Foeniculum vulgare L.

Foeniculum vulgare L.

Botanical Name:          Foeniculum vulgare L.Foeniculum vulgare L.

Kingdom:                        Plantae

Order:                              Apiales

Family:                            Apiaceae

Genus:                              Foeniculum

Local Name:                  Saunf

Sindhi Name:                Wadaf

English Name:              Fennel seeds

 Part Used:                     Seeds

Description tall plants. Stem is striate. Leaves have 3-4 pinnate with segmented filiform. Rays are 5 to 30 in number and long. Fruit is oblong to ovoid, glabrous, and long1.


F. vulgare is distributed to Mediterrian region, Africa, Europe, Asia, and America2.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases


Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce. (Fennel), Elettaria cardamomum Maton (Green Cardamom), and Cassia fistula L. (Golden Shower) seed are ground together to make a powder and one teaspoon of this powder is taken orally with water daily early in the morning for the treatment of Scabies in District Umerkot (Sindh).


Elettaria cardamomum Maton (Green Cardamom), F.  vulgare are boiled in water and one cup of this water is taken daily for curing pyoderma in District Jamshoro (Sindh).


Terminalia chebula Retz. (Chebulic Myrobalan), Trachyspermum copticum L. (Carom seeds), Semen Papaveris L. (Poppy seeds), F.  vulgare, Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.Roxb. (Beleric), and slug of Mentha spicata L. (Peppermint) are ground together to make a powder. Pinch of this powder is taken for the treatment of scabies in District Ghotki (Sindh).


F. vulgare, Elettaria cardamomum Maton. (Green Cardamom), Trachyspermum copticum L. (Carom Seeds), Zingiber officinale (Dried ginger), Piper nigrum L. (Black pepper) are boiled in Goat milk. This milk is taken orally once in a weak for the treatment of Measles in District Ghotki (Sindh).


F. vulgare (Fennel) is soaked overnight in water; this water is taken orally in the morning for the treatment of ringworm in District Larkana (Sindh).


F. vulgarecontain trans-anethole, fenchone, estragole,4-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, eriodictyol-7-rutinoside, cis-miyabenol C,sinapyl glucoside, trans-miyabenol C,1,5-O-di-caffeoylquinic acid, 1,3-O-di-caffeoylquinic acid, 1,4-O-di-caffeoylquinic acid, rosmarinic acid,and α-phellandrene1,3,4,5.

Chemical Structure:

Foeniculum vulgare

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

F. vulgare seeds are chewed in mouth ulcer. Fruits and seeds are used in gum disorders. Decoction of seeds is used for recovering from constipation. Decoction of roots and seeds are used against diuresis. Seed oil is preferred for hairgrowing. Decoction of leaf is used against gastralgia. Seeds act as laxative and purgative. Boiled roots are taken orally and act as mosquitocidal. Seed decoction is also act as carminative, diuretic, emmenagogue, and galactagogue. Fruit paste is applied on gingival wound6.

F. vulgareis reported for antimicrobial, antiviral, apoptotic, antitumor, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, antithrombotic, cardiovascular, antinociceptive, chemomodulatory, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property6.


  3. Faudale, M., Viladomat, F., Bastida, J., Poli, F., and Codina, C. (2008). Antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of wild, edible, and medicinal fennel from different Mediterranean countries.Journal of agricultural and food chemistry56(6), 1912-1920.
  4. Park, H. J., Jung, W. T., Basnet, P., Kadota, S., andNamba, T. (1996). Syringin 4-O-β-glucoside, a new phenylpropanoid glycoside, and costunolide, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, from the stem bark of Magnolia sieboldii.Journal of natural products,59(12), 1128-1130.
  5. De Marino, S., Gala, F., Borbone, N., Zollo, F., Vitalini, S., Visioli, F., andIorizzi, M. (2007). Phenolic glycosides from Foeniculumvulgare fruit and evaluation of antioxidative activity.Phytochemistry68(13), 1805-1812.
  6. Badgujar, S. B., Patel, V. V., and Bandivdekar, A. H. (2014). Foeniculumvulgare Mill: a review of its botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, contemporary application, and toxicology. Biomed Research International.