Eugenia aromatica (L.) Baill

Eugenia aromatica (L.) Baill.

Botanical Name:                  Eugenia aromatica (L.) Baill.Eugenia-aromatic-L.

Kingdom:                              Plantae

Synonym:                              Eugenia caryophyllata L.

Order:                                     Myrtales

Family:                                   Myrtaceae

Genus:                                   Eugenia

Species:                                E. aromatica

Sindhi Name:                       Loang

Local Name:                         Loang

English Name:                     Clove

Part Used:                             Buds, leaves, and stem

Description:

Eugenia aromatica (L.) Baill. is a pyramidal or conical evergreen and medium-sized tree or large shrub with smooth grey bark which is gland dotted. Leaves are fragrant, 2-4 in pairs, and lanceolate. Floral buds are green, and turn pink at the time of maturity. Flowers are sessile in terminal, compound, and trichotomus cymes. Calyx tube is broadly turbinate and 3 mm long. Petals are calypirates. Fruits are fleshy, globose, depressed, dark pink in color, and about 2.5×1.5 cm in size with a shiny coat.2

 Occurrence:

E. aromatica is native to Malaysia and Maluccas island of Indonesia.1, 2 It also grows naturally in India, West Indies, Tanzania, Sri Lanka, Brazil, and Madagascar.4

 Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases:

Ground paste of E. aromatica buds is applied on chronic wounds in District Tharpaker (Sindh).

Hot mustard oil containing cloves is applied topically on affected area for the treatment of ringworm in District Matiari (Sindh).

 Chemical constituents:

E. aromatica contains eugenol, acetyl eugenol, vanillin, tannic acid, β-caryophyllin, crude fibers, fixed oil, and resin.1, 2, 3 Clove also contains eugenin, triterpene acid, crategolic acid, kaempferol, rhamnetin, myricetin, eugenitin, and steroid glucosides.4, 5

Chemical Structures:

 

 

Eugenia-aromatic-L.-st.

 

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies:

E. aromatica is antiseptic, analgesic, carminative, and mind and body stimulant.1 Cloves are added to heated mustard oil, then this oil is massaged over body of the paralysed individual. A teaspoonful of soonth, three pieces of cloves, ½ teaspoonful of ajwain are crushed, ground, and mixed with water to make a paste which is applied over the forehead to treat headache. Cloves are applied on dental carries. One or two pieces are kept pressed between the teeth to relieve dental pain. 250 mg powder of clove is given with water after meals for sometimes to reduce eosinophils in blood.2 It exhibited anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antiemetic, analgesic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and chemoprotective activities. Clove is also effective in reducing fungal infections such as athlete’s foot.3, 4 Clove is anxiolytic and myorelaxant effects, and has been used for the treatment of roundworms, tapeworms, and asthma.5 It also exhibited antioxidant and insect repellent properties.6, 7

References:

  • Shrivastava, A. K., (2006), Medicinal Plants, p. 11, APH Publishers, New Delhi, India.
  • Dhiman, A. K. (2006), Ayurvedic Drug Plants, p. 236-237, Daya Publishers, Delhi-110 035, India.
  • Khare, C. P. (2007), Indian Medicinal Plants, p. 636-637, Springer Science Publishers, New Delhi-110058, India.
  • Bhowmik, D., Kumar, K. P. S., Yadav, A., Srivastava, S., Paswan, S., and Dutta, A. S. (2012). Recent Trends in Indian Traditional Herbs Syzygium aromaticum and its Health Benefits. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 1(1), 6–17.
  • Singh, J., Baghotia, A., and Goel, S. P. (2012). Eugenia caryophyllata Thunberg (family Myrtaceae): A review. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, 3(4), 1469–1475.
  • Shyamala, M. P., Venukumar, M. R., & Latha, M. S. (2003). Antioxidant Effect of Syzygium aromaticum in Hyperlipidemic Rats Antioxidant Potential of the Syzygium aromaticum ( Gaertn .) Linn . (Cloves) in Rats Fed With High Fat Diet. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 35, 99–103.
  • Milind, P., and Deepa, K. (2011). Clove: a champion spice. International Journal of Research in Ayurveda & Pharmacy, 2(1), 47–54.