Citrus limonum R.

 Citrus limonum R.

Botanical Name:       Citrus Limonum.R

Kingdom:                   PlantaeCitrus Limonum. R

Order:                         Sapindales

Family:                        Rutaceae

Genus:                         Citrus

Species:                       Limonum

Local Name:               Limoo

Sindhi Name:             Lemon

English Name:          Lemon

Part used:                 Leaves and Fruit

Description

C. Limonum is a branched thorny shrub. Leaves are ovate. Flowers are white in color and are solitary or in cluster. Seeds are many. Fruit is oblong and bright yellow in color. Pericarp is thick.1

 Occurrence

C. Limonum is a native to the foothills of the Himalayas. It is also cultivated in Brazil, China and USA. In Pakistan, it is cultivated in the plains of Punjab, Sind and Baluchistan.2,3

 Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases

Measles, Eczema, and Tinea capitis (Scalp Ringworm)

Paste of Soaked multani mitti and C.Limonum juice is applied topically for the treatment of measles, eczema, Tinea capitis in District Tando Muhammad Khan, Tandoallahyar, Kashmore, Jamshoro, Sajawal, Sukkur, Dadu, Tandojam, Badin, Ghotki, Nawabshah, and Umerkot (Sindh).

Acne and Brown spot on face

Juice of C.Limonum is applied on the face for the treatment of acne and brown spot in District Tando Muhammad Khan, Tandojam, Dadu, Badin, Sajawal, Ghotki, Sukkur, Tandoallahyar, Kashmore, Nawabshah, Umerkot, and Mirpurkhas (Sindh). In the same districts mixture of ground peel of C. limonum, phitkari, aqeous base and C. sinensis L. is used for the treatment of acne.

Heat Rashes

A ground leaf of A. indica is mix with the juice of C. limonum to form a paste. This paste is applied topically on the area of infection for the treatment of Heat Rashes in District Tando Muhammad Khan, Tandojam, Tandoallahyar, Kashmore, Dadu, Sajawal, Badin, Umerkot, Ghotki, Nawabshah, Sukkur, and Mirpurkhas (Sindh).

Prickly heat and Ringworm

Paste of Soaked multani mitti and C.Limonum juice is applied topically for the treatment of prickly heat and ringworm in District Badin, Tandoallahyar, Sajawal, Ghotki, Kashmore, Umerkot, Nawabshah, and Mirpurkhas (Sindh).

Alopecia

C.Limonum is rubbed on the area of infection for the treatment of alopecia in District Umerkot, Ghotki, Sukkur, Nawabshah, and Jacobabad (Sindh).

Vitiligo

Juice of C.Limonum is mixed with hot milk. This mixture is used for the treatment of vitiligo in District Mirpurkhas and Nawabshah,(Sindh).

Hair Dandruff

Soaked clay is mixed with juice of C.Limonum to make a paste. This paste is used for the treatment of hair dandruff in District Mirpurkhas, Ghotki, Nawabshah, and Sajawal (Sindh).

 Constituents

Limonene is the main constituent of C.Limonum. It also contains l-linalool, d– Limonene, Linalyl acetate, nerol, neral, citric acid, malic acid, calcium oxalate benzoic acid, cinnamic acid. It also contain coumarins, vitamins A, B, C, flavonoids, sugar, mucilage and carotenoids.4,5,6

Chemical Structures:

Citrus-limonum-R-st

 

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacological/ Scientific Studies

Oil of C.Limonum is used to reduce blood pressure, headaches and migraines. It has been reported that the oil is used against throat infections, bronchitis, asthma and flu.5 Oil possesses rubefacient, stimulating and carminative properties.7 It was also reported that oil is beneficial for rheumatism, arthritis, constipation, dyspepsia and cellulite. It improves immune system and function of digestive system. 5 Juice is used for the treatment of warts and tumors. The plant possesses antibacterial, antiseptic, laxative, liniment, antioxidant and vermifuge properties.4 it was reported that oil of C.Limonum is beneficial for clearing acne and also for removing dead skin cells.5

 References

  1. Pullaih, T. (2006). “Encyclopedia of World Medicinal Plants”. Publisher, Regency Publications New Delhi, India.2 p: 578.
  2. http://pakagrifarming.blogspot.com/2013/02/introduction-to-citrus-in-pakistan-and.html.
  3. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=242313269.
  4. Thomas, S.,C.,Li. (2000).Medicinal Plants: Culture, Utilization and Phytopharmacology” CRC Press Boca Raton London Newyork Washington, D.C, p: 371.
  5. http://www.essentialoils.co.za/essential-oils/lemon.htm.
  6. http://www.medicinalplants-pharmacognosy.com/herbs-medicinal-plants/lemon-benefits/.
  7. https://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/l/lemon-16.html.