Cuminum cyminum L.

Cuminum cyminum L.

Botanical Name:               Cuminum Cyminum L.Cuminum cyminum L.
Kingdom:                             Plantae
Order:                                   Apiales
Family:                                 Apiaceae
Genus:                                  Cuminum
Local Name:                      Zeera
Sindhi Name:                    Jeera
English Name:                  Cumin
Part Used:                          Fruit

Description
Cumin cyminum L. is an herbaceous plant. Leaves are long, thread-like leaflets, and pinnate.Flowers are small, white or pinkish, and borne in umbels.Fruit is a lateral, fusiform,and single-seeded. Seeds are smaller and darker in color1.

Occurrence
C.cyminumis distributed to Egypt,Asia, Mediterranean, and Iran2.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases
Cuminum cyminum L. (Cumin) seeds and crystal sugar were soaked overnight, and the water is taken orally for curing heat rashes and Candida infections in the Districts MirpurKhas and Nawabshah (Sindh).

ChemicalConstituents
Seeds of C.cyminumcontain a volatile oil mainly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons, esters, ketones,aldehydes, and fatty acids. Major compounds occurring in cumin are cuminaldehyde, α-and β-pinenes, p-mentha-1,3-dien-7-al, 4-dien-7-al, o- and p-cymene, α-and γ-terpinenes, safranal, eugenol,linalool,myrcene, caryophyllene, β- bisabolene, β-phellandrene, cuminyl alcohol, α- phellandrene, cis and trans-sabinene, myrtenol, and phellandral3,4.

Chemical Structure:

Cuminum cyminum L.st.

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies
Seeds of C.cyminumare act as carminative, eupeptic, and astringent.It is also effective in digestive disorders, cough, diarrhea, dyspepsia, flatulence, morning sickness, colic, headache, and bloating and to improve liver function5,6. Cuminis used for stimulating menstrual cycle.It also act as appetite stimulant and used for several stomach disorders.It is also used as garglefor treating laryngitis. Poultices of seeds are recommendedagainstbreast swellings8.
C. cyminumhas antibacterial, anticancer, hepatoprotective, antiviral, anticarcinogenic, nephroprotective, antidibetic,antiphyperlipidemic, antiplatelet, antityrosinase, wound healing, antiepileptic,hypoglycemic, antifungal, antibiofilm, insecticidal, and osteoprotective activities9,10.

REFERENCES
1. Zohary, D. and Hopf, M. (2000). Domestication of plants in the Old World,p. 206, 3rd Edition, Oxford University Press.
2. Evans, W. C. (1997). Pharmacognosy,p. 267-814, edition, London. WB Sundres Company Limited.
3. Sahana, K., Nagarajan, S., and Mohan, L. (2011). Cumin (Cuminumcyminum L.) Seed Volatile Oil: Chemistry and Role in Health and Disease Prevention. Nuts and Seeds in Health and Disease Prevention.
4. Li, R., and Jiang, Z. T. (2004). Chemical composition of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L. from China. Flavour and fragrance journal, 19(4), 311-313.
5. Joshi, S. G. (2000). Medicinal plants, Oxford and IBH Publishing Co.Pvt. Ltd, Delhi.
6. Perry, L. M. (1980). Medicinal Plants of East and Southeast Asia, The MIT Press,Massachusetts and London.
7. Kaur, D., and Sharma, R. (2012). An Update on Pharmacological Properties of Cumin,International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Science.2(4),14-27.
8. Lim, T. K. (2013). Edible medicinal and non-medicinal plants. 5, Fruits, Netherlands, New York.
9. Mnif, S., andAifa, S. (2015). Cumin (Cuminumcyminum L.) from traditional uses to potential biomedical applications. Chemistry & biodiversity, 12(5), 733-742.