Elletaria cardamomum Maton

Elletaria cardamomum Maton

Classification:

Botanical Name:        Elettaria cardamom Maton.Elettaria cardamom Maton..

Synonyms:                   Elettaria brachycalyx S.Sakai & Nagam.

Kingdom:                    Plantae

Order:                          Zingiberales

Genus:                        Elettaria

Family:                       Zingiberaceae

Species:                     E. cardamomum

Local Name:             Choti ilaichi

Sindhi name:           Nando Photo

English name:         Cardamom

Part used:                Seeds

 Description:

E. cardamomum is a tall herbaceous perennial plant. Rhizomes are thick and stem is erect with pointed leaves. Flowers are white in color. Seeds are small, brown-black in color and are pungent, warm and aromatic. Fruit is trilocular capsule.1,2

Occurrence:

E. cardamomum is found in all over the world including Bangladesh, Bhutan, Srilanka, India, Indonesia, Nepal, and Pakistan.2,3

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases:

Boiled mixture of E. cardamomum, sheep, and candy sugar is drink for the 3 days for the treatment of measles in District Mirpurkhas, Sukkur, Ghotki, Thatta, and Tando Muhammad Khan (Sindh).

Constituents:

Major constituents of E.Cardamomum are 1, 8-cineole and alpha-terpinylacetate, limonene, alpha-terpineol, sabinene, and linalool. Seed contains terpineol and acetylterpineol. It also contains palmatic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, alpha-tocopherol, desmosterol, and campesterol.4 Oil contain β-sitosterol.3 Plant also contains citronellol, nerol, geraniol, methyl eugenol, and trans-nerolidol.5

Chemical Structures: 

 

 

 

Elettaria cardamomum Maton.st

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacological/Scientific Studies

A seed of E.Cardamomum is used for the treatment of nausea, vomiting, motion sickness, and pyrosis. It is reported that snuffing fine powder before going to bed is beneficial for hysteria, rhinitis, mental depression, and lack of memory.1 Oil possessed expectorant, antispasmodic, and antiseptic properties, and used for the treatment of flatulence, loss of appetite, colic, bronchitis, coughs,  fatigue, and asthma.4,5

Seeds possessed cooling, stimulant, carminative, stomachic, diuretic, cardiotonic, and abortifacient properties.6 It has been reported that the plant possessed sedative, antibacterial, anticonvulsant, antioxidant, antiinflamatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, Insecticidal, gastroprotective, and hypoglycemic properties. 7

References

  1. Pullaih, T. (2006). “Encyclopedia of World Medicinal Plants”. Publisher, Regency Publications New Delhi, India.2 p: 856.
  2. http://www.iloveindia.com/indian-herbs/cardamom.html.
  3. Ali, M. (2007). “Textbook of Pharmacognosy”. CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi. Second p: 206.
  4. Khare, C.P. (2007). “Indian Medicinal Plants”. Springer publication, New York U.S.A. p: 234-235.
  5. http://www.essentialoils.co.za/essential-oils/cardamom.htm.
  6. Korikanthimathm, V. S., Prasath, D., and Rao, G. (2000). “Medicinal Properties of Cardamom Elettaria Cardamomum”. Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Crops, 22 (4A), p: 685-685.
  7. Sharma, S., Sharma, J., and Kaur, G. 2011). “Therapeutic Uses of Elettaria Cardamom”. International Journal of Drug Formulation and Research, 2(6). p:102-108.