Elettaria cardamomum Maton.
Local Name: Chotiilaichi
Sindhi Name: Nando photo
Part Used: Seeds
English Name: Green cardamom
Elettaria cardamomum Maton. is perennial shrub. Roots are fleshy, thick, and lateral1. Leaves are smooth and green or dark green in color. Flowers are yellow to violet color. Fruits are ovoid, triocular, and smooth. Capsule bear two rows of reddish-brown seeds2.
E. cardamomum is a distributed to Guatemala, India, Tanzania, Sri Lanka, Papua New Guinea, Laos, and Vietnam3.
Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases
Ground Seeds of Elettaria cardamomum Maton (Green cardamom), Foeniculum vulgare L. (Fennel seeds),and Cassia fistulaL.(Golden shower) to makepaste, this paste is taken orally with water daily in the morning for the treatment of scabies in District Umerkot (Sindh).
Seeds of E. cardamomum, and Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel) are soaked overnight and boiled. A cup of this water is taken orally daily for the treatment of pyoderma in District Jamshoro (Sindh).
- Ground E. cardamomum, crystal sugar, Phoenix dactyliferaL. (Date), and honeyto make paste, and applied on affected area for the treatment of chicken pox in District Sajawal (Sindh).
- Ground E. cardamomum, Vitis Vinifera (Grape vine), and crystal sugar to make paste,and applied topically on affected areas for the treatment of chicken pox in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
- Ground E.Cardamomum, Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves, oil, Withania coagulans (Vegetable rennet), Cassia angustifolia Mill. (Cassia senna), and disperine to makepaste and applied topically for the treatment of Measles in District Thatta (Sindh).
- E. cardamomumis boiled in goat milk. This milk is taken orally for 3-4 days daily, once in a day for the treatment of Measles in District Khairpur (Sindh).
Major chemical constituents of E. cardamomumare sabinene, d-limonene, myrcene, anethole,α- and β-pinene, γ- terpinene, terpinyl acetate, p-cymene, linalyl acetate, nerolidole, linalool, α- terpineol, geraniol, geranial, terpinen-4-ol, fenchone, neral, geranyl acetate, carvyl acetate, and terpinyl propionate5.
Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies
E. cardamomumis used against bronchitis, anorexia, and debility10. Fruits arerecommended in diuretic, common cold, cough, urinary infections, piles, and relieving thirst13. It acts as a relaxant in nausea, burning sensation, and dyspepsia.It is also act as tonic for digestive system14. It behaves as an aphrodisiac that releaseing stress, loss of appetite, and obesity, and also acts as cardiac effect15.Seeds are used in Unani system of medicine and acts as antidote to poison. Fruits are used in combination with other herbs for enhancing skin complexion and also applied on itching and pustules4.
E. cardamomumis reported for anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, analgesic, antispasmodic, insecticidal,antispasmodic, and antifungalactivities4,6,8,9. Ethanol extract of fruit possess antibacterial effect. Methanol extract possess gastroprotective effect4. It also possesses antihypertensive, antiplatelet aggregation, and anticancer properties10. Fruit has bronchodilatory effect12.
- Kapoor, L. D. (2000). Handbook of Ayurvedic medicinal plants. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
- Reyes, T., Luukkanen, O., and Quiroz, R. (2006). Small cardamom-Precious for people, harmful for mountain forests: Possibilities for sustainable cultivation in the East Usambaras, Tanzania.Mountain Research and Development, 26(2), 131-137.
- Sharma, S., Sharma, J., and Kaur, G. (2011). Therapeutic uses of Elettariacardomum.International Journal of Drug Formulation and Research, 2(2), 102-8.
- Nenov, N., Stanchev, V., and Soyanova, A. (2012). Low temperature extraction of essential oil bearing plants by liquefied gases. 7. Seeds from cardamom (Elettariacardamomum (L.) Maton).1(2), 135-139.
- Al-Zuhair, H., El-Sayeh, B., Ameen, H. A., and Al-Shoora, H. (1996). Pharmacological studies of cardamom oil in animals.Pharmacological research, 34(1), 79-82.
- Islam, S. N., Ahsan, M., Ferdous, A. J., and Faroque, A. B. M. (1990). In vitro antibacterial activities of commonly used spices.Bangladesh Journal of Botany, 19(1), 99-101.
- Venkataraman, S., Ramanujam, T. R., and Venkatasubbu, V. S. (1978). Antifungal activity of certain plants belonging to the family Zingiberaceae.Journal of the Madras University, Mathematics. Physical and Biological Sciences,41, 92-94.
- Atta-Ur-Rahman, Choudhary, M. I., Farooq, A., Ahmed, A., Iqbal, M. Z., Demirci, B.,and Baser, K. C. (2000). Antifungal activities and essential oil constituents of some spices from Pakistan.Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan, 22(1), 60-65.
- Verma, S. K., Jain, V., and Katewa, S. S. (2009). Blood pressure lowering, fibrinolysis enhancing and antioxidant activities of cardamom (Elettariacardamomum).Indian journal of biochemistry & biophysics, 46(6), 503.
- Khan, A., Khan, Q. J., and Gilani, A. H. (2011). Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of cardamom in asthma.Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology, 6(1), 34-37.
- Dwy, A. C. (1994). In topics in Indian medicinal plants used ayurvedic preparations, Bishen Sing Mahendra Pal, Dehradun.
- Nirmala Menon, A. (2000). Studies on the volatiles of Cardamom (Elettariacardamomum).Journal of food science and technology, 37(4), 406-408.
- Lwasa, S., and Bwowe, F. (2007). Exploring the Economic Potential of Cardamom (Elettariacardamomum) as an alternative and promising income source for Uganda’s smallholder farmers. InACSS Science Conference Proceedings, 8, 1317-1321.