Lallemantia royleana (Benth.)

Lallemantia royleana (Benth.)

Botanical Name:       Lallemantia royleana Benth.                  Lallemantia royleana Benth.

Kingdom:                     Plantae

Order:                           Lamiales

Family:                         Lamiaceae or Labiatae

Genus:                          Lallemantia

Local Name:              Tukhm-e-balanga

English name             Black psyllium

Sindhi Name:             Nazboo

Part Used:                   Seeds and leaves

Description

Lallemantia  royleana Benth.is biennial herb. Stems are erect and leafy. Leaves are simple, oblong-obovate, and cuneate. Seed is small, globular,and white and black in color1. 

Occurrence

L. royleana is distributed to Afghanistan, Turkestan, Pakistan,and India1,2.

 Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases

Wound:

  1. Crushed leaves of Lallemantia royleana Benth. ((Black psyllium) is mixed with clarified butter to form paste and applied on affected area for the treatment of wounds in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  2. Ground leaves of L. royleana withFuller’s earth to make paste, this paste is applied for the treatment of wound in district Tando Muhammad Khan (Sindh).

Tinea Capitis and Ringworm

Ground leaves of L. royleana in water to form paste, this paste is applied on affected area for the treatment of Tinea Capitis in District Ghotki(Sindh). This remedy is also used for the treatment of ringworm in Districts Jamshoro, Naushehroferoz, Tando Muhammad Khan, Ghotki, Khairpur, Sukkur, Matiari, Tharparkar, Jacobabad, Dadu, Umerkot, Tandojam, Sanghar, Nawab Shah, Shikarpur, Larkana, Thatta, and Kambar-shahdadkot (Sindh).

Ringworm

  1. Leaves of L. royleanais mixed with oil of Eruca sativa Mill. (Salad rocket/ Jamba)and Fuller’s earthto form paste, this paste is applied externally for the treatment of ringworm in District Jamshoro (Sindh).
  2. Ground leaves of L. royleana andCissus quadrangularis L. (Devi) to make paste, this paste is applied on the infected area for the treatment of ringworm in Districts Jamshoro and Sukkur (Sindh).
  3. Leaves of L. royleanaare crushed withAllium sativum(garlic) and squeezed to obtain juice. This juice is applied on the affected area for the treatment of ringworm in Districts Ghotki,Sukkur, Naushehroferoz, Jamshoro (Sindh).
  4. Ground L. royleana leaves with vinegarto form thick paste. This paste is applied on the affected area for the treatment of ringworm in DistrictsGhotki and Kashmore (Sindh).
  5. L. royleana oil is used topically for the treatment of ringworm in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  6. Mixture of ground leaves of L. royleana and Fuller’s earth, is applied topically for the treatment of ringworm in Districts Sukkur and Jamshoro (Sindh).
  7. Ground leaves of L. royleanawithAllium sativumL. (garlic) and Acacia jacquemontii Benth.(Brigalow) to make paste, this paste is applied topically 2-3 times daily for a week for the treatment of ringworm in Districts Badin and Matiari (sindh).
  8. Ground leaves of L. royleana leaves with little amount of sulfur to prepare paste and applied topically on affected area for the treatment ofringworm in District Khairpur, Sukkur, Nawab Shah (Sindh).
  9. Ground leaves of L. royleana, with fuller’s earth, Citrus limon L. (lemon) juice, to make paste and applied on infected area for a week for the treatment of ringworm in District Shikarpur (Sindh).
  10. Ground leaves of L. royleanawith bark of Salvadora persica Decne (Tooth brush) and water to form paste, this paste is applied topically for the treatment of ringwormKambar-shahdadkot(Sindh).

Pyoderma and Measles

Paste of L. royleana leaves in wateris applied on affected area for the treatment of pyoderma in Districts Tando Muhammad Khan, Jacobabad, and Nawab Shah (Sindh). This remedy is also used for the treatment of measles in District Khairpur (Sindh) and for the treatment of eczema in Districts Dadu and Badin (Sindh).

Scabies

  1. Ground leaves of L. royleanaand Azadirachta indica(Neem)to form paste and applied on the affected area twice a daytill recovery for the treatment of scabies inDistrictsBadin and Sukkur(Sindh).
  2. Leaves of L. royleanaand Azadirachta indica (Neem) are boiled and sieved.Bath is taken with this water for the treatment of Scabies in District Sukkur (Sindh). This remedy is also used for the treatment of fungal infection in District Sanghar (Sindh).
  3. Paste of L. royleana leaves inBrassica compestris L. (Mustard) oil is applied on affected areas for the treatment of scabies in District Sanghar (Sindh).
  4. Paste of L. royleanaleavesin oilis applied on affected areas for five days for the treatment of scabies in District Thatta(Sindh).
  5. Groundleaves of L. royleana in water to form paste, this paste is applied topically for the treatment of scabies in Districts Khairpur, Badin, Kambar-shahdadkot (Sindh).
  6. Ground leaves of L. royleanawith seeds of Trachyspermum copticum L.(Bishops weed) with water to form paste, this paste is applied on the affected area for the treatment of scabies in District Jacobabad(Sindh).
  7. Leaves of L. royleana are boiled and sieved, bath is taken with this water for the treatment of scabies in District Sukkur (Sindh).

Prickly heat

Paste of L. royleanaleaves in water is applied on affected area, bath is taken after some time for the treatment of prickly heat in District Khairpur (Sindh).

Fungal infection and Alopecia

  1. Wood of L. royleanais burned and extract is applied topically on the infected site for the treatment of fungal infectionin District Thatta (Sindh).
  2. Paste of L. royleana leavesis applied topically on the infected area daily till recovery from fungal infection in Districts Naushehroferoz,Khairpur, Sukkur,Matiari, Tando Jam, and Kambar-shahdadkot(Sindh).This remedy is also used for the treatment of alopecia in Districts Khairpur, Sukkur, and Nawab Shah (Sindh).

Alopecia

Ground leaves of L. royleana and Allium sativum(garlic) with water to form paste,this paste is applied on affected area for the treatment of alopecia in DistrictKambar-shahdadkot (Sindh).

Acne

Paste of L. royleanaleavesis applied topically and cold water is used to wash affected area for the treatment of acne in DistrictsJamshoro and Sukkur (Sindh).

Boils and Vitiligo

Ground leaves of L. royleanawith water to form paste and applied on affected area for the treatment of boils in District Tando Muhammad Khan (Sindh). This remedy is also used for the treatment of vitiligo in Districts Sanghar and Nawabshah (Sindh).

Ear Infection

Leaves of L. royleana are ground amixed with oil and table salt to form paste and applied topically for the treatment of ear infection in District Sanghar (Sindh).

 Chemical Constituents

L. royleana contain linoleic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids,β-sitosterol, β-cubeben, β-caryophyllene, linalool, bicyclogermacrene,trans-pinocarvyl acetate, pinocarvone, β-pinene, β-ocimene, terpinolene, 3-thujen-2-one, myrtenal, verbenone, pulegone, α-Longipinen, Spathulenol and carvacrol3,4.

Chemical Structure:

Lallemantia royleana Benth.st

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies                                           

Seeds of L. royleana are used against joint inflammation and pain, rheumatism, abscesses inflammation, and osteoarthritis5. Mucilage is used in skin infections such as, abscesses, gastrointestinal disorders such as, improve digestibility and various other diseases such as nervous, hepatic, and renal diseases3,6.It is contains high content of protein and calcium7.Seeds has hypolipidemic, antibacterial,radiacal scavenging, and antioxidant activities4,6,8.

References

  1. Abbas, M., Mehmood, T., Bashir, A., Zafar, M. and Afzal, A. (2012). Economics of Lallemantia royleana (Tukham-e-balangoo) production in the low intensity cropping zone of the Punjab, Pakistan. Journal of Agriculture  Research, 25(2).
  2. B., Huma,N., Mehmood, A., Abdullah, M., Amjad, A. (2014).Use of tukhm-e-balangu (Lallemantia royleana) as a Stabilizer in set type Yogurt.Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies .20(3), 247-256 .
  3. Sharifi‐Rad, J., Hoseini‐Alfatemi, S. M., Sharifi‐Rad, M., and Setzer, W. N. (2015). Chemical composition, antifungal and antibacterial activities of essential oil from Lallemantia royleana (Benth. In Wall.) Benth. Journal of Food Safety, 35(1), 19-25.
  4. Moghaddam, T.M., Razavi, S. and Emadzadeh, B., 2011. Rheologicalinteractions between Lallemantia royleana seed extract and selected food hydrocolloids. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 91(6), pp.1083-1088.
  5. Ghannadi, A., Movahedian, A. and Jannesary, Z., 2015. Hypocholesterolemic effects of Balangu (Lallemantia royleana) seeds in the rabbits fed on a cholesterol-containing diet. Avicenna journal of phytomedicine, 5(3), p.167.
  6. Perdigon, G., de Moreno, D.L.A., Valdez, J. and Rachid, M. (2002). Role of yoghurt in the prevention of colon cancer. European journal of clinical nutrition, 56, pp.S65-8.
  7. Mahmood, S., Qasim Hayat, M., Sadiq, A., Ishtiaq Sh, M.S. and Ashraf, M. (2013). Antibacterial activity of Lallemantia royleana (Benth.) indigenous to Pakistan. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 7(31), pp.4006-4009.
  8. Amanzadeh, Y., Khosravi Dehaghi, N., Gohari, A.R., Monsef-Esfahani, H.R. and Sadat Ebrahimi, S.E. (2011). Antioxidant activity of essential oil of Lallemantia iberica in flowering stage and post-flowering stage. Research Journal of Biological science, 6, pp.114-117.