Curcuma Caesia Roxb
Botonical Name: Curcuma caesia Roxb
Sindhi Name: Kari hadar
Local Name: Kali haldi
English Name: Black turmeric
Parts used: Rhizome
Curcuma caesia Roxb is sessile, laterally flattened plant ranging from 0.5 m to 1.0 min height. It has tuberous rhizome.
The plant shows circular arrangements of remnants of scaly leaves, which give a false impression of growth rings.
As the plant propagates with rhizome, the primary roots are not noticeable. However, yellow brown long fibrous and tapering adventitious roots are found and also noticeable all over the surface of rhizome.12 The leaves are present in the groups of 10-20, each leaf is broad , oblong, lancelate and glabrous. In the mid region of the leaves, the lamina shows deep farraginous purple colored clouds. The petiole is ivory colour and unsheathing the petioles encircle each other forming a pseudo axis. The variation is parallel, typical shows the characteristic of monocots.12
It is 15-20 cm long dense spike, which arises much before the opening of leaf, the bracts are green, and the bracts of coma are deep red, which become crimson when old .12 Flowers are pale yellow with reddish border. Its calyx is 10-15 mm long, obtuse, and toothed, and corolla are long tubular with pale yellow lip, 3 lobed and semi-elliptical.12
Curcuma caesia Roxb is a herb found throughout the Himalayan region, in the north-east and central India. It is mostly found in Bengal and north-eastern part of the country including Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Mizorum.
Curcuma caesia Roxb is commonly as an anti-inflammatory and anti-asthmatic in Ayurvedic medicine.1 Freshly rhizome’s paste is applied on snake and scorpion bites.5 Dried rhizomes and leaves of curcuma caesia Roxb are used in piles, leprosy, asthma, cancer, wounds ,impotency, fertility, tooth ache, vomiting and allergies. 6,7,8,9 Crushed rhizome paste is applied against cut or injury to control bleeding and helps in quick healing.10 The fresh rhizomes are used in leprosy, cancer, epilepsy and also helmenthic, gonorrhoreal discharge. 11
The leaves of Curcuma caesia Roxb are crushed and its powder is applied to the area of pyodermal infection.The powdered plant is also used to treat hair follicles.
The major constituents of Curcuma caesia Roxb are 97.48% of the oil, with camphor (28.3%), ar-turmerone (12.3%), (Z)-ocimene (8.2%), ar-curcumene (6.8%), 1,8 cineole (5.3%), elemene (4.8%), borneol (4.4%), bornyl acetate (3.3%) and curcumene (2.82%).These have been identified as the most important constituents of Curcuma caesia roxb. 13
The presence of alkaloid, steroid, phenolic and tannin was identified as the most important constituents which are extracted from the rhizomes and it contains the major components such as –hexane, petroleum ether (60:80), benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water . Pandeyetal. furthur identified that by GC-MS that the volatile oil extracted from rhizomes contains 30 compounds.
Linalool (20.42%), ocimine (15.66%), 1-ar-curcumene (14.84%), zingiberol (12.60), 1,8-cineole (9.06%), andα-borneol (7) dcamphore (18.88) are present in rhizomes of the plant Curcuma caesia Roxb which are most important components.15 Curcuma caesia Roxb composit of curcuminoids, oil content, flavonoids, phenolics and other types of amino acids with addition with alkaloids contents.16 Presence of bioactive components in the rhizomes is due to the presences of curcumin and other demethoxy compounds, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxy curcumin.
The plant has curcumoinoids as main constituents which have antiinflammatory antioxidant, wound healing and anti microbial activity etc. It also shows bronchodilatory, analgesia and anticonvulsant activities. 17
Rhizomes of curcuma caesia reported shows anti fungal activity due mainly to the essential oil.20
The bronchodilating activity of the vextracts of C. caesia Roxb was identified. Histamine aerosol induced bronchospasm and pre-convulsion dyspnoea in guinea pigs was used to study bronchodilator activity of the extract .21
1.Arulmozhi, D K., Sridhar, N.,Veeranjaneyulu, A., Arora, S.(2006). Preliminary mechanistic studies on the smooth muscle relaxant effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Curcuma caesia ,Journal of herbal pharmacotherapy, 6,(3-4), pg.117-24.
2. Banerjee., Anup., Nigam, S.S,. (1976). Antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Curcuma caesia Roxb, Indian Journal of Pharmacy, 38,(4), pg. 103-5.
3. Arulmozhi, D K., Sridhar, N., Veeranjaneyulu, A.,Arora, S K. (2006). Preliminary mechanistic studies on the smooth muscle relaxant effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Curcuma caesia, Journal of herbal pharmacotherapy, 6,(3-4), pg. 117-24
4. Dhal, Yogamaya.(2012). Comparative antioxidant activity of non-enzymatic and enzymatic extracts of Curcuma caesia Roxb. an important medicinal plant, Research Journal of BioTechnology,7(4) pg.17-22.
6. Israr, F., Hassan, F., Naqvi, BS., Azhar, I., Jabeen, S., and Hassan. (2012). SMF. Studies on antibacterial activity ofsome traditional medicinal plants used in folk medicine, Pak. J Pharm Sci, 25(3), pg.669-674.
7. Syamkumar, S., and Sasikumar, B. (2007). Molecular marker based genetic diversity analysis of Curcuma species from India. Scientia Horticulturae, 112(2), pg.235-241.
8. Ravindran ,PN., NirmalBabu, K., and Sivaraman, K.(2007). Turmeric: The Genus Curcuma. CRC Press, pg.11.
9. Amalraj, VA. Velayudhan, KC., and Muralidharan, VK.(1989). A note on the anomalous flowering behaviour in Curcuma caesia (Zingiberaceae). J Bombay Nat Hist Soc, 86(2), pg. 278-279
10. Trivedi, PC. (2003). Ethnomedicinal plant of India.pg.46, Jaipur, India: Aviskar Publisher.
11. Arulmozhi, DK., Sridhar, N., Veeranjaneyulu, A., and Arora, KS.(2006). Preliminary Mechanistic studies on the smooth muscle relaxant effect of hydroacloholic extract of Curcuma caesia. Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy, (6), 3/4.
12. Paliwal, P., Pancholi, SS., Patel, RK.(2011). Pharmacognostic parameters for evaluation of the rhizomes of Curcuma caesia. J Adv Pharm Technol Res, (2) 56-61.
14. Ammon, HPT., Wahl, MA., (1991). Pharmacology of Curcuma longa. Planta Med, pg. 57.
15. Baerjee, Ak., kaul, vk., and nigam. Ss, (1984) essenze Deriv. Agrum, 54 (2)117-121.
16. Karmakar, I., Dolai, N., Bala, A., Haldar, PK.(2011).Anxiolytic and CNS depressant activities of methanol extract of Curcuma caesia rhizome. Pharmacologyonline, (2), 738-47.
17. Chatopadhyay, I., Biswas, K., Bandhopadhyay, U., Banerjee, RK. (2004) Turmeric and Curcumin: Biological actions and medicine of applications. Current Science, (87), p.44.
18. Miller, AL., ( 2004), Antioxidant flavonoids: Structure, function and clinical usage. Alternate medicinal revised, (1),103-111.
19. Banerjee, A., Nigam, SS. (1976). Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Curcuma caesia Roxb. Indian Journal of Medicinal Research, (64) 1318-21.
20. Arulmozhi, DK., Sridhar, N., Veeranjaneyulu, A., Arora, SK.(2006). Preliminary mechanistic studies on the smooth muscle relaxant effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Curcuma caesia. J Herb Pharmacother, (6), 117-24.
21. Chirangini, P., Sharma, GJ., Sinha, SK. (2004). Sulfur free radical reactivity with curcumin as reference for evaluating antioxidant properties of medicinal Zingiberales. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol, (23), 227-36.