Gynandropsis gynandra L.

Gynandropsis gynandra L.                    

Botanical Name:       Gynandropsis gynandra L.Glinus lotoides L.

Kingdom:                     Plantae

Order:                           Brassicales

Family:                         Celeomaceae

Genus:                          Cleome

Local Name:               Kinro

Sindhi Name:             Kinro, Kinra

English Name:            African cabbage

Part Used:                    Leaves

 Description

Gynandropsis gynandra L. isanannual herb. It is about 10-50 cm tall. Leaves are petiolate vary in their sizes and have 3-7 foliolate. Inflorescence is bracteates. Flowers are white to pinkish and attached to long pedicels. Fruit is linear,glandular, and many seeded. Seeds are dark brown and striated with slightly cristae1.

Occurrence

G.gynandra is widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world1.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases

Alopecia

  1. Leaves of Lawsoniainermis L. (Henna) is ground with Gynandropsis gyanandra (Cleome gynandra), and Phyllanthusemblica L. (Gooseberry) in water to make paste. This paste is applied on scalp daily for the treatment of alopecia in District Naushahro feroz (Sindh).
  2. G. gyanandra and Fuller’s earth are ground together with water to make paste. This paste is applied on affected area for the treatment of   alopecia till recovery in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  3. G. gyanandra, Lawsoniainermis (Henna) are Fuller’s earth are ground with oil of Cocusnucifera L. (Coconut) to formpaste. This paste is applied on affected area for the treatment of alopecia in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  4. Leaves of Acacia nilotica (L.) wild (Gum Arabica) are with soaked water of G. gyanandra to form paste, this paste is applied on affected area for the treatment of alopecia in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  5. Leaves of Lawsoniainermis(Henna) are ground with G. gyanandrain water to make paste. This paste is applied on head daily for the treatment of alopecia in District Naushahro feroz (Sindh).

Hair fall

  1. G. gyanandraissoaked in water overnight and ground in the morning to form paste, this paste is applied on head for one month for the treatment of hair fall in District Naushahro feroz (Sindh).
  2. G. gyanandraissoaked in water for 7 to 8 hours and ground to make paste, this paste is applied on scalp for 2 to 3 hour after that wash hairs with herbal shampoo for treatment of hair fall in DistrictTando Muhammad Khan (Sindh).
  3. Leaves of Lawsoniainermis (Henna) powder, G. gyanandra, Avena sativaL.(Oats), Curcuma caesiaL. (Black turmeric), and Fuller’s earth are ground with water to make paste. This paste is applied daily on hair and washed after an hour for the treatment of hair fall in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  4. Ground Leaves of Lawsoniainermis (Henna), with oat kachor, Kaempferia galangal,G. gyanandrais mixed with soaked fuller’s earth to form paste and applied on hairs for few hours for the treatment of hair fall in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Pyoderma

Seeds of Linumu sitatissimum (Flax seeds) and G. gynandraare ground to form paste and applied on affected areas for three days for the treatment of pyoderma in District Jamshoro (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

G. gynandracontaincarvacrol, trans-phytol, linalool, trans2methylcyclopentanol,β-caryophyllene, M-cymene, nonanal, 1-α-terpineol,hexacosanol, luteolin, β-cyclocitral, nerol, trans-geraniol, carvacrol, β-ionone, trans-geranylacetone, cleomin, acetonitrile, and nerolidol2,3,4,5.

Chemical Structure:

Glinus lotoides L.st.

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

G.gynandrais used for the treatment of neuralgia,rheumatism,cough, headache, and applied to boils for preventing the formation of pus. Plant is act as antidote to snake bite3,4. Leaves sap is used against headache. It is also used as drops for eyes, ears, and nostrils. Leaves and stems are used in the treatment of stomachache, constipation, conjunctivitis, and chest pains. Leaves are used as poultice and rubbed on infections. Leaves are also applied topically on wounds for the prevention of sepsis. Root decoction is preferred in fever6.

G. gynandrais reported for anticancer, antibacterial, antinociceptive, antimycotic, antioxidant, modulatory, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, and antitick activities7.

REFERENCES

  1. Flora of Pakistan:http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspxflora_id=5&taxon_id=200011856.
  2. Lwande, W.,Ndakal, A. J., Hassan ali, A.,Moreka, L., and Nayandat, E. (1999). Gynandropsisgynandraeesential oil and its constituents as tick (Rhipicephalusappendiculatus). Journal Elsevier phytochemistry, 50(3).
  3. Gaur, K., Kori, M. L., and Nema, R. K. (2009). Comparative Screening of Immunomodulatory Activity of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Hibiscus Rosa sinensis andEthanolic Extract of Cleome gynandra Linn. Global Journal of Pharmacology, 3(2), 85-89.
  4. Sivanesan, D.,andHazeena, V. (2007). Preventive role of GynandropsisgynandraL., against aflatoxin B1 induced lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense mechanism in rat. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 4, 299-303.
  5. Nyalala, S. O., Petersen, M. A., and Grout, B. W. W. (2011). Acetonitrile (methyl cyanide) emitted by the African spider plant(Gynandropsisgynandra(Briq): Bioactivity against spider mite(Tetranychusurticae Koch) on roses. Journal Elsevier scientia horticulture. 128(3).
  6. Mishra, S. S., Moharana, S. K., and Dash, M. R. (2011). Review on Cleome gynandra. Int J Res Pharm Chem, 1(3), 681-689.
  7. http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/28815/8/08_chapter%202.pdf