Lallemantia royleana Benth.

Lallemantia royleana Benth.

Botanical Name:                 Lallemantia royleana Benth.            Lallemantia-royleana-Benth.

Synonyms:

Kingdom:                            Plantae

Order:                                 Lamiales

Family:                                Labiata

Genus:                                Lallemantia
Local Name:                       Tukhm-e- balango

Species:                              L. royleana

Sindhi Name:                      Nazboo

English Name:                    Black psyllium seeds

Part used:                           Seeds and leaves

 Description

L. royleana is erect and annual herb. Leaves are ovate or oblong. Flowers are small, pale lilac in color, numerous, and whorls in long. Fruits are nutlets. Seeds are mucilaginous.1,2

 Occurrence

L. royleana have cultivated in different countries including Afghanistan, China, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Asia, and Europe. In Pakistan, it is cultivated in Attock, Layyah, Bhakkar, Bahawalpur, Hasilpur, and Chishtian.3

 Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases

Ringworm

Leaves of L. royleana is rubbed on the affected area for the treatment of ringworm in Districts Tando Muhammad khan, Tandojam, Dadu, Badin, Umerkot, Mirpurkhas, Tando Allahyar, Sukkur, Tharparkhar, kashmore, Sanghar, Jamshoro, Ghotki, Nawabshah, Shikarpur, and Jacobabad (Sindh).

Tinea capitis

Leaves of L. royleana are rubbed on the affected area for the treatment of tinea capitis in Districts Dadu, Badin, Kashmore, Ghotki, Nawabshah, Jacobabad, and Sajawal (Sindh).

Scabies and Onychomycosis

Ground leaves of L. royleana are mixed with oil to make a paste. This paste is used for the treatment of scabies and onychomycosis in Districts Dadu, Shikarpur, Nawabshah, Ghotki, Badin, Sanghar, kashmore, Mirpurkhas, and Jacobabad (Sindh).

Hair follicles

Crushed leaves of L. royleana are used for massaging hair for the treatment of hair follicles in Districts Kashmore and Ghotki (Sindh).

Eczema

Gonch* of L. royleana is ground and sieved through muslin cloth. The water which is collected after sieving is used for the treatment of eczema in Districts Badin, Sajawal, Ghotki, Nawabshah, and Jacobabad (Sindh).

Sunburn

Ground leaves of L. royleana are mixed with some water to make a paste. This paste is used for the treatment of sunburn in District Badin (Sindh).

Insect Bite

Crushed leaves of L. royleana are mixed in mustard oil and applied on the affected area for the treatment of insect bite in District Mirpurkhas (Sindh).

Phurri and Pyoderma

Extract of L. royleana is used for the treatment of Phurri in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Constituents:

Seeds of L. royleana contain linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acids, and β-sitosterol. Gum contains L-arabinose, D-galactose, L-rahmose, pentosans, protein, and uronicanhydride. Amino acids are also found in the plant.4 Other chemical constituents which are present in the plants are pinocarvone, β-pinene, terpinolene, dihydrocarvyl acetate, carvacrol, and β-cubebene.5

 Chemical Structures

Lallemantia-royleana-Benth.-st

 

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacological/Scientific Studies

Seeds of L. royleana possess cooling and sedative properties. A poultice of the seeds is beneficial for application on boils and inflammations. Seeds are used for the treatment of constipation, fever, common cold, and flatulence.4,6 Herb is used for the treatment of arthritis, rheumatism, osteoarthritis, and gastrointestinal problems.2. Mucilage of this plant is used for the treatment of various nervous, hepatic, and renal diseases. 6 It is reported that plant possessed antifungal, antibacterial, and hypocholesterolemic properties.5,7

References

  1. Pullaih, T. (2006). “Encyclopedia of World Medicinal Plants”, 3 p: 1209, Regency Publications, New Delhi, India.
  2. Baquar, S. R. (1989). “Medicinal and Poisonous Plant of Pakistan”, p: 251, Printas Karachi, Pakistan First Edition.
  3. Mahmood, S., Hayat, M. Q., Sadiq, A., Ishtiaq, S., Malik, S., and Ashraf, M. (2013).Antibacterial activity of Lallemantia royleana (Benth.) Indigenous to Pakistan”. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 7(31), p: 4006-4009.
  4. Khare, C.P. (2007). “Indian Medicinal Plants”, p: 360, Springer Science Publication, New York, U.S.A.
  5. Sharifi-Rad, J., Hoseini-Alfatemi, S. M., Sharifi-Rad, M., and Setzer, W. N. (2015). “Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Antibacterial Activities of Essential Oil from Lallemantia royleana (Benth. in Wall.) Benth”. Journal of Food Safety. 35, p: 19–25.
  6. Sohail, B., Huma, N., Mehmood, A., Abdullah, M., and Sha, A. A. (2014). “Use of Tukhm-e-Balangu (Lallemantia royleana) as a Stabilizer in Set Type Yogurt”. Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies, 20(3), p: 247-256.
  7. Ghannadi, A., Movahedian, A., and Jannesary, Z. (2015). “Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Balangu (Lallemantia royleana) Seeds in the Rabbits Fed on a Cholesterol-Containing Diet”. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine. 5(3), p:167–173.