Eruca sativa Mill

Eruca sativa Mill

Botanical Name:             Eruca sativa Mill. Eruca sativa Mill

Synonym:                         Erucacappadocica (Reut)

                                              Erucadeserti (Pomel)

                                              Erucalanceolata (Pomel)

                                             Brassica lativalvisBoiss

Kingdom:                         Plantae

Order:                               Brassicales

Family:                             Brassicaceae

Genus:                              Eruca

Local Name:                  Taramira, Mulai,Tara

English Name:              Arugula, Garden rocket, Edible rocket

Sindhi Name:               Tarameera

Part Used:                     Leaf and seeds

 Description

 Eruca sativa Mill.is a tall and deeply lobed.Leaves areiyre-shaped with prominent terminal lobe. Fruit is a silique. It become long andcontains hard and round seeds. Flowers are four-petal, white to creamy yellowin color, and long1.

Occurrence

E. sativa is grown in Italy, Portugal, Egypt, Turkey, Asia, India, and Afghanistan2.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases

Scabies and Ringworm

  1. Oil of Eruca sativaMill. (Salad rocket/ Jamba) is mixed with table salt and massaged on affected areas for the treatment of scabies and ringworm in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  2. Oil of E. sativa is massaged on whole body for few hours and then bath is taken with warm water in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  3. Oil of E. sativa is applied on affected areas of scabies in Districts Kambar-Shadadkot and Sukkur (Sindh).
  4. Leaves of AzadirachtaindicaA. Juss. (Neem) is boiled and mixed with oil of E. sativa, bath is taken with this water for the treatment of scabies in District Sukkur (Sindh).

Ringworm

  1. Seeds of Carumcopticum L. (Bishop Weeds) are dipped in oil of E. sativa and applied on infected areas for the treatment of ringworm in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  2. Leaves of LallamentiaroyleanaBenth. (Cool seeds) is mixed with oil of E. sativa and Fuller’s earth to form paste, and applied topically for the treatment of ringworm in District Jamshoro (Sindh).

Pyoderma and Abscess

Oil of E. sativa is applied on affected areas for the treatment of pyoderma in District Sukkur (Sindh). This remedy is also used for the treatment of abscess in District Sanghar (Sindh).

Hairfall

Oil of E. sativa is mixed with LawsoniainermisL. (Henna) leaves to form a paste and used for the treatment of hair loss in District Sukkur (Sindh).

Abscess

  1. Leaves of Phyla nodiflora(L.) Greene (Frog Fruit) is mixed in oil of E. sativa for the treatment of abscess in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  2. Oil of E. sativa is applied on affected areafor the treatment of abscess in District Sanghar (Sindh).

ChemicalConstituents

Seedscontain alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, phenolics, ascorbic acid, saponins, and tannins3.Seeds contain thio-functionalized glucosinolates along with erucic acid (cis-13-docosenoic acid)4,5.Flowers and seed extracts yielded vanillin, ellagic acid, salicylic acid, resorcinol, catechol, quercetin, benzoic acid, tannic acid, kaempferol, and rutin6.Leaf tissue containsglucosativin, glucoerucin,and glucoraphanin7.

Chemical Structure:

Eruca sativa Mill st

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

The alkaloids of Eruca sativa mill and their synthetic derivatives are used as therapeutic agents for their analgesic, antispasmodic and bactericidal effects. Natural ascorbic acid plays a vital role for the body performance [8-9]. Cardiac glycosides are useful to overcome various human diseases. The property of coagulation and precipitation of red blood cells are found in saponin [9]

The phenolic compound present in the seed shows its antimicrobial properties against pathogenic bacteria [10] while tannins are reported to exhibit antiviral, antibacterial and antitumor activity and also used as diuretic [11].

REFERENCES

  1. Van Wyk, B.-E. 2005. “Eruca sativa.”Food Plants of the World: An Illustrated Guide. Portland, OR: Timber Press. p. 191
  2. Bianco and Boari, 1997; Mohamedien, 1995; Pimpini and Enzo, 1997; Silva Dias, 1997; Tuzel, 1995
  3. Ettebong, E. and P. Nwafor. 2009. In vitro antimicrobial activities of extracts of Caepolobialutea root. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., 22(3): 335-338
  4. Bennett RN, Mellon FA, Botting NP, Eagles J, Rosa EA, Williamson G. 2002; Identification of the major glucosinolate (4-mercaptobutyl glucosinolate) in leaves ofEruca sativa (salad rocket) Phytochemistry.61:25–30
  5. Lazzeri L, Errani M, Leoni O, Venturi G. 2004,Eruca sativa Oleifera: A new non-food crop. Ind Crop Pro, 20:67–73
  6. Alqasoumi et al. / World Journal of Gastroenterology, 2009, Rocket ‘Eruca sativa’: A salad herb with potential gastric anti-ulcer activity, 15 (16) / DOI: 10.3748/wjg.15.1958
  7. Luke Bella, Maria Jose Oruna-Conchaa,Carol Wagstaffa,,  2014, Identification and quantification of glucosinolate and flavonol compounds in rocket salad (Eruca sativaErucavesicaria andDiplotaxistenuifolia) by LC–MS: Highlighting the potential for improving nutritional value of rocket crops. Journal of Food Chemistry Volume 172, Pages 1-930
  8. Aiyelaagbe, O.O. and P.M. Osamudiamen. 2009. Phytochemical screening for active compounds in Mangiferaindica leaves from Ibadan, Oyo State. Plant Sci. Res., 2(1): 11-13.
  9. Okwu, D.E. and C. Josiah. 2006. Evaluation of the chemical composition of two Nigerian medicinal plants. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 5(4): 357-361
  10. Khoobchandani, M., B.K. Ojeswi, N. Ganesh, M.M. Srivastava, S. Gabbanini, R. Matera, R. Iori and L. Valgimigli. 2010. Antimicrobial properties and analytical profile of traditional Eruca sativa seed oil: Comparison with various aerial and root plant extracts. Food Chem., 120: 217- 224
  11. Aiyelaagbe, O.O. and P.M. Osamudiamen. 2009. Phytochemical screening for active compounds in Mangiferaindica leaves from Ibadan, Oyo State. Plant Sci. Res., 2(1): 11-13.