Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck

Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck

Botanical Name:         Citrus sinensis L. OsbeckCitrus sinensis L. Osbeck

Synonym:                     Citrus aurantium var.sinensisLinn.

Kingdom:                      Plantae

Order:                              Sapindales

Family:                            Rutaceae

Genus:                             Citrus                                                                                

Local Name:                  Narangi

Sindhi Name:                 Kinnoo

English Name:               Orange

 Part Used:                     Fruit, pulp, and peel

Description

Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck is a spinous tree and about 10 m tall. Spines are lean and bendable. Leaves are aromatic, ovate-oblong to ovate, serrulate, and acute to obtuse. Petiole is narrowly-oblanceolate winged. Flowers are axillary and 1-6 flowered cymes. Petals are reflexed. Fruit is oblate to slightly oval. Rind is deep yellow to orange-red color and sweet or slightly sore1.

Occurrence

C. sinensisis widely cultivated in South and East Asia. In Pakistan, it is widely cultivated in Sargodha, Gujranwala (Punjab), Peshawar (Khyber Pakhtoonkhawa), and Sindh region1,2.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases

Ring worm

Peels of Citrus sinensis L. (orange) is crushed and then mixed with water to make a paste. It is applied topically on infected skin daily for the treatment of ringworm in Districts Sukkur and Kambar-Shahdadkot (Sindh).

Acne

Peels of C. sinensis is rubbed on affected area of skin for the treatment of acne in districts Qazi Ahmed and Kot- Daji (Sindh). It is also rubbed on foots for the treatment of athlete’s foot in districts Sajawal, Sanghar, Tando Allahyar, and Kandhkot (Sindh). It is rubbed on pigmented area of skin Districts Gambat and SobhaDero (Sindh).

Citrus limonum L. (Lemon), egg, and peel of C. sinensis are ground together to make a paste, and applied on face for the treatment on acne District Badin (Sindh).

Brown spot on face

Juice of C. sinensis peels are massaged on brown spot on face in District Kambar-Shahdadkot (Sindh).

Peel of C. sinensis is crushed and then mixed in fresh milk cream (Balai) to make a paste. This paste is used as face mask for the treatment of brown spots in District Tando Muhammad khan (Sindh).

Face hairs

Cicer arientum L. (Gram), Prunus amygdalus Batch. (Almond), and C. sinensis are crushed, and mixed with water to make a paste. It is applied on face for one month in District Qazi Ahmed (Sindh).

Freckles

Citrus limonum L. (Lemon) and peel of C. sinensis are crushed, and mixed with milk to make a thick paste. It is applied twice a day till recovery on freckles in Districts TandoBago and Badin (Sindh).

Chemical constituents

C. sinensiscontain limonene, citral, methyl anthranilate, decyclic aldehyde, linalol, and terpineol. It also contain flavanoids hesperidine, 5-hydroxyaurantin, 5-O-desmethyl nobiletin, vitamin c, α-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, citronellal, neral, and geranial2,3,4.

Chemical Structure:

Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck.st

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

Fruits of C. sinensis have cooling, digestive, carminative, and tonic effects. It is traditionally used in asthma, cough, vomiting, thirst, blood purification, fever, dyspepsia, and hiccough5. Fruit has a beneficial effects on skin as it keep skin fresh, young, and glowing, and also protect skin from damaging effects.  It also helps in digestion and regulates bowel movement. It also regulates heartbeat, blood pressure, and improves vision8.

A preliminary invitrostudy of peel extract suggested a hypoglycemic effect6. Peel extract is also reported possess an anti-injury effect on germ cells7.Flavonoids of C. sinensis are reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, anticancer, antiartherosclerosis, and antiobesity activities8.

References

  1. Flora of Pakistan:http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspxflora_id=5&taxon_id=200011856.
  2. Ali, M. (2007). “Textbook of Pharmacognosy”, p: 189, CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, Second.
  3. http://www.essentialoils.co.za/essential-oils/orange.htm.
  4. Njoroge, S. M., Phi, N. T. L., and Sawamura, M. (2009). “Chemical Composition of Peel Essential Oils of Sweet Oranges (Citrus sinensis) from Uganda and Rwanda”.Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants12(1), 26-33.
  5. Sivarajan, V. V., and Balchandran, I. (1994).Ayurvedic Drugs and Their Plant Sources. 123-302, Oxford and IBH Publishers, New Delhi.
  6. Chau, C. F., Huang, Y. L., and Lee, M. H. (2003).In vitro hypoglycemic effects of different insoluble fiber-rich fractions prepared from the peel of Citrus sinensis Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51, 6623–6626.
  7. Liu, Q., Jiao, Q., and Liu, T. (1998). Anti-injure effect of extract from orange (EOP) peel on germ cells of male mice. Zhong Yao Cai, 21, 88–90.
  8. Etebu, E., and Nwauzoma, A. B. (2014). A review on sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L Osbeck): Health, Diseases and Management. American Journal of Research Communication, 2, 33e70.