Lawsonia inermis L.

Lawsonia inermis L.

Botanical Name:        Lawsonia inermis L.           Lawsonia inermis L.

Kingdom:                      Plantae

Order:                            Myrtales

Family:                          Lythraceae

Genus:                           Lawsonia

Local Name:               Mehndi

Sindhi Name:             Mehndi

English Name:           Henna

Part Used:                   Leaf, Roots, Flower

 Description

LawsoniainermisL. is fragrant and tall shrub. Leaves are elliptic, acute, acuminate, and broad. Pedicels are long. Sepals are ovate; Petals long and broad. Wall of capsules are veined1.

Occurrence

L. inermisis distributed to Africa, Asia, and throughout the tropics2.

Ethnomedicial uses in skin diseases

Alopecia

  1. Paste of L. inermis and karo kando is applied on affected area for the treatment of alopecia in District Khairpur (Sindh).
  2. L. inermis, and Phyllanthus emblica L. (Gooseberry) are ground together and mixed in Cocus nucifera L. (Coconut) oil. This oily paste is applied on affected area for the treatment of alopecia in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  3. Paste of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Neem) fruit and L. inermis leaves is used for curing alopecia in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  4. L. inermis leaves and seeds of Eruca sativa Mill.( Jamba oil)are ground and mixed with coconut oil. This paste is applied on affected area for the treatment of alopecia in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  5. L. inermis and Allium sativum. L (Garlic) are ground and mixed in juice of Citrus limonum R. (Lemon). This thick paste is applied on affected area for the treatment of alopecia in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  6. Paste of L. inermis leaves is applied on affected area for the treatment of alopecia in Districts Jacobabad and Kashmore (Sindh).
  7. Leaves of L. inermis and Berberis vulgaris L. (European Barberry) are ground to make a paste and this paste is used for the treatment of alopecia in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  8. L. inermis leaves, Ricinus communis L. (Castor) leaves, Avena sativa L. (Oats), and Curcuma caesia L. (Black Turmeric) are ground to make a paste. This paste is applied on affected area for the treatment of alopecia in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  9. L. inermis, Gynandropsis gyanandra (Cleome Gynandra), fuller’s earth, Cocus nucifera L. (Coconut) oil are mixed and applied topically on infected area for curing alpopecia in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  10. L. inermis, Eruca sativa Mill. (Jamba oil), and ashes of Cocus nucifera  (Coconut) bark are mixed and applied topically on affected area for the treatment of alopecia in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  11. L. inermis, Gynandropsis gyanandra (Cleome gynandra), Phyllanthus emblica L. (Gooseberry) are ground to make a paste. This paste is used for curing the alopecia in District Nausheroferoz (Sindh).
  12. L. inermis powder is mixed in Cocus nucifera (Coconut) or Brassica compestris L. (Mustard) oil and used for the treatment of alopecia in District Umerkot (Sindh).

Scabies

Paste of Lawsonia inermis L. (Henna) leaves is applied on affected area for curing scabies and Athlete’s foot in District Sukkur (Sindh). This paste is also used for curing onychomycosis in Districts Jamshoro, Thatta, Sanghar, and Badin (Sindh). This remedy is also used for curing dandruff, alopecia, and pyoderma in Districts Jacobabad, Khairpur, and Nosheroferoz (Sindh), respectively, and for the treatment of hair loss in Districts Jacobabad, Khairpur, and Nawabshah (Sindh).

Fungal infections

  1. L. inermis powder is mixed in oil and applied on affected site for 7-15 days for the treatment of onychomycosis in Districts Nawabshah, and Kashmore (Sindh). The same remedy is used for the treatment of heat rashes in Districts Sajawal and Nawabshah (Sindh) and for curing eczema in Districts Larkana and Sajawal (Sindh).
  2. L. inermis powder and sanoor are ground to make a paste. This paste is used for the treatment of fungal infection in District Sajawal (Sindh).
  3. L. inermis powder is mixed with Sasanum indicum L. (Sesame) seeds oil and applied topically on infected area daily for the treatment of tinea capities (fungal infection) in District Tando Muhammad Khan (Sindh).

Cracked Heels:

Paste of Carum copticum L. (Bishops Weed) and L. inermis are mixed in Eruca sativa Mill. (Jamba Oil). This oil is applied on affected area for healing cracked heels in District Jamshoro (Sindh).

Dandruff :

Paste of L. inermis and fuller’s earth is applied on head for 2 hour then rinse with water. This remedy is used for the treatment of dandruff in District Jamshoro (Sindh).

Heat rashes/ Ringworm/ Hand burn:

Paste of Lawsonia inermis L. (Henna) leaves is used for curing hand burn in Districts Larkana, Sajawal, Khairpur, and Ghotki (Sindh). The same remedy is used for the treatment of heat rashes in Districts Sajawal and Badin (Sindh) and for curing ringworm and eczema in Districts Karachi and Badin (Sindh).

Hair Loss/ Hair Fall:

  1. L. inermis and egg yolk are mixed and applied on head for curing hair loss in District Khairpur (Sindh).
  2. Paste of L. inermis, Gynandropsis gyanandra (Cleome gynandra), Avena sativa L. (Oat), Curcuma caesia L. (Black Turmeric), Kaempferia galangal L. (Aromatic Ginger), andfuller’s earth is applied on hair deeply, for an hour for the treatment of hair fall in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  3. L. inermis and Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Neem) fruit are ground and this powder is fried in Brassica compestris L. (Mustard) oil. This oily paste is applied on hairs 3 times in a week for the treatment of hair fall in District Tando MuhammadKhan (Sindh).
  4. Paste of L. inermis, curds, eggs, and Citrus limonum R. (Lemon) juice is applied on head twice a week for curing hair fall in District Nausheroferoz (Sindh).
  5. Paste of L. inermis and egg is applied on head for curing hairfall for one month in District Nausheroferoz (Sindh).

Pyoderma

  1. Leaves of L. inermis are boiled and the affected area washed with this water for the treatment of pyoderma in District Khairpur (Sindh).
  2. Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.)Roxb. (Beleric), senhwar**, and L. inermis are ground and applied on the affected area for curing pyoderma in District Ghotki (Sindh).

Infection

L. inermis is mixed with oil to make and applied on infected site for the treatment of hand infection in District Sajawal (Sindh).

Prickly heat:

L. inermis powder is mixed in Brassica compestris L. (Mustard) oil and used for the treatment of prickly heat in District Thatta (Sindh).

 

Chemical Constituents

Lacoumarin,fraxetin,apiin, cosmosiin, tannic acid, lawsoniaside, lawsone, isoscutellarin, lawsochrysin, lawsochrysinin, lawsonaringenin, 7-hydroxyflavone, scopoletin,esculetin,daphneside, anddaphnorin were isolated from different parts of L. inermis3.

Chemical Structure:

Lawsonia inermis L.st

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies:

 Leaves paste of L. inermisis used traditionally. It is also used for dying hair and for the treatment of hepatitis, skin and venereal diseases, smallpox, and spermatorrhoea. Flowers are used in the preparation of perfume. Infusion of flowers is applied topically on bruises. Decoction of flowers is usedas an emmenagogue. Seed powder is mixed with clarified butter is used as remedy against dysentery. Seeds powderis also used in the treatment of liver disorders. Decoction of bark is applied on burnt area and scalds. It is also taken orallyagainst hepatitis, enlargement of the spleen, calculus, leprosy, and obstinate skin affections. Root is used in menstrual disorder such as, gonorrhoea and for sore eyes, hysteria,nervous disorders and herpes infection. Pulped root is applied topically on boils on the children heads4-5.

L. inermis is reported for antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antimalarial, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, wound healing, antibacterial, antifungal, virucidal, antiinflammatory, nootropic, analgesic, anthelmintic, antifertility, hypoglycemic, antitrypanosomal, molluscicidal, and antipyretic activities6.

References

  1. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=200014655
  2. Chaudhary,G., Goyal, S., and Poonia, P. (2010). LawsoniainermisLinnaeus: A Phytopharmacological Review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, 2(2),91-98.
  3. Semwal, R. B., Semwal, D. K., Combrinck, S., Cartwright-Jones, C., &Viljoen, A. (2014). Lawsoniainermis(henna): Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological aspects. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 155(1), 80-103.
  4. Chetty, K.M. (2008). Flowering plants of Chittoor, Edn 1, pp. 132, Andhra Pradesh.
  5. Chopra, R.N., Nayer, S.L., and Chopra, I.C. (1956). Glossary of India Medicinal Plants, pp. 151, CSIR Publications, New Delhi.
  6. Kamal, M., and Jawaid, T. (2010). Pharmacological activities of lawsoniainermis: a review. International journal of Biomedical research, 1(2), 37-43.