Curcuma longa L.

Curcuma longa L.

Botanical Name:             Curcuma longa L.Curcuma longa L.

Kingdom:                      Plantae

Order:                           Zingiberales

Family:                         Zingiberaceae

Genus:                          Curcuma

Local Name:                  Haldi

Sindhi Name:                 Hait

Part Used:                     Dried rhizome

English Name:               Turmeric

 

Description

Curcuma longa L. is a perennial plant. Roots are oblong-palmate and orange. Leaves are petiole, tape-ended, smooth,and green.Flowers are dull yellow in color1. Rhizomes are long, cylindrical,and multi-branched. Inflorescence is a cylindrical and fleshy. Pseudostems are tall and narrowed at the base2.

Occurrence

C.longais found throughout tropics. In Pakistan, it is cultivated in Hazara and Punjab3.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases

Abscess

  1. GroundCurcuma longa L. (Turmeric), Carumcopticum L. (Bishop weed), TriticumaestivumL (wheat) flour, andBrassica compestrisL. (Mustard) oil is mixed in equal amount to form paste and applied directly for the treatment of abscess in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  2. C. longa is mixed in Triticumaestivum (Wheat)flour, salt, and honey to form thick paste and applied three times a day for the treatment of abscess in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  3. Leaves of DaturastromoniumL. (Datura), and ZiziphusnumulariaL.(Chinese apple) is ground and mixed with powder of C. longa and Triticumaestivum(Wheat)flour in equal quantity to form ointment and applied for the treatment of abscess in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  4. SalvadoraoleiodsDecne.(khabbar), oil, and powder of C. longa is mixed and applied directly on affected areas for the treatment of abscess in District sukkur (Sindh).
  5. Edible soda is soakedovernight in water and mixed with flour of Triticumaestivum(Wheat), powderedC. longa, and oil of Brassica compestris(Mustard) to form paste and applied for the treatment of abscess in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  6. Powdered C. longa is mixed with flour of Triticumaestivum(Wheat) in water to form paste and applied for the treatment of abscess in District Shikarpur (Sindh).
  7. Powdered C. longa, flour ofTriticumaestivum(Wheat),and salt is mixed with oil and applied for the treatment of abscess in DistrictsUmerkotand Naushehroferoz (Sindh). This remedy is also used for the treatment of pustules in District Ghotki (Sindh), and for the treatment of Onchmycosis in District Naushehroferoz (Sindh).
  8. Paste of groundC. longa, Triticumaestivum(Wheat),and soaked fuller’s earth is applied for the treatment of abscess in District Badin (Sindh).
  9. Flour of Triticumaestivum(Wheat)is mixed with jaggery (gur), oil, and powdered C. longa and bandaged for the treatment of abscess in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  10. Flour of Triticumaestivum(Wheat)is mixed with powdered C. longa and used for the treatment of abscess in District Sukkur (Sindh). This remedy is also used for the treatment of wounds in District Naushehroferoz (Sindh).
  11. Paste of Triticumaestivum(Wheat)flour, powdered C. longa and salt is warmed and applied for the treatment of abscess in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  12. Flour of Triticumaestivum(Wheat) is mixed with powdered C. longa and Brassica compestris(Mustard)oil to form paste, this paste is applied warmed for the treatment of abscess in District Naushehroferoz (Sindh). This reedy is also used 2-3 times a day for 3-4 days for the treatment of face acne in DistrictsSangharand Badin (Sindh).
  13. Powdered C. longa is mixed with honey and salt, spread on bread, this bread is tied for the treatment of abscess and wounds in District Mirpurkhas (Sindh).
  14. Powdered C. longa is mixed with SalvadoraoleiodsDecne.(Salvadora), and oil and applied for the treatment of abscess in District Sukkur (Sindh).

 Ringworm and Scabies

  1. Powdered C. longa is mixed in oil of Brassica compestris(Mustard)to form paste and applied for the treatment of ringworm in DistrictsTandojam, Kashmore, and Sajawal (Sindh). This remedy is also used for the treatment of pyoderma and scabies in DistrictsSukkur, Kambarshadadkot, and District Khairpur (Sindh).
  2. C. longa is blended with yogurt and oil to form paste and applied for the treatment of ringworm in Districts Karachi, and District Matiari (Sindh).

Hand Infection and Onchomycosis

Powdered C. longa is mixed in oil to form paste and applied for the treatment of hand infection in District Tandojam (Sindh). This remedy is also used for the treatment of Hand burn in Jacobabad (Sindh), for the treatment of wounds in District Naushehroferoze (Sindh), this paste is used for a week for the treatment of ringworm in District Naushehroferoz (Sindh), this paste is applied with cotton swab on infected areas for the treatment of pus infections in District Tharparkar (Sindh), and for the treatment of onchomycosis in District Sajawal (Sindh).

Pyoderma

  1. Powdered C. longa is mixed with Triticumaestivum(Wheat)flour, crushed Allium sativumL. (Garlic), Carumcopticum (Bishops weed), and jaggery (Gur) to form paste and applied for the treatment of pyoderma in District Shikarpur (Sindh).
  2. GroundCentratherumanthelminticumL. (Iron weed) is mixed with powdered C. longa and applied for the treatment of pyoderma in District Khairpur (Sindh).
  3. GroundSaccharumofficinarumL. (Table Sugar) is mixed with flour of Triticumaestivum(Wheat), powdered C. longa,and oil to form paste and applied for the treatment of pyoderma in District Larkana (Sindh).
  4. Powdered C. longa is mixed with Triticumaestivum (Wheat)flour, crushed sweets, and oil of Brassica compestris(Mustard)to form paste and applied for the treatment of pyoderma in District Sukkur (Sindh).

Injuries

Powdered C. longa is applied on affected areas for the treatment of injuries in District TandoAllahyar (Sindh).

Vitiligo

  1. Powdered C. longa is mixed in yogurt, and honey to form thick paste and applied directly on affected areas for the treatment of vitiligo (pigmentation) in DisrictKambar-Shdadkot (Sindh).
  2. GroundTerminaliabellirica(Harir), FoeniculumvulgareL. (Fennel seed), Avena sativaL. (Oat), ZingiberOfficinaleRoscoe. (Ginger), fruit of AzadirachtaindicaA. Juss. (Neem), and C. longa is applied for the treatment of vitiligo till recovery in District Larkana (Sindh).

Blood blisters and Ringworm

  1. GroundAloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (aloe vera) is mixed with powdered C. Longa and salt and bandaged after warming for the treatment of blood blisters in District Kambar Shdadkot (Sindh).
  2. Flour of Triticumaestivum (Wheat)is mixed with jaggery (gur) and powdered C. longa and applied for the treatment of blood blisters in District Kambarshdadkot (Sindh) and bandaged for the treatment of ringworm and abscess in District Sukkur (Sindh).

Wound

  1. Flour of Triticumaestivum (Wheat)is mixed with jaggery (gur), salt, and powdered C. longa and bandaged for the treatment of wounds in District Sukkur (Sindh) and for the treatment of ringworm in District Naushehroferoz (Sindh).
  2. Burn the wood of CalotropisporceraW.T. Aiton (Crown Flower), extract is mixed powdered C. longa and tied on wounds in District Sukkur (Sindh).
  3. Leaves of Ipomoea aquatic Forssk. (Water Spinach), is ground with C. longa and jaggery and applied for the treatment of wounds in District Umerkot (Sindh).
  4. Powdered C. longa is sautéed in oil of OleaeuropaeaL. (Olive) or Brassica compestris (Mustard) and applied hot on wounds in district Umerkot (Sindh).
  5. Paste of powdered C. longa in goat milk is applied topically for the treatment of wounds in District Matiari (Sindh).
  6. Powdered C. longa is mixed with salt, and Brassica compestris (Mustard)oil and applied for the treatment of wounds in District Jamshoro (Sindh).
  7. Paste of C. longa in Brassica compestris (Mustard)oil is applied for the treatment of wounds in Districts Jamshoro, Ghotki, and Tando Mohammad Khan (Sindh). This paste is applied warmed for the treatment of eczema in District Larkana (Sindh), for the treatment of acne and onchomycosis in District Nawabshah (Sindh), and for the treatment of wounds and onchomycosis in District Naushehroferoz (Sindh). This remedy is also used for the treatment of fungal infection in District Dadu (Sindh).
  8. Oil of C. longa is mixed with oil of Brassica compestris (Mustard)oil and applied for the treatment of wounds in District Badin (Sindh).
  9. Fruit of SolanummelongenaL. (Brinjal) is ground with C. longa and applied on wounds in District Khairpur (Sindh).

Acne and Wounds

  1. Powdered C. longa is used for the treatment of acne in District Sukkur (Sindh) and for the treatment of wounds in District Naushehroferoze (Sindh).
  2. Paste of ButeamonospermaLam. (Butea gum)and powdered C. longa in water is applied for the treatment of acne in District Naushehroferoze (Sindh).

Boils:

  1. Powdered C. longa is mixed with Triticumaestivum (Wheat) flour, salt, and water to form paste and applied topically on boils, till it burst in District Shikarpur (Sindh).
  2. Bulb of Allium CepaL. (Onion)is ground and mixed with powdered C. longa to form paste, this paste is warmed and applied for the treatment of boils in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  3. Flour of Triticumaestivum (Wheat)is mixed with powdered C. longa and clarified butter to form paste and applied directly for the treatment of boils in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  4. Groundfinnjhalanderleaves is mixed with oil and powdered C. longa and applied for the treatment of boils in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  5. Ground leaves of Phyla nodiflora(L.) Greene (Frog Fruit) and powdered C. longa is mixed to form paste and applied for the treatment of boils in District Naushehroferoz (Sindh).
  6. Ground fruit of Ziziphusnumularia(Chinese apple),Triticumaestivum, and C. longa is mixed in oil to form paste and applied for the treatment of boils in District Matiari.

Athletes’s foot:

Oil of C. longa, is mixed with groundedAllium Cepa(Onion),and Triticumaestivum (Wheat)flour, sautéed and applied topically on infected areas for the treatment of athlete’s foot in District Umerkot (Sindh).

Onchomycosis

  1. Crushed washing soap is mixed with flour of Triticumaestivum (Wheat) and grounded C. longa and applied for the treatment of onchomycosis in District Matiari (Sindh). This remedy is also used in bandages for the treatment of onchomycosis in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  2. Oil of CocusnuciferaL. (Coconut) is mixed with salt, groundC. longa and jaggery (Gur) to form paste, and applied warmed for the treatment of onchomycosis in District Naushehroferoz (Sindh).
  3. Paste of Allium Cepa(Onion)bulb is sautéed with powdered C. longa and applied on affected nails daily for the treatment of onchomycosis in District Tand Mohammad Khan (Sindh).

Prickly heat:

GroundCuminumcyminum L. (Cumin Seeds) is mixed with powdered C. longa and applied for the treatment of heat rashes in District Khairpur (Sindh).

External otitis

Fill powdered C. longa in fruit of Solanummelongena L. (Brinjal) and tied on infected areas for the treatment of external otitis in District Khairpur (Sindh).

Pustules

Grind leaves of Eclipta prostrate L. (False Daisy), Azadirachtaindica (Neem),Ziziphhusnumularia(Chinese apple)and DalbergisissooRoxb. (North Indian Rosewood) is ground and mixed with Triticumaestivum (Wheat)flour, powdered C. longa, salt, and Brassica compestris(Mustard)oil to form paste, this paste is applied warmed for the treatment of pustules in District Ghotki (Sindh).

Fungal Infection

Bulb of Allium Cepa(Onion)is ground and mixed with powdered C. longa and oil to form paste and applied for the treatment of fungal infection in District Naushehroferoze (Sindh).

Dandruff

Leaves of Brassica compestris (Mustard) is ground with powdered Cicerarientum L. (Gram seeds) and C. longa for the treatment of dandruff in District Nawabshah (Sindh).

ChemicalConstituents

C.longacontain curcumin, demethoxy-curcumin, bis-demethoxy-curcumin,α-phellandrene, terpinolene, 1,8-cineole, tumerone, carvacrol, xanthorrhizol, ar-turmerone, camphor, geranyl acetate, zerumbone, β-curcumene, zingiberene, and ar-curcumene3,4,7.

Chemical Structure:

Curcuma longa L.st

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

C. longa is used in the treatment of jaundice and skin diseases such as scabies and bruises. It acts as an antiseptic in ulcer and wound, and fungicidal activity8.It is also applied topically against urticaria, skin allergies, jointsinflammatory, blistering, insect bites, sore throat,eczema, bruises, acne, boils, and wounds. It is taken orally for reducing inflammatory swelling. It is also used in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine against menstrual problems, hematuria, and hemorrhage9.

C. longa is reported for various pharmacological activities such as, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, antidepressant, and cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and neurological disorders9.

REFERENCES

  1. http://ntbg.org/plants/plant_details.php?plantid=3652
  2. Parthasarathy, V. A., Chempakam, B., & Zachariah, T. J. (2008). Chemistry of Spices. CAB International, Wallingford.

            http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=200028370

  1. Madsen, B., Garcia, V. H., and Vera, L. H. (2003). S. Patent No. 6,576,273. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
  2. Braga, M. E., Leal, P. F., Carvalho, J. E., andMeireles, M. A. A. (2003). Comparison of yield, composition, and antioxidant activity of turmeric (Curcuma longa) extracts obtained using various techniques. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51(22), 6604-6611.
  3. McCarron, M., Mills, A. J., Whittaker, D., Sunny, T. P., andVerghese, J. (1995). Comparison of the monoterpenes derived from green leaves and fresh rhizomes of Curcuma longa from India. Flavour and fragrance journal, 10(6), 355-357
  4. Chowdhury, J. U., Nandi, N. C., Bhuiyan, M. N. I., andMobarok, M. H. (2008). Essential oil constituents of the rhizomes of two types of Curcuma longa of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 43(2), 259-266.
  5. Jantan, I., Saputri, F. C., Qaisar, M. N., andBuang, F. (2012). Correlation between chemical composition of Curcuma domestica and Curcuma xanthorrhiza and their antioxidant effect on human low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2012.
  6. Velayudhan, K. C., Dikshit, N., and Nizar, M. A. (2012). Ethnobotany of turmeric (Curcuma longa). Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 11(4), 607-614.
  7. Labban, L. (2014). Medicinal and pharmacological properties of Turmeric (Curcuma longa): A review. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, 5(1), 17-23.