lipidperoxide scavenging activity of lippia nodiflora (verbenaceae) Pharmacologyonline 3,2007, 177-189.
12- Salve S D and Bhuktar A S. Pharmacognostic study of Phyla nodiflora linn. International journal of pharmacy,3(3), 2012, 255 260
13- Patel Janki B, Shah Kinjal H, Patel Rashmika C. Evaluation of anti bacterial activity of methanolic extract of seeds of Phyla nodiflora Linn. Int. research journal of pharmacy 2(6), 2011, 91-93.
14- Pascual ME, Slowing K, Carreto E, Sanchez mata D, Villar A, Lippia:traditional uses,chemistry and pharmacology – a review. Jour of Ethnopharmacology,76(3), 2001, 201-214
15- Durairaj AK. Vaiyapuri TS ,Mazumder UK, Gupta M. Antimicrobial and lipid peroxide scavenging activity of lippia nodiflora (verbenaceae) Pharmacology online 3,2007,177-189.
16- Ahmed F, Salim MST, Das AK and Chaudhari MSK. Anti inflammatory and anti neoceptive activities of methanoic extract of Lippia nodiflora Linn. Die pharmazine, 59 (4), 2004, 329-30.
17- Zheng L. Application of Lippia nodiflora extract to preparing medicinal preparation for treating hepatitis.China patent, 2(3), 2008, 101-105.
Phyllanthus emblica Linn.
Botanical Name: Phyllanthus emblica Linn.
Synonym: Emblica officinalis Gaertn.
Sindhi Name: Amlo
Local Name: Amla
English Name: Indian gooseberry
Part Used: Fruit, leaf, bark, seeds, flowers and roots.
Phyllanthus emblica Linn. is a moderate sized, deciduous tree with greenish-grey or red bark, which peel off in scales and long stripes. Its leaves are pinnate, distichously closest, linear-oblong and obtuse. The flowers of Phyllanthus emblica Linn.are greenish yellow and are borne axillary in clusters along the branchlets. The male are on slender pedicles and female are sub-sessile and few. The fruits are of three 2-valued cocci, globose, fleshy and obscurely 6-lobed when riped. Seeds of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. are trigonous. Flowering is during February and fruiting in October-March 2.
Phyllanthus emblica Linn. Is native to tropical South east Asia, distributed and found wild throughout India, also planted in public parks 1,2. It is also cultivated locally in Pakistan 3. It is native to tropical South Eastern Asia and is naturally growing in the forest and drier regions of central and Southern India 4.
The fruit of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. is antiemetic, antianemic, and anti-diarrheal 1. A paste made from its fruit and seeds of ground nuts, along with the lemon juice and Edward Rose is applied as a lotion for dry skin 2. Its fruit can be dried and powdered to be used in preparations of hair dyes and hair oils 4. It is a great health and vitality restorer 4. Fruit of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. is cooling, refrigerant, diuretic, and laxative, used in haemorrhage, anemia and jaundice 5. It is specially good for abundant growth of hairs 6 and also used in toothache, pimples, fever, Tubercular fistula 6. The fruit poultice is used to stop bleeding from cuts 7. Phyllanthus emblica Linn. possess an antibacterial property 8. It also treats acne, alopecia, dermatosis, inflammation and leprosy 8.
Alopecia can be treated by applying amla (Phyllanthus emblica Linn.) oil on head regularly. Mixture of amla fruit, sulfur, detergent and mustard oil is applied on skin to treat scabies as well as alopecia.
Constituents of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. :
The chemical constituents of amla Phyllanthus emblica L. are two flavonoids, kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-(6”-methyl)-rhamnopyranoside and kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-(6”-ethyl) rhamnopyranoside (9). Fruit is also rich natural source of vitamin C. It also contains tannins and colloidal substances, phyllembic acid, lipids, gallic acid, ellagic acid, trigalloylglucose, terchebin, corilagin and emblicol. Phyllembin and mucic acid have also been isolated from the fruit pulp of amla. Seeds of Indian gooseberry contain fixed oil, phosphatides, tannins and essential oil. Bark, fruits and leaves are rich in tannin. They also contain lupeol, β-sitosterol and ellagic acid. Bark also contains leucodelphinidin. Seed oil also contains linoleic acid (64.8%), closely resembled linseed oil 16.
The leaves and fruits of Phyllanthus emblica L. contains the alkaloids namely phyllantine, phyllantidine, zeatin, zeatin nucleotide, zeatin riboside 10. The leaves of amla contains some of the Benzenoids namely, chebulic acid, gallic acid 11. Generally the Phyllanthus emblica contains the sterols, carbohydrates, di terpenes, triterpenes, furane olactone(ascorbic acid). 11 compounds that found to be common in amla are 11 compounds were isolated and identified as gallic acid ,ellagic acid ,1-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose, 3,6-di-O-galloyl-D-glucose, chebulinic acid, quercetin , chebulagic acid , corilagin ,3-ethylgallic acid (3-ethoxy-4,5-dihydroxy-benzoic acid, isostrictiniin , 1,6-di-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose.
Pharmacology of Phyllanthus emblica L
Phyllanthus emblica L. reported to show activity against Epstein-Barr virus DNA polymerase (EBV-DP) 17-21. The effects against chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or related viruses remain negative. P. emblica L. has been used for anti-inflammatory and antipyretic treatments by rural populations in its growing areas. Malays use a decoction of its leaves to treatfever 22 In Indonesia, the pulp of the fruit is smeared on the head to dispel headache and dizziness caused by excessive heat. The previous chemical findings and biological activities have since been confirmed with more advanced techniques. Active principles or extracts of P.emblica L. have been shown to possess many important pharmacological actions, e.g. analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, chemoprotective, hypolipidaemic and anti-HIV-1 (Hu-man immunodeficiency virus-1) activities. Many pharmacological studies have also demonstrated the ability of the fruit that shows antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antitumour, antigenotoxic, antiinflammatory activities.
Amla berries also fortifies liver. It helps to purify the nutrient fluid and blood in the body by eliminating several toxins from the body 23. Amla berries are also good for skin. Amla berry improves digestion, and is rich in vitamin C and other useful minerals that improves skin texture, enhance glow, cleanses skin, enhance skin complexion and nourishes it. Amla also promtes healthier and stronger hair. Amla berries boost calcium absorption by creating stronger bones, teeth, nails and hair. It also delays pre mature graying of hair, maintain youthful color of hairs and supports the strength of the hair follicles, and prevents the thining of hair 24. Research reports on amla reveals its analgesic, anti-tussive, anti-atherogenic, adaptogenic; cardio, gastro, nephro and neuroprotective, chemopreventive, radio and chemo modulatoryand anti-cancer properties. Amla is also reported to have potent free radical scavenging,antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, immunomodulatory activities, which are efficacious in the prevention and treatment of various diseases like cancer, atherosclerosis, diabetes, liver andheart diseases. Phyllanthus emblica L. has been used for anti-inflammatory and antipyretic treatments by rural populations in its growing areas 25.
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8- J.A.Duke, Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, 2002, II,715-716, CRC press, New York, Washington, DC, U.S.A.
9- Department of Chemistry, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, Pakistan. Natural Product Research (Impact Factor: 1.03). 08/2007; 21(9):775-81. DOI: 10.1080/14786410601124664
10- THERESA, Y.M., SASTRY, K.N.S. and NAYUDAMMA, Y. (1965): Studies on biosynthesis oftannins in indigenous plants XII. Occurence of different polyphenolics in amla (PhyllanthusemblicaLinn). Leather Science12:327–328.
11-THORAT, S.P., REGE, N.N., NAIK, A.S., THATTE, U.M., JOSHI, A., PANICKER, K.N.S., BAPAT, R.D. and DAHANUKAR, S.A. (1995): Emblica officinalis: a novel therapy for acute pancreatitis—an experimental study. HPB Surgery9: 25–30.
12- RAM, S. and RAJA, T. (1978): Studies on naturally occuring gibberellins in aonla (Emblica officinalis) fruit. New Phytol.81: 513–519.
13-RAM, S. and RAO, T.R. (1976): Naturally occuring cytokinins in aonla (Emblica officinalis) fruit.New Phytol.76:441–448.
14- HUI, B.W. and SUNG, M.L. (1968): An examination of the Euphorbiaceae of Hong Kong. II. The occurence of epitaraxenol and other triterpenoids. Aust. J. Chem.21:2137–2140.
15- DESAI, H.K., GAWAD, D.H., JOSHI, B.S., PARTHASATHY, P.C., RAVINDRANATH, K.R., SAINDANE, M.T., SIDHAVE, A.R. and VISWANATHAN, N. (1977): Chemical investigation of Indian plants: Part X. Indian J. Chem. 15B 3: 291–293
16-(Ghani, 2003, Rastogi and Mehrotra, 1990 & 93).
17- UNANDER, D.W., WEBSTER, G.L., and BLUMBERG, B.S. (1990): Records of usage or assays in Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae) I. Subgenera Isocladus, Kirginelia, Cicca and Emblica. J.Ethnopharmacol. 30:233–264.
18-UNANDER, D.W., WEBSTER, G.L., and B99LUMBERG, B.S. (1991): Uses and bioassays in Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae): a compilation II. The subgenus Phyllanthus. J. Ethnopharmacol. 34:97–133.
19-UNANDER, D.W., WEBSTER, G.L., and BLUMBERG, B.S. (1992): Usage and bioassays in Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae): a compilation III. The subgenera Eriococcus, Conami, Gomphidium, Botryanthus, Xylophylla and Phyllanthodendron, a complete list of the species cited in the three-parseries. J. Ethnopharmacol.36:103–112.
20-UNANDER, D.W., WEBSTER, G.L., and BLUMBERG, B.S. (1995): Usage and bioassays inPhyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae) IV. Clustering of antiviral uses and other effects. J. Ethnopharmacol. 45:1–18
21- LIU, K.C.S.C., LIN, M.T., LEE, S.S., CHIOU, J.F.REN, S.J. and LIEN, E.J. (1999): Antiviral tannins from two Phyllanthus species. Planta Med. 65:43–46
22- BURKILL, I. H. (1966): A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula, Vol. 1, Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives, Kuala Lumpur.
23- Tasduq SA, Mondhe DM, Gupta DK, Baleshwar M, Johri RK. Reversal of fibrogenic events in liver by Emblica officinalis (fruit), an Indian natural drug. Biol Pharm Bull. 2005; 28(7):1304-1306.
24-Stuart GA. Chinese Materia Medica Vegetable Kingdom. American Presbyterian Mission Press, Shanghai, (1911) 558.
25- Dang GK, Parekar RR, Kamat SK, Scindia AM, Rege NN. Antiinflammatory activity of Phyllanthus emblica, Plumbago zeylanica and Cyperus rotundus in acute models of inflammation. Phytother Res. 2011; 25(6):904-908.
Piper betle Linn.
Botanical name: Piper betle Linn.
Synonym: Betel pepper
Sindhi name: Pan
Local name: Paan
English name: Betel pepper
Part used: Leaves and roots
Piper betel L is a perennial and dioecious creeper with woody and climbing stems, which climb by means of short and adventitious roots. Its leaves are 10-20cm long, broadly ovate, slightly cordate and often uneven at base and are bright green or yellowish. The petiole is stout and 2-2.5cm long. The plant is propagated through the vegetative cutting from 2 years old plant and occur in September to October 2.
Piper betel L. is cultivated in warmer and damper parts of India, Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, U.P, Karnataka, Kerala 1. It is a native of Malaysia, now it is cultivated all over India, except the dry north-western parts2.
The leaves of Betel showed antifungal and antibacterial activity1. Its tender leaves are smeared with ghee or medicated oil and are applied as a dressing for blistered surfaces or inflamed areas of wounds2. Leaf is aromatic, carminative, stimulant, astringent as a preventive of worms and in snake bite3. The piperbetel leaves stimulates brain, lungs and heart4.It is antiseptic, antibacterial, laxative, and expectorant5. Leaf is used in the treatment of cough and is stimulant and carminative6. In India, betel is used to cure worms. According to traditional Ayurvedic medicine, chewing areca nut and betel leaf is a remedy for bad breath7.
The grinded leaves of Piper betel L.are applied on the scabies.
Constituents of Piper betel:
The leaf of Pieper betel L. contains water approximately (85-90%), Proteins (3-3.5%), Carbohydrates (0.5-6.1%), Minerals (2.3-3.3%), Fat (0.4-1%), Fibre (2.3%), Essential oil
(0.08-0.2%), Tannin(0.1-1.3%), Alkaloid (arakene). It also comprises of different vitamins like Vitamin-C (0.005-0.01%), Nicotinic acid (0.63-0.89mg/100gms), Vitamin-A (1.9-2.9mg/100gms), Thiamine (10-70μg/100gms), Riboflavin (1.9-30μg/100gms) beside this it contains minerals such as Calcium (0.2-0.5%), Iron (0.005-0.007), Iodine (3.4μg/100gms), Phosphorus (0.05-0.6%), Potassium (1.1- 4.6%). Leaves of Piper betel also contain bitter compounds that are about (0.7-2.6%).
The specific strong pungent aromatic flavour in leaves is due to the presence of phenol and terpene like constituents8. The total phenol content varies on the gender of plant. The male plant contains three fold higher total phenols content and two fold higher thiocyanate content as compare to femaleplant. The quality of the leaf depends upon the phenolic content, i.e., more the phenolic content betters the leaf quality 9.
Many researchers have worked on Piper betel L. and concluded that the betel leaves contains starch, diastases, sugars and an essential oil composed of safrole, allyl pyrocatechol monoacetate, eugenol, terpinen-4-ol, eugenyl acetate, etc. as the major components 10,11 .Phytochemical studies on leaves showed the presence of Alkaloids, Carbohydrate, Amino acids, Tannins and Steroidal components12.
The middle part of the leaf contains largest quantity of Tannin. The terpenoids in leaves include 1, 8- cineole, cadinene, camphene, caryophyllene, limonene, pinene, Chavicol, ally pyrocatechol, carvacrol, safrole, eugenol and chavibetol are the major phenols found in betel leaf. Eugenol was identified as the antifungal agent in the oil. The fresh leaves contain much more amount of essential oil diastase enzyme and sugar as compare to old leaves. Chavicol is four times potent as antiseptic agent as compare to carbolic acid. Following are the important phyto-constituents of the plant 13,14,15. Following aer the important structures of Betel leaf.
Pharmacology of Piper betel L. :
The Piper betel leaf has a significant antimicrobial activity against broad spectrum of micro-organisms . The betel leaf showed the antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus pyrogen, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, E.coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa etc., including this the leaf extract also poses the bactericidal activity against the urinary tract pathogenic bacteria such as Enterocococcus faecalis, C.koseri, C.fruendi, Klebsiella pnemoniae etc17,18. The bioactive molecule which is thought to be responsible for anti-bacterial activity is sterol, which has been obtained in large quantities in betel leaf extracts. The leaf of Piper betel possess the antifungal activity against many fungal infections . One of them is dermatophytosis. Dermatophytosis is a disease of the keratinized parts of the body (skin, hair, and nail) caused by a these genera (Trichophyton, Microsporum, andEpidermophyton) of highly specialized fungi called the Dermatophytes . The chloroform extract of Piper betel showed the high efficiency than the methanol fraction against dermatophytes because of presence of non-polar components in the fraction.
Gastroprotective activity was examined by the hot water extract of Piper betel leaf which is significantly increased by the mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa. Mucusa layer is thought to be important in mucosal defences against endogenous aggressors, e.g., acids, and also as an agent that facilitate the repair process. The presence of polyphenols compounds like chatecol, allylpyrocatecol etc. in betel leaf extract inhibited the radiation induced lipid peroxidation process effectively. This could be attributed to its ability to scavenge free radicals involved in initiation and propagation steps. The extracts reduced most of the Fe3+ ions and have strong reductive ability [22,24]. The extract of Betel leaf also revealed strong hydroxyl radical ascorbic acid and BHT[25-28], and superoxide anion radical scavenging property when compared with different standards.
Dental caries is an endogenous infection caused by the normal oral residing flora in mouth. The carious lesion is the result of demineralization of tooth enamel and later of dentine by acids produced by plaque microorganisms as they metabolize dietary carbohydrates 29,30,31]. The heart shape of betel leaf makes it more suitable for heart-related curative properties/medicine15. Leaf of Piper betel is considered to provide strength to the heart (cardio tonic) and regulates irregular heart beat and blood pressure32. Cardiovascular response of acquires great significance by the fact that it is consumed globally, making it a feasible substitute for Digitalis purpurea33. The effect by chewing can be observed within few minutes ,which includes the cardio-acceleration, sweating and salivation outcomes.
- 1-C.P.Khare, Indian Medicinal plants, 2012, P.490, New Delhi-110058, India.
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- 8-Bajpai V., Sharma D., Kumar B., Madhusudanan K.P., “Profiling of Piper betle Linn. Cultivars by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometric technique”, Biomedical Chromatography, 2010, 24(12), pp. 1283-1286.
- 9-Bissa S., Bohra A., Songara D., “Traditions in oral hygiene: Chewing of betel (Piper betle L.) Leaves”, Scientific correspondence, 2007, 92(1), pp. 24-28.
- 10-Chopra R.N., Chopra I. C., “Indigenous Drugs of India. Pub- Academic Publishers 2nd Edition”, 1958, pp. 372.
- 10-Kanjwani D.G., Marathe T.P., Chiplunkar S.V., Sathaye S. S., “Evaluation of Immunomodulatory Activity of Methanolic Extract of Piper betel”, Scandinavian Journal of
- Immunology, 2008, 67, pp. 589–593.
- Sugumaran M., Poornima M., Venkatraman S., Lakshmi M., Srinivasansethuvani., “Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of sirugamani variety of Piper betle Linn Leaf oil”, Journal of Pharmacy Research, 2011, 4(10), pp. 3424-3426.
- Kumar N., Misra P., Dube A., Bhattacharya S., Dikshit M., Ranade S., “Piper betle Linn. A maligned Pan-Asiatic plant with an array of pharmacological activities and prospects for drug discovery”, Current science, 2010, 99(7), pp. 922-932.
- 14- Chaurasia S., Kulkurni G.T., Setty L.N.,“Phytochemical studies and invitro cytotoxicity screening of Piper betle leaf (PBL) extract”, International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 2010, 1(1), pp.384-391.
- 15- Dwivedi B.K., Kumar S., Nayak C., Mehta B. K., “Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis of the hexane and benzene extracts of the Piper betle (leaf stalk) (Family:Piperaceae) from India”, Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 2010,4(21), pp.2252-2255.
- Jesonbabu J., Spandana N., Lakshmi K. A., “In vitro antimicrobial potentialities of chloroform extracts of Ethanomedicinal plant against clinically isolated human pathogens”,Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci., 2012, 4(3), pp. 624-626.
- Agarwal T., Singh R., “Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Piper betel cultivars”, Novus International Journal of Pharmaceutical Technology, 2012, 1(1), pp. 50-58.
- Chakraborty D., Shah B., “Antimicrobial, antioxidative and antihemolyticactivity of Piper betel leaf extracts”, Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci., 2011, 3(3), pp. 192199.
- Ali I., Khan F. G., Suri K.A., Gupta B.D., Satti N. K., Dutt P., Afrin F., Qazi G. N., Khan I.A., “In vitro antifungal activity of hydroxychavicol isolated from Piper betle L.”, Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials, 2010 ,9(7), pp. 1-9.
- Trakranrungsie N., Chatchawanchonteera A., Khunkitti W., “Antidermatophytic Activity of Piper betle Cream”, Thai J Pharmacol., 2006, 28(3), pp. 16-20.
- Sharma K. K., Saikia R., Kotoky J., Kalita J. C., Das J., “Evaluation of Antidermatophytic activity of Piper betle, Allamanda cathertica and their combination: An in vitro and in vivo stud”, International Journal of PharmTech. Research, 2011, 3(2), pp. 644-651
- Verma S., Gupta M.L., Dutta A., Sankhwar S.,Shukla S.K., and Flora S.J., “Modulation of ionizing radiation induced oxidative imbalance by semi-fractionated extract of Piper betle: anin vitro and in vivo assessment”, Oxid. Med. Cell Longev., 2010, 3(1), pp. 44-52.
- 23- Antimicrobial Activity of Psidium Guajava and Piper Betle Extracts on Selected Foodborne Bacteria. http://psasir.upm.edu.my/133/. 12 May, 2006.
- Manigauha A., Ali H., Maheshwari M. U., “Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Piper betel leaves”, Journal of Pharmacy Research, 2009, 2(3), pp.194-95.
- Rathee J. S., Patro B.S., Mula S., Gamre S., and Chattopadhyay S., “Antioxidant Activity of Piper betel Leaf Extract and Its Constituents”, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2006, 54(24), pp. 9046–9054.
- Dasgupta N., De B., “Antioxidant activity of Piper betle L. leaf extract in vitro”, Food Chemistry, 2004, 88(2), pp. 219–224.
- Pin K.Y., Chuah A. L., Rashih A. A., Mazura, M.P., Fadzureena1 J., Vimala S., Rasadah M.A., “Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Extracts of betel leaves (Piper betle) from solvents with different polarities”, Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 2010, 22(4), pp. 448–455.
- Arambewela L., Arawwawala M., Rajapaksa D., “Piper betle: a potential natural antioxidant. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2006, 41 (1), pp.10–14.
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- Dental caries. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dental_caries. 22 November, 2012.
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- Areca nut: To chew or not to chew?http://www.ejournalofdentistry.com/ebook/Issue3/data/pages/8.swf. 22 October, 2012.
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- Chu N. S., “Effects of betel chewing on thecentral and autonomic nervous systems”, J.Biomed. Sci., 2001, 8, pp. 229-236.
Piper nigrum Linn.
Botanical name: Piper nigrum Linn.
Sindhi name: Kari Mirach
Local name: Gol Mirch, Kali Mirch
English name: Black pepper, Common pepper
Part used: Fruit
This plant is perennial woody vine which is upto 5m high with heart-shaped leaves. Its flowers are on long spikes. Fruit is small globose, 6-7mm in diameter, have mesocarp, pulpy exocarp turning red when ripeon drying it turns black, the sed is whitish, 3-4mm in diameter(1). Flowering is during June and July and fruitning is in December and January (2).
The pepper survives and grows best on virgin soil that is rich in humus and other plant nutrients. Soil is 1.2-1.5m in depth containing garnite rock. Pepper plant requires awarm humid climate 1. Piper nigrum is now idely cultivated in the tropics and the main sources of procurement are India and of the East-Indies.Also found on the coastal belt of Sindh and Balochistan. Pepper is also native to Indo-Malaysian region 4.
Black pepper has been used widely as a preventive drug for small pox, leprosy, typhus and cholera (1).Recent study suggested that aqueous decoction of Black pepper exhibited maximum effect against Staphylococcus aureas.(1) .In In Jaipur (Rajasthan), 4-5 pieces of dried fruits after mixing with 2 tablespoon of ghee are given to the patient to lick once only in case of Snake bite(2). Local application is for prevention of several skin diseases (3). Externally it act as rubificent and stimulant to skin (4). It has stimulant effect on digestive and circulatory system (5). It is also used to treat dyspepsia, malaria and tremors (6).
Folliculitis is treated by sprinkling the ginded piper nigrum fruit. Black pepper mixed in water is drunk for the cure of Scabies.Sprinkle the black pepper for the cure of scorpion sting and snake venom. Ringworm is treated by piper nigrum by sprinkling it daily on an infected area. Measles is trated by drinking milk for three days containing Black cardamomum, Carom seed an pepper. Scabies is treated by sprinkling pepper powder on it.
Constituents of Piper nigrum L.
Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) fruit i.e; (black pepper), its watery extract and its main alkaloid, piperine (1), promote the melanocyte proliferation. A crude chloroform extract of P. nigrumcontaining piperine was more stimulatory than the same concentration of the pure compound, suggesting the presence of other active components namely Piperine (1), guineensine (2), pipericide (3), N-feruloyltyramine (4) and N-isobutyl-2E, 4E-dodecadienamide (5) were isolated from the chloroform extract 7.
Piperine is the major and active constituent of black pepper (Piper longum). The piperine content percentage in pepper is 3-5% .The chemical name of piperine is: a. 1- piperoyl piperidineb. (E, E) 1-[5-(1, 3-Benzodioxol-5-yl)-1-oxo-2, 4-. The alkaloids and amides content in Piper nigrum are the most abundant of them is piperine, together with methyl piperine, iperonaline, piperettine, asarinine, pellitorine, piperundecalidine, piperlongumine, piperlonguminine, refractomide A, pregumidiene, brachystamide,brachystamide-A, brachystine, pipercide, piperderidine, longamide and tetrahydropiperine, terahydro piperlongumine, dehydropipernonaline piperidine, piperine, terahydropiperlongumine and trimethoxy cinnamoyl-piperidine and piperlongumine that have been found in the root of P. longum.
Lignans of Piper nigrum plant contain Sesamin, pulvuatilol, fargesin and others were isolated from the fruit of P. of its fruits longum 8,9,10,11. Esters are tridecyl-dihydro-pcoumaarate, eicosanyl-(E)-p-coumarate and Z-12- octandecenoic –glycerol-monoester 8,9,10,12. The essential oil of the fruit P. longum is a complex mixture and are volatile, the three major components of which are (excluding the volatile piperine) caryophyllene and pentadecane (both about 17.8%) and bisaboline (11%). Others include thujine, terpinoline, zingiberine, pcymene, p-methoxy acetophenone and dihydrocarveol9,10,12, 13,14. Black pepper contains very less essential oil than its relatives (about 1%), which consists of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and ethers (bisabolene, β-caryophyllene, β- caryophyllene oxide, each 10 to 20%; α-zingiberene, 5%), and saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons such as 18% pentadecane, 7% tridecane, 6% heptadecane15.
Mainly piper nigrum consist of Black pepper has been found to contain piperine13, alkamides14, piptigrine15, wisanine15, dipiperamide D16, and dipiperamide E16.
Pharmacology of Piper nigrum:
Antibacterial studies were done in vitro using 12 different genera of bacterial populations isolated from the oral cavity of 200 people, a watery decoction of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) exhibited 75% antibacterial activity as compared to watery decoction of bay leaf (53.4%) and watery decoction of aniseed (18.1%), at the concentration of 10mL/disc.20. Anti-inflamamtory effects were studied in vivo, where a polyherbal formulation (Aller-7/NR-A2) containing extracts from seven medicinal plants including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale, and Piper longum demonstrated that 31.3% inhibition was seen against carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in Wistar Albino rats, while ibuprofen drug (50 mg/kg orally) exerted 68.1% inhibition.21 Aller-7 also exhibited a dose-dependent (150-350mg/kg) anti-inflammatory effect against Freund’s adjuvant-induced arthritis in Wistar Albino rats; an approximately 63% inhibitory effect was observed at a dose of 350mg/kg. Piptigrine, which is an important constituent isolated from the dried ground seeds of Piper nigrum Linn., exhibited the toxicity of 15.0ppm against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti Liston.18. Antioxidant activity was based on animal study, a polyherbal formulation (Aller-7/NR-A2) containing extracts from seven medicinal plants including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale, and Piper longum exhibited concentration-dependent scavenging activities toward biochemically generated hydroxyl radicals (IC50 741.73mcg/mL); superoxide anion (IC5024.65mcg/mL by phenazine methosulfate-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide [PMS-NADH] assay and IC50 4.27mcg/mL by riboflavin/nitroblue tetrazolium [NBT] light assay), nitric oxide (IC50 16.34mcg/mL); 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical (IC50 5.62mcg/mL); and 2,2-azinobis-ethyl-benzothiozoline-sulphonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS) radical (IC507.35mcg/mL). Aller-7 inhibited free radical-induced hemolysis in the concentration range of 20-80mcg/mL. Aller-7 also efficeintly inhibited nitric oxide release from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages. The essential oil of the fruits of Piper nigrum L. showed insecticidal and insect-repellant activity 40.n Toxicities of two piperidine alkaloids, pipernonaline and piperoctadecalidine, isolated from P. longum were determined against five species of arthropod pests. Both of the alkaloids showed very strong insecticidal activity 22.
Antifungal activity was shown by the essential oil of the fruits of P. longum L. The fruit of Piper nigrum was tested towards six phytopathogenic fungi, Pyricularia oryzae, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cineria, Phytophthora infestans, Puccinia recondita, and Erysiphe graminis usinga whole plant in vivo method. A piperidine alkaloid, pipernonaline, was isolated from the hexane fraction of P.longum showed a significant fungicidal activity against P. recondita with 91% and 80% control values at the concentration of 0.5 and 0.25 mg ml−1, respectively23. The extracts of P. longum were evaluated against bacterial pathogens, such as S. albus, S. typhi, P. aeruginosa, E. coli and B. megaterium and one fungus, A. niger. By comparing to streptomycin drug all the extracts exhibited a good antibacterial activity50. The isolated constituents and n-hexane extract were found to show varying degree of antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria. While the aqueous extract did not show antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria 24.
Analgesic activity was monitered by employing the tail-flick animal model. The P. nigrum root for opioid type analgesia by using rat tail-flick method and for NSAID type analgesia using acetic-acid writhing method by using pentazocine and ibuprofen as drug controls. An aqueous suspension of P. nigrum root powder was given orally to mice and rat. The study explained that P. nigrum root had weak opioid but potent NSAID type of analgesic activity 25. Antidepressent activity was monitered by the treatment with piperine (6.25–25 µM) for 72 h reversed the (corticosterone) CORT-induced reduction of BDNF mRNA expression in cultured hippocampal neurons84. This guided isolation of the ethanol extract from the fruits of P. nigrumproduced a known piperidine alkaloid, piperine having potent antidepressant-like properties which are mediated in part through the inhibition of MAO activity, and hence it represents a promising pharmacotherapeutic candidate as an antidepressant agent 26.
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longum, Biochem Systm Eco, 29(5), 2001, 537-539.
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17- Subehan, Usia, T., Kadota, S., and Tezuka, Y. Mechanism-based inhibition of human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) by alkamides of Piper nigrum. Planta Med2006;72(6):527-532. 16808005
18- Siddiqui, B. S., Gulzar, T., Begum, S., and Afshan, F. Piptigrine, a new insecticidal amide from Piper nigrum Linn. Nat Prod Res 2004;18(5):473-477. 15248617
19- Tsukamoto, S., Tomise, K., Miyakawa, K., Cha, B. C., Abe, T., Hamada, T., Hirota, H., and Ohta, T. CYP3A4 inhibitory activity of new bisalkaloids, dipiperamides D and E, and cognates from white pepper. Bioorg Med Chem 2002;10(9):2981-2985. 12110320
20- Chaudhry, N. M. and Tariq, P. Bactericidal activity of black pepper, bay leaf, aniseed and coriander against oral isolates. Pak J Pharm Sci 2006;19(3):214-218. 16935829
21- Pratibha, N., Saxena, V. S., Amit, A., D’Souza, P., Bagchi, M., and Bagchi, D. Anti-inflammatory activities of Aller-7, a novel polyherbal formulation for allergic rhinitis. Int J Tissue React<.em> 2004;26(1-2):43-51. 15573692
22- Jeong C, Park B, Le S, Choi W, Song C, and Cho K, Insecticidal and acaricidal activity of pipernonaline and piperoctadecalidine derived from dried fruits of Piper longum, Crop Prot, 21(3), 2002, 249-251.
23- Lee S, Park B, Kim M, Choi W, Kim H, Cho K, Lee S and Hoi-Seon Fungicidal activity of pipernonaline, a piperidine alkaloid derived from fruits of long pepper, Piper longum, against phytopathogenic fungi, Lee, Crop Prot, 20(6), 2001, 523-528.
24- Lokhande PD, Gawai KR, Kodam KM, Kuchekar BS, Chabukswar AR and Jagdale SC, Anti-bacterial activity of some alkaloids, Pharmacol Toxicol, 2 (6), 2007, 574-579.
25- Vedhanayaki G, Shastri GV, Kuruvilla A, Analgesic activity of Piper longum Linn. Root, Indian J Exp Biol, 41(6), 2003, 649- 651.
26– Seon AL, Seong SH, Xiang HH, Ji SH, Gab JO, Kyong SL, Myung KL, Bang YH and Jai SR, Piperine from the Fruits of Piper longum with inhibitory effect on Volume 5, Issue 1, November – December 2010; Article-010 ISSN 0976 – 044X monoamine oxidase and antidepressant-like activity, Chem Pharm Bull, 53(7), 2005,832-835.
Plantago ovata Forsk.
Botanical Name: Plantago ovate Forsk.
Synonym: P.ispagula Roxb., Psyllium seed husk2
Sindhi Name: Ispangar
Local Name: Ispaghul
English Name: Spogel seeds, Blond Psyllium
Part Used: Seed and Husk
Plantago ovata Forsk. is a stemless or short-stemmed, highly cross pollinated, annual herb which attains height of 30-40cm, and has alternate leaves, coated with fine hairs1.The flowers are minute, white and four parted. The husk seeds are dark red and hard. The root system has a well-developed tap root with few fibrous secondary roots. A large number of flowering shoots arise from the base of the plant. Flowers are numerous, small, and white. Plants flower about 60 days after planting. The seeds are enclosed in capsules that open at maturity.
Plantago ovata Forsk. thrives in warm temperate regions. It is found from Mediterranian regions to the deserts of Kizil Kum, Afghanistan and Pakistan6. It requires cool, dry weather. It is sown during the winter season. A very important environmental requirement of this crop is clear, sunny and dry weather preceding harvest. High night temperature and cloudy wet weather close to harvest have a large negative impact on yield.
Ispaghol (Plantago Ovata forsk) along with milk is drunk once a day for the treatment of prickly heat. Ispaghol is boiled in water and directly applied on wounds for treatment. Ispaghol (Plantago Ovata forsk) is added in heated goat milk and applied topically on the affected skin part for the treatment of Pyoderma. Pyoderma is also treated by applying the grinded paste of truho and ispaghol. Boils are treated by tying ispaghol paste along with water.
The seed of husk gives acubin, the antibacterial principle3. The husk has the property of absorbing and retaining water, it works as an antidiarroheal drug1. It regulates bowl movement1. It has also been used in urinary tract infections4. Seed and husk are used in inflammatory conditions5. Psyllium was also used topically to treat skin irritations, including poison ivy reactions and insects bits and stings7. Plantago ovata Forsk. is used as laxative, emollient and demulcent, has great commercial and medicinal importance8.
Psyllium is a mixture of polysaccharides: pentoses, hexoses, and uronic acids. Seed preparations of psyllium contain about 47% soluble fiber and husk extracts generally consist of 67-71% soluble fiber and approximately 85% total fiber by weight.9,10. Psyllium has the greatest level of soluble dietary fiber of any grain source. It is hydrophilic in nature because of its high content of hemicelluloses content11,12. Acetoside, plantamajoside and phenylethyanoids are its phytoconstituents. The oil from plantago seeds had a high percentage of linoleic acid (40.6%) and oleic acid (39.1%) and a small percentage of linolenic acid (6.9%). Psyllium consist of 77.5% digestible protein. Lysine content was 6.82 g/100 g of protein13. The major constituent of psyllium is a mucilaginous hydrocolloid (20–30%), which is a soluble polysaccharide that is composed of an arabinoxylan (up to 85%). The polymer backbone is a xylan with 1- 3 and 1- 4 linkages with no apparent regularity in their distribution. The monosaccharides in this main chain are substituted on C-2 or C-3 by L-arabinose, D-xylose, and α-D-galacturonyl-(1-2)-L-rhamnose. Fixed oil (5–10%) is another major constituent of ispaghol14.
The recent studies of US FDA report has approved the pharmacological bebefit of Psyllium husk that it effectively reduces cholesterol level, reduces constipation, diabetes and can be used in colon cancer if taken once daily. When Plantago ovate forsk is mixed with water or juice it becomes like a gel and prevents the digestive organs by soaking up toxins and harmful residues, it flushes out toxins of the body through stools. Soluble fibers of Psyllium husk has ability to bind with bile acids which plays an important role in digestion of fats found in our body from cholesterol. This process lowers circulating blood cholesterol level, by excretion of those fats15. The five phenylethyanoids isolated from psyllium husk were tested in mice with arachidonic acid-induced mouse ear edema, in which psyllium husk found to have an anti edema effect16. Psyllium also possess chemoprotective effects. It alone does notaffect the absorption of carcinogens in the gastrointestinal tract, and the soluble fiber formed by psyllium does not bind to carcinogens. Some evidence suggested that psyllium might improve the chemoprotective effect of wheat bran.17. The glucose-lowering effects of psyllium may be mediated by its slowing the access of glucose to the small intestine, by delaying the gastric emptying, or through carbohydrate digestion and absorption. Psyllium appears to decrease hyperglycemia in response to dextrose intake, when it is given simultaneously with dextrose, possibly by interfering with glucose intestinal absorption.18
1-Dr.R.Sharma,Agro Techniques of Medicinal plants,2004, P.120,121, Daya publishing house, Delhi-110035, India.
3-Dr.N. C. Veitch, Herbal Medicines, 2012, P.439, Pharmaceutical press, Editorial London, United Kingdom.
4-S.P.V. Narasimha Rao, Selected Medicinal plants of India, 1992, P.251, Tata press Ltd, Bombay-400 025, India.
5-C.P.Khare, Indian Medicinal plants, 2012, P.498-499, New Delhi-110058, India.
6- Flora Aegyptiaco-Arabica 31. 1775. (1 Oct 1775) (Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.)
8-By Rohilla, Ashok K.; Kumar, Mukesh; Sindhu, A.; Boora, K. S.
From African Journal of Biotechnology (2012), 11(92), 15835-15842. Language: English, Database: CAPLUS, DOI:10.5897/AJB12.681.
9- Davidson, M. H., Maki, K. C., Kong, J. C., Dugan, L. D., Torri, S. A., Hall, H. A., Drennan, K. B., Anderson, S. M., Fulgoni, V. L., Saldanha, L. G., and Olson, B. H. Long-term effects of consuming foods containing psyllium seed husk on serum lipids in subjects with hypercholesterolemia. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67(3):367-376. 9497178
10- Gelissen, I. C., Brodie, B., and Eastwood, M. A. Effect of Plantago ovata (psyllium) husk and seeds on sterol metabolism: studies in normal and ileostomy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr1994;59(2):395-400. 8310991.
11- Kaplan, M. J. Anaphylactic reaction to “Heartwise”. N Engl J Med 10-111990;323(15):1072-1073. 2215571.
12- Glore, S. R., Van Treeck, D., Knehans, A. W., and Guild, M. Soluble fiber and serum lipids: a literature review. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94(4):425-436. 8144811 –
16-Murai, M., Tamayama, Y., and Nishibe, S. Phenylethanoids in the herb of Plantago lanceolata and inhibitory effect on arachidonic acid-induced mouse ear edema. Planta Med1995;61(5):479-480. 7480214
17- Alabaster, O., Tang, Z., and Shivapurkar, N. Dietary fiber and the chemopreventive modelation of colon carcinogenesis. Mutat Res 2-19-1996;350(1):185-197. 8657180
18- Frati-Munari, A. C., Castillo-Insunza, M. R., Riva-Pinal, H., Ariza-Andraca, C. R., and Banales-Ham, M. Effect of Plantago psyllium mucilage on the glucose tolerance test. Arch Invest Med (Mex) 1985;16(2):191-197. 3907568
Prosopis glandulosa Torr.
Botanical name: Prosopis glandulosa Torr.
Synonym: Prosopis juliflora (SW).
Sindhi name: Devi naro
Local name: Devi
English name: Honey mesquite
Part used: Roots, leaves, bark and gum
Prosopis glandulosa Torr. is a thorny shrub, may attain a height of 8m. Its flowers are greenish yellow, and fruits are 17cm long with 1.5cm broad pods1. The roots, new leaves, inner bark and gum of this plant is very useful. The leaflets are larger2. Honey mesquite has rounded big and floppy, drooping branches with feathery foliage and straight, paired spines on twigs. It is considered to have a medium growth rate. Honey mesquite coppices due to latent buds underground, making permanent removal difficult. Flowers are with pale, yellow, elongated spikes and bears straight, yellow seedpods.
The mesquite is a native of America, has been also widely naturalized in Karachi and other parts of West Pakistan2. It is native to the Southwestern United States and Mexico, growing as far north as southern Kansas and as far east as the eastern fifth of Texas8. . It flowers from March to November.
A tea made from the roots of mesquite is given in umbilical hernia in children. Inner bark of this plant is boiled in salt water is drunk for indigestion1. Gums of this plant are dissolved in water and used to treat sore throat2. Powdered leaves are soaked in water and the liquid is squeezed in sore eyes. Mesquite is antibacterial, it treats dermatosis and wound when its paste applied topically. It also has antifungal and antibacterial properties4. Many plants of the genus Prosopis are known to have medicinal properties and are used in folk medicine as astringents, in rheumatism, and as remedies against scorpion stings and snake bites.
The leaves of devi plant are grinded and this paste is added in sarson oil, which is then applied topically to cure scabies, ringworm and abscess.
The roots and bark of Prosopis glandulosa Torr. contains alkaloids5, and the leaves contain tyramine and N-methyltyramine which is considered as a stimulant6. The stems of Prosopis glandulosa contain: oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, a series of the higher aliphatic alcohols, glycosides of campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol, and D (+)-pinitol7. Several studies have also shown the presence of Sterols, Carbohydrates, Glycosides, Gums, mucilage and Flavonoids in honey mesquite. One of the important constituent 2,3-dihydro-1H-indolizinium chloride was also found from this plant.
The ethanolic extract of Prosopis glandulosa leaves showed weak in vitro anti-infective and antiparasitic activities. A new potent antiinfective and antiparasitic 2,3-dihydro-1H-indolizinium chloride, was isolated from Prosopis glandulosa Torr. var. glandulosa9.
1– Prof.S.K. Bhattacharjee, Handbook of Medicinal plants, 2004, 284, Pointer publisher Jaipure 303003 (Raj), India.
2- S. M. H. Jafri, Flora of Karachi, 1966, 150-151, Published by the book of corporation, Karachi, Pakistan.
3– J.A.Duke, Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, 2002, II, 499-500, CRC press, New York, Washington, DC, U.S.A.
4-C.P.Khare, Indian Medicinal plants, 2012, P.518, New Delhi-110058, India.
5- Medicinal Plants of the Southwest
6- “Prosopis glandulosa“. www.hort.purdue.edu. Retrieved 2008-05-01.
7- Planta Med 1977; 32(7): 244-246 DOI: 10.1055/s-0028-1097595.
8- “Taxon: Prosopis glandulosa Torr.”. Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 1997-05-22. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
9-Burkhart A. A Monograph of the Genus Prosopis. J Arnold Arboretum. 1976;57:450–525.
Prunus amugdalus Linn.
Botanical name: Prunus amygdalus Linn.
Synonym: Amygdalus communis L.
Sindhi name: Badam
Local name: Badam shireen
English name: Almond
Part used: Seeds
Prunus amygdalus Linn. tree is small with brownish-grey bark, leaves oblong-lanceolate, serrate, petile glandular and as long as the leaf stipules fimbriate. The flowers are white, tinged with pink color and are mostly paired. The fruits are with a dry pericarp, stone with shallow wrinkles and minute pores3.Its tree is 10m tall with pale and pinkish flowers1. The shell of the Almond is a yellowish buff colour and flattened-ovoid in shape, the outer surface being usually pitted with small holes; frequently it has a more or less fibrous nature7.
The almond is a species of tree native to the Middle East and South Asia. It is cultivated in Kashmir at elevation of 760-2400m1. It is also native to Iran and is cultivated in cooler parts and dry, temperate zones3. The almond species are also native to South Europe and Algeria4. Sicily and Southern Italy are the chief Almond-producing countries; Spain, Portugal, the South of France, the Balearic Islands and Morocco also export considerable quantities7.
Almond oil is nutritive, demulcent and slightly laxative1. Their poultice is useful for irritable sores and skin eruptions2. The seeds of almond are stimulant and nervine tonic, useful in constipation, impotency and several skin disorders3. In combination with amla juice, it is very useful in hair loss and dandruff3. It is anti-inflammatory, treats burn, dermatosis, ichthyosis, leucoderma, itch and psoriasis5. The medicinal benefits of almonds include improved complexion, improved movement of food through the colon, and the prevention of cancer6. Topically, sweet almond is used as an emollient for chapped skin, to soothe mucous membranes7. Sweet Almonds sometimes give immediate relief in heartburn8.
Few grams of badam are grinded and added in asli ghee which is applied once daily on face to treat brown spots on face. Almond is grinded and mixed with arqe gulab to treat acne and pimples.
The sweet almond oil is a clear, pale yellow odourless liquid, with a nutty taste, which basically contains triglycerides, triolien, dioleolinolein, and fatty acids such as oleic, linoleic, palmitic, stearic, lauric, myristic and palmitoleic acids. The kernel of sweet almond contains sphingolipids, daucosterol and beta sitosterol. The skins of the kernel of almond contain flavonoid and phenolic antioxidant compounds uncluding mainly quercetin, naringenin, catechin and vanillic acid. The hulls of sweet almond contain ursolic acid, catechins; and the terpenes betulinic acid, oleanolic acid, and ursolic acid as well7. The composition of almond is much similar then olives in olive oil but almond is devoid of chlorophyll8.
Almond is a rich source of vitamin E, mono unsaturated fatty acids, poly-unsaturated fatty acids, arginine and potassium9. Almond also contains a wide variety of phenolic compounds which are localizes in skin of almond, including flavonols (isorhamnetin, kaempferol, quercetin, catechin and epicatechin), flavanones (naringenin), anthocyanins (cyanidins and delohinidin), procyanidins, and phenolic acids (caffeic acid, ferulic acid, P-coumaric acid and Vanillic acid)10 . The active constituents of almonds are globulins such as amandine and albumin and amino acids . The sweet almond oil abundantly contains fatty acids like palimitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, alpha linoleic acid, arachidic acid, eicosanoic acid, behenic acid, and erucic acid11. Almonds are low in saturated fatty acids and rich in unsaturated fatty acids and contain fiber, phytosterols, plant protein, α-tocopherol, arginine, magnesium, copper, manganese, calcium and potassium12.
Several studies on almond have found that almonds have a consistent LDL-cholesterol lowering effect in healthy individuals and in individuals with high cholesterol and diabetes patients. Almonds have good fats, almond lowers the cholesterol level by decreased absorption of cholesterol and bile acid, increased bile acid and cholesterol excretion and an increased LDL-cholesterol receptor activity. The nutrients which are present in almonds regulate the enzymes which are involved in cholesterol synthesis and bile acid production12. Scientist have also founded that ther regular consumption of almonds relatively improves serum lipid profiles13.
Almonds also possess memory enhancing effect, this finding was proved by scopolamine induced amnesia. Almonds were also found to elevate the Ach level in the brain and ultimately improve the memory (special and avoidance) of rats. This study was done on rats with the help of elevated plus maize model and hence the Prunus amygdalus effectively decreased the symptoms of Alzheimers disease and dementia14. Several studies have also revealed the prebiotic activity of almond seeds. The study on almods showed that it alteres the composition of gut bacteria by stimulating the growth of gut bacteria by enhancing the growth of bifid bacteria and Eubacterium rectal15.
1-C.P.Khare, Indian Medicinal plants, 2012, P.518-519, New Delhi-110058, India.
2– S.G.Joshi, Medicinal plants, 2000, 334-335, published by Mohan Primlani Oxford & IBH publishing Co. Pvt.Ltd.66 Janpath, New Delhi 110001, India.
3-Apictorial guide pg 339
4-Prof.S.K. Bhattacharjee, Handbook of Medicinal plants, 2004, 285, Pointer publisher Jaipure 303003 (Raj), India.
5- J.A.Duke, Handbook of Medicinal Plants of Bible, 2007, II, 356-358, CRC press, New York, Washington, DC, U.S.A.
6-Davis, P. A., and C. K. Iwahashi. 2001. Whole almonds and almond fractions reduce aberrant crypt foci in a rat model of colon carcinogenesis. Cancer Letters 165(1): 27-33. Retrieved August 26, 2007.
7-(Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database)
9-Nuts, almonds [online]. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 17 (2004). Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/search/index.html.
10-Frison-Norrie S, Sporns P. Identification and quantification of flavonol glycosides in almond seed coats by using MALDI-TOF.MS. J. Agric. Food CHem. 2002; 50:2782-2787.
11-Phillips KM, Ruggio DM, Ashraf-khorassani M. The phytosterol composition of the nuts and seeds which are commonly consumed in the United States. J Agric Food Chem. 2005; 53:9436-45.
12-Berryman CE, Preston AG, Karmally W, Deckelbaum RJ, Kris-Either ton PM. Effects of almond consumption on the reduction of LDL-Cholesterol: a discussion of potential mechanisms and future research directions. J Nutr. Rev 2011; 69:171-85.
13-Phung OJ, Makanji SS, White CM, Coleman C. Almonds have a neutral effect on the serum lipid profile. A meta analysis of random-ized trails. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2009;109 (5): 865-873.
14-Kulkarni KS, Kastura SB, Mengi SA. Efficacy of the Prunus amygdalus (almonds) nuts in scopolamine induced amnesia in rats. Indian J Pharmacol 2010; 42: 168-73.
15-Mandalari G, Neuno-palop C, Bigignano G, Wickham MSJ, Narbad A.. Potential prebiotic properties of almond seeds. J. Applied and Environmental Biology July, 2008; 74(14): 4264-70.
Recommended Herbal Formulations for the Treatment.
- Herbal Formulation for the Treatment of Diseases:
Precautions: Aviod to eat meal, pickle and red chillies (Capsicum annum L.)
|6.||Athlete’s foot (TineaPedis)||
|8.||Brown spots on face||
|11.||Tinea capitis (Scalp Ringworm)
|19.||Tinea capitis (Scalp Fungus)||
|38.||Blue spots on face