K galangan

Kaempferia Galangal  

Classification:  

 Botonical Name : Kaempferia galangal

Synonym: Kaempferia humilis

Kingdom: PlantaeUntitled-31

Order: Zingiberales

Family: Zingiberaceae

Genus: Kaempferia

Local Name: East Indian galingale, Galanga, Lesser galangale

English Name: kencur, aromatic ginger, sand ginger, cutcherry or resurrection lily.

Parts used: Leaves, rhizomes

Description:

kaempferia galanga L is a small herb with short underground stems. Its leaves are usually in pairs, oval, glabrous, pointed, 6-15 cm long, and spread out above ground with prominent veins. its flowers are in short stalked spikes. Its the corolla is white or pinkish, with violet spotted lip.5,6

Occurrence:

Kaempferia galanga L is cultivated in south east asia especially in Indonesia, southern China, Taiwan, Cambodia and India. Economically important species among the plant families, the Zingiberaceae, which are perennial rhizomatous herbs, widely distributed throughout the tropics and sub-tropics particularly in Africa and South East Asia, where grown naturally in damp, shaded parts of the lowland or on hill slopes, as scattered plants or thickets.

A few species are grown as ground cover in the tropics or under cover in cold areas. They need high humidity and do well in pots along side warm growing orchids or in beds beneath green housestaging.

Medicinal uses:

 Kaempferia as a remedy for toothache. It is used for a wash for dandruff or scabies on the head. It appears to destroy lice.1 Roasted rhizomes are applied hot for festering tumors.2 In the form of powder or ointment it is applied to wounds and bruises to reduce swellings.They are used to wash dandruff and for relieving irritation produced by stinging caterpillars. Leaves are used in lotions and poultice for sore eyes, sore throat, swelling, rheumatism and fever.3 Diuretic used for cough and asthma.4 Dusol plant has antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties.6

 

Ethnobotanical Data:

Kaempferia (Zingiberaceae) leaves are used to treat hairfall.

Chemical Constituents:

Sterols, triterpenoids and resins are the main components present in the petroleum ether extract of this plant. In chloroform extract sterols, triterpenoids, flavanoids and resin are observed, while, in methanolic extract steroids, triterpenoids, alkaloids, flavanoids, carbohydrates, resins and proteins are present. Saponins, carbohydrates and protein are comman in water extract of the plant while, tanninn was not observed.7

Thyl-p-methoxycinnamate, methylcinnamate, carvone, eucalyptol, pentadecane are the main components present in the water distilled extract of the plant.8,13

Kaempferia galanga L is mainly composed of essential oils. Ethyl cinnamate, ethyl-p- methoxycinnamate, pmethoxycinnamic acid, monoterpene ketone compound and 3-carene-5-one are main components of that. camphene, d-3-carene, p-methoxy styrene, gpinene, b-myrcene, p-cymene, 1,8-cineole, isomyrcene, camphor, a-terpineol, pcymene-8-ol, eucarvone, d-cadinene, hexadecane, heptadecane, limonene, octanol, tetradecane, 2-3-dehydro benzofuran, vanillin-p-methoxy phenol, caravacrol, carveol,myrtenol, b-cymene, p-methoxybenzaldehyde, b-cadinene, carcine, m-anisaldehyde, quinasoline-4- phenyl-3-oxide, sandaracopimaradiene-9-ol-1-one, sandaracopimaradiene-1, 9-diol, 6-acetoxy sandaracopimaradiene-9-ol-1-one (and its isomers), kaempferol, quercetin, cyanidin and delphinidin. The camphor present has been characterized as ethyl-p-methoxy-trans-cinnamate are the main components present in the leaves of the plant.9

Structures:

Untitled-32                                        Untitled-33-300x22

Eucalyptol                                                                    Pentadecane

Untitled-34                                         Untitled-35

Quercetin                                                                   Kaempferol

Untitled-36                                                    Untitled-37

Cyanidin                                                                 Delphinidin

 

Pharmacology:

  1. galanga extracts has antioxidant10, antiinflammatory11, and analgesic activities12, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antifungal, analgesic, antiviral, antihypertensive, anticarcinogenic, antispasmodic, antinociceptive, anti-tuberculosis, larvicidal and insecticidal are the main biological activities shown by this plant.14

References:

    Lily M.Pessy, Medicinal plants of east and southern Asia,1980, pg 442,The MIT press  perry  , lily may 1895, Cambridge , mass achusettes and London, England.

  1. S.P Ambasta, The useful plants of India , 1974, pg 307,Publication and information directorate ,CRSIR, Dr k.s Krishnan marg, New dehli 110012, India.
  2. Shankar Gj, medicinal plants ,2000, pg 411,mohan promlani for oxford &iBH publishing Co Pvt , 68 Janpath , New Dehli 1100001, New Dehli , India.
  3. C.P Khare , Indian Medicinal Plants, 2007,vol 1 , 351,Jhankpuri, New Dew Dehli , India.
  4. http://medicinalplants.us/kaempferia-galanga
  5. http://www.studymode.com/essays/Pineapple-Ananas-Comosus-Skin-And-Dusol-1106993.html
  6. Rajendra CE, Gopal S Magadum, Mahaboob Ali Nadaf, Yashoda S.V, Manjula M, Phytochemical Screening of The Rhizome of Kaempferia Galanga, Drug Control Department (Drugs Testing Laboratory), Banglaore-560 001. Department of Pharmacogonsy, Government College of Pharmacy, Bangalore-560 027.
  7. Tewtrakul, S., Yuenyongsawad, S., Kummee, S., and Atsawajaruwan, L.Chemical components and biological activities of volatile oil of Kaempferia galanga Linn.Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 2005, 27(Suppl. 2) : 503-507
  8. http://naturalmedicines.hubpages.com/hub/What-is-Galanga
  9. Butkhup L., Samappito S, “In vitro free radical scavenging and antimicrobial activity of some selected Thai medicinal plants” Research Journal of Medicinal Plant 2011 5:3 (254-265)
  10. Ridtitid W, Sae-Wong C., Reanmongkol W., Wongnawa M.”Anti-inflammatory activity of the methanol extract of Kaempferia galanga Linn. in experimental animals.” Planta Medica 2009 75:9
  11. Vittalrao A.M., Shanbhag T., Meena Kumari K., Bairy K.L., Shenoy S. “Evaluation of antiinflammatory and analgesic activities of alcoholic extract of Kaempferia galanga in rats”. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 2011 55:1 (13-24)
  12. Tewtrakul, S., Yuenyongsawad, S., Kummee, S., and Atsawajaruwan, L.Chemical components and biological activities of volatile oil of Kaempferia galanga Linn. Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 2005, 27(Suppl. 2) : 503-507
  13. Ajay Kumar , Chemical composition and biological  activities  of  key constitients of essential  oil from the  rhizomes of  Kaempferia galangal L. Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering and Technology,  Gurukul Kangri University, Haridwar-249404, India