Mangifera indica L.

Mangifera indica L.

 Botanical Name:          Mangifera indica L.  Mangifera-indica-L

Synonyms:

Kingdom:                       Plantae

Order:                             Sapindales

Family:                           Anacardiaceae

Genus:                            Mangifera                                                             

Local Name:                  Aam

Species:                          M. indica

Sindhi Name:                Anb                                                                                               

English Name:               Mango tree

Part Used:                      All parts

 Description:

 M. indica is a glabrous tree. Leaves are oblong, lanceolate, acuminate, shiny, and dark green on the upper surface. Flowering panicles are erect and conspicuous. Calyx lobes are ovate and pubescent on the outside. Petals are imbricate and oblong, while inner surface is prominently 3-nerved. Seed is solitary, ovoid, and encased in hard and fibrous endocarp. Fruit is a large drupe and contains thick yellow pulp.1,2

 Occurrence:

M. indica is widely cultivated in the Tropics. It is a native of Burma, Sikkim, Khasia, and Western Ghats (India). In Pakistan, it is widely cultivated in the Punjab and Sindh.1

 Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases:

Wound infection

Leaves of M. indica are burnt into ashes and applied on wound infection in Districts Tando Muhammad khan, Tandojam, Umerkot, Mirpurkhas, Tandoallahyar, Jamshoro, and District Sukkur (Sindh).

Prickly heat

Bor* of M. indica is mixed with karwa oil and this mixture is applied for the treatment of prickly heat in Districts Tando Muhammad khan, Tandojam, Badin, Dadu, Umerkot, Tandoallahyar, Sukkur, Sajawal, and Nawabshah (Sindh).

Boils

Mixture of ground leaves of M. indica and hot oil is applied on boils in Districts Badin, Dadu, Sajawal, and Nawabshah (Sindh).

Itching

Burnt leaves of M. indica are mixed with oil and applied on infected area for the treatment of itching in Districts Umerkot and Tandoallahyar (Sindh).

Ringworm and Onychomycosis

Leaves of M. indica are burnt and mixed with butter to make a paste. This paste is used for the treatment of ringworm and onychomycosis in District Umerkot (Sindh).

Pyoderma

Ground leaves of M. indica are mixed in hot oil and used for the treatment of pyoderma in District Jamshoro (Sindh).

Constituents

Mangiferin, a xanthone glycoside is the major bio-active constituent of M. indica. Bark is reported to contain protocatechic acid, catechin, mangiferin, alanine, glycine, γ-aminobutyric acid, kinic acid, shikimic acid, and tetracyclic triterpenoids. Indicoside A and B, manghopanal, mangoleanone, friedelin, mangsterol, manglupenone, mangocoumarin, and mangiferolic acid methyl ester are isolated from stem bark. Root of M. indica contains 3-hydroxy-2-(4’-methylbenzoyl)-chromone and 3-methoxy-2-(4’-methyl benzoyl)-chromone. Leaf and flower yielded an essential oil containing humulene, elemene, ocimene, linalool, and nerol. Fruit pulp contains vitamins A and C, β-carotene, and xanthophylls.2

Chemical Structures

Mangifera-indica-Lst

 

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacological/Scientific Studies

Bark infusion of M. indica is used is used for the treatment of menorrhagia, leucorrhoea, and bleeding piles. Powder of dried flowers is used for the treatment of diarrhea and chronic dysentery. Seeds are used for the treatment of asthma.3,4 Unripe fruit is beneficial for ophthalmia and eruptions. Rind of the fruit is used as astringent and stimulant tonic.5 Alcoholic extract of stem bark possessed immunomodulatory activity. Drinking mango shake with honey is beneficial to increase appetite, bodyweight, and memory.4 Plant possessed antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic, antiallergy, and antioxidant properties.6

References

  1. Nasir, Y. J. (1983). “Flora of Pakistan”, 152:1. National Herbarium, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad.
  2. Shah, K. A., Patel, M. B., Patel, R. J., and Parmar, P. K. (2010). “Mangifera Indica (Mango)”. Pharmacognosy Review, 4(7): 42–48.
  3. Joshi, S. G. (2000). “Medicinal Plants”. Oxford and IBH publishing Co.Pvt.Ltd, New Delhi, India.
  4. Pullaih, T. (2006). “Encyclopedia of World Medicinal Plants”, 3, p: 1304, Regency Publications, New Delhi, India.
  5. Baquar, S. R. (1989). “Medicinal and Poisonous Plant of Pakistan”, p: 275, First Edition, Printas Karachi, Pakistan.
  6. Wauthoz, N., Balde, A., Balde, E. S., Damme, M. V., and Duez P. (2007). “Ethnopharmacology of Mangifera indica Bark and Pharmacological Studies of its Main C-Glucosylxanthone, Mangiferin”. International Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1(2), p: 112-119.