Ficus carica L.
Local Name: Injeer
Sindhi Name: Injeer
Part Used: Fruit
English Name: Common fig
Ficus carica L. is a large shrub. Bark is soft and grey in color. Leaves are glabrous and covered with tomentose hairs1. Inflorescence is enclosed in syconium, bearing female and male flowers2. Fruits are edible and color ranges from dark purple to green3.
F.carica is cultivated in India, Russia, Pakistan, Iran, Middle East, N. Africa and Europe1.
Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases
- Oil of Ficus carica L. (Fig) and Prunus amygdalus C. (Almond) is mixed and applied on the affected area for the treatment of ringworm in District Nausheroferoz (Sindh).
- F. carica oil is also used for curing ringworm in District Nausheroferoz (Sindh).
Milk obtained from the plant F.carica is applied tropically at the affected area for 3-4 days, for the treatment of fungal infection in District Nausheroferoz and Khairpur (Sindh).
F. carica oil is massaged on all parts of the body to get rid of scabies in District Nausheroferoz and Badin (Sindh).
Milk of F. carica is applied on affected for the treatment of alopecia in District Larkana (Sindh).
F.caricaconsist of citric, oxalic, shikimic, quinic, malic, and fumaric acids, lupeol acetate, bauerenol, oleanolic, methyl maslinate, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methylbutanol, phenylethyl alcohol, heptanol, benzyl alcohol, 2-methylbutanal, 3-pentanone, hexyl acetate, ethyl benzoate, ?- and ?-cubenene, ?- guaiene, copaene, ?-bourbonene, ?-elemene, ?-gurjunene, ?- and ?-caryophyllene, aromadendrene, ?- and ?-muurolene, ?-cadinene, germacrene D, ?-cyclocitral, menthol,and aglycone4,5,6,7.
Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies
Juice of F. carica fruits mixed with honey is used for the treatment ofhaemorrhage. It is used in hepatic and spleen diseases. Dry fruit is used against diabetes. Paste of fruits is applied to swellings and inflammation8. Latex is applied topically on pustules. Plant is used for improving health and for the treatment of constipation, warts, enteritis, eyes complains, and furuncles9.
F. caricais reported for antioxidant, anticancer, hepatoprotective, hypoglycamic, hypolipidemic, antibacterial, antipyretic, antituberculosis, nematicidal, antispasmodic, antiplatelet, anthelmintic, anti-HIV, and antimutagenic activities8.
- Flora of Pakistan:http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspxflora_id=5&taxon_id=200011856.
- Kjellberg, F., Gouyon, P. H., Ibrahim, M., Raymond, M., &Valdeyron, G. (1987). The stability of the symbiosis between dioecious figs and their pollinators: a study of Ficuscarica L. and Blastophagapsenes L.Evolution, 693-704.
- Solomon, A., Golubowicz, S., Yablowicz, Z., Grossman, S., Bergman, M., Gottlieb, H. E., …&Flaishman, M. A. (2006). Antioxidant activities and anthocyanin content of fresh fruits of common fig (Ficuscarica L.).Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54(20), 7717-7723.
- Oliveira, A. P., Valentão, P., Pereira, J. A., Silva, B. M., Tavares, F., & Andrade, P. B. (2009). Ficuscarica L.: Metabolic and biological screening.Food and Chemical Toxicology,47(11), 2841-2846.
- Gibernau, M., Buser, H. R., Frey, J. E., &Hossaert-McKey, M. (1997). Volatile compounds from extracts of figs of Ficuscarica.Phytochemistry,46(2), 241-244.
- Saeed, M. A., & Sabir, A. W. (2002). Irritant potential of triterpenoids from Ficuscarica leaves.Fitoterapia, 73(5), 417-420.
- Oliveira, A. P., Silva, L. R., de Pinho, P. G., Gil-Izquierdo, A., Valentão, P., Silva, B. M., … & Andrade, P. B. (2010). Volatile profiling of Ficuscarica varieties by HS-SPME and GC–IT-MS.Food Chemistry, 123(2), 548-557.
- Mawa, S., Husain, K., and Jantan, I. (2013). Ficuscarica(Moraceae): phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2013.
- Barolo, M. I., Mostacero, N. R., and López, S. N. (2014). Ficuscarica(Moraceae): An ancient source of food and health. Food chemistry, 164, 119-127.