Citrus Sinensis L.

Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck

Botanical Name:          Citrus sinensis L. OsbeckCitrus-Sinensis-L.

Synonyms:                   Citrus aurantium var. sinensis L.

Kingdom:                     Plantae

Order:                          Sapindales
Genus:                        Citrus

Family:                        Rutaceae

Species:                      C. sinensis

Local Name:                Narangi

Sindhi Name:               Kinno

English Name:             Orange

Parts Used:                 Leaves, Flowers, Fruit, and Oil

Description

C. sinensis is an evergreen tree. Seeds are many. Leaves are ovate. Flowers are white and fragrant. Fruit are subglobose and orange when ripe. Pulp is sweet.1

 Occurrence

C. sinensis is the native of India. It is also cultivated in Mediterranean Region, Spain, West Indies, Florida, California, Sicily, and Malta.2 In Pakistan, it is widely cultivated in the Punjab (Sargodha, Gujranwala), Khyber Pakhtukhwa (Peshawar), and Sindh.3

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases

Acne

Fresh rind of C. sinensis is rubbed on face for the treatment of acne in Districts Tando Muhammad Khan, Tandojam, Dadu, Badin, Sajawal, Ghotki, Sukkur, Tandoallahyar, Kashmore, Nawabshah, Umerkot, and Mirpurkhas (Sindh).

Ground peel of C. sinensis and Citrus limonum L. (Lemon), is mixed with phitkari and aqeous base to make a paste. It is applied for the treatment of acne.

 Athlete’s foot

Ground peel of C. sinensis is applied topically on the area of infection for the treatment of Athlete’s foot in District Kashmore (Sindh).

Constituents

C. sinensis contain limonene, citral, methyl anthranilate, decyclic aldehyde, linalol, and terpineol. It also contain flavanoids hesperidine, 5-hydroxyaurantin, 5-O-desmethyl nobiletin, vitamin c, α-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, citronellal, neral, and geranial.2,4,5

 

Chemical Structures:

Citrus-Sinensis-L-st

 

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacological/Scientific Studies

Leaves of C. sinensis is used for the treatment of arthritis and bronchitis. Aqueous extract of the flower is used for the treatment of scurvy, fever, inflammation, and nervous disoders. Decoction is used for the treatment of enlarged spleen. Dried rind is used for the treatment of  atonic dyspepsia.6 Oil is used for the treatment of constipation, dyspepsia, and used as a general tonic.4 Drinking juice of C. sinensis is beneficial for kidney stone. Plant possessed anticarcinogenic, antiulcer, antityphoid, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antianxiety, antiarthritis, and antiinflammaatory properties.7

 References

  1. Pullaih, T. (2006). “Encyclopedia of World Medicinal Plants”, 1 p: 582, Regency Publications, New Delhi, India.
  2. Ali, M. (2007). “Textbook of Pharmacognosy”, p: 189, CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, Second.
  3. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=200012435.
  4. http://www.essentialoils.co.za/essential-oils/orange.htm.
  5. Njoroge, S. M., Phi, N. T. L., and Sawamura, M. (2009). “Chemical Composition of Peel Essential Oils of Sweet Oranges (Citrus sinensis) from Uganda and Rwanda”.Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 12(1). p: 26-33.
  6. Khare, C.P. (2007). “Indian Medicinal Plants”, p: 154, Springer Science Publication, New York, U.S.A.
  7. Milind, P, and Dev, C. (2012). “Orange: Ranges of Benefits”. International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 3(7). p: 59-63.