Citrus limonum R.

Citrus limonum R.                                                                              

Botanical Name:        Citrus limonum R.Citrus limonum R

Synonym:                  Citrus limon (L.) Burm.fil.

                                    Citrus medica f. limon (L.) Hiroe

                                    Citrus medica var. limon L.

Kingdom:                   Plantae

Order:                        Sapindales

Family:                       Rutaceae

Genus:                        Citrus

Local Name:               Limoo

English Name:           Lemon

Urdu Name:               Limoo

Part Used:                  Fruit and leaves

 Description

Citrus limonum Ris a small and spiny tree. Leaves are rich green in color, elongated, and stringy. Flower buds are purple in color and 5-petaled. Fruits are oval to globe, 7.5 to 12.5 cm length, green, and juicy, and get yellow color on ripening. Fruit skin is smooth to rough and spotted with oil glands1,2.

Occurrence

C. limonum is originated in Pakistan and India but grown throughout the world from tropical, semi-tropical to Mediterranean region1.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases

 Alopecia:

  1. Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f. (Lemon) juice is applied at the affected area for curing alopecia and onychomycosis in District Sukkur (Sindh). This juice is used 3-4 times daily for curing alopecia, ringworm, and freckles in District Umerkot (Sindh), and for curing acne and fungal infections in Districts Badin and Sajawal (Sindh).
  2. C.limon juice is used for the treatment of alopecia in Districts Mitiari, Badin, Thatta, Larkana, Ghotki, and Jamshoro (Sindh). Lemon juice is used to treat fungal infection and measles in District Khairpur (Sindh), Lemon juice is also applied at the area affected from scabies and scorpion bite in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  3. Paste of C.limon juice and Allium sativum Linn. (Garlic) is applied on the area affected from alopecia in District Mitiari (Sindh). This paste is also used for curing fungal infections in District Jamshoro (Sindh).
  4. Paste of Azadirachta indica A.Juss., (Neem) and C.limon leaves is used for the treatment of alopecia in District Mitiari (Sindh).
  5. Paste of kamo leaves** in C.limon juice is used for curing alopecia in District Mitiari (Sindh).
  6. Paste of C.limon juice, Allium sativum (Garlic) and Lawsonia inermis L. (Henna) is applied to the affected area for the treatment of alopecia in District Ghotki (Sindh).

Prickly Heat and Pimples

  1. Paste of fuller’s earth and C. limon juice is used to cure prickly heat and acne in Districts Sukkur, Nausheroferoz, Nawabshah and Jamshoro  (Sindh), respectively. This paste is also used for curing wound and scabies in Districts Shikarpur and Mitiari (Sindh), respectively. This paste is also applied on body for one hour to cure measles in District Karachi (Sindh). This paste is also used to cure fungal infections in District Badin (Sindh). This paste is used for curing prickly heat and scabies in District Khairpur (Sindh).
  2. Allium cepa L. (Onion), fuller’s earth and C. limon juice are mixed and applied on the affected area in District Nausheroferoz (Sindh).
  3. Mix Trichostema lanceolatum Benth. (Vinegar) and C. limon juice in luke warm water and bath is taken with this water for the cure of prickly heat in District Jamshoro (Sindh).
  4. Paste of Ziziphus numularia L. (Chinese apple) leaves, C. limon juice and fuller’s earth is applied to the area affected from prickly heat in District Sajawal (Sindh).
  5. C. limon juice is used for the treatment of prikly heat in District Nausheroferoz (Sindh).
  6. It is advised to use the paste of leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss., (Neem) and juice of C. limon to treat pimples in District Thatta (Sindh).
  7. Paste of fuller’s earth and C. limon juice in oil of Brassica compestris L. (Mustard) is applied in District Kamber Shahdad Kot(Sindh).

Ringworm:

  1. Paste of fuller’s earth, C. limon juice, and Lallemantia royleana Benth. (Cool seeds) is used for a week for the treatment of ringworm in District Shikarpur (Sindh).
  2. C.limon juice is applied at the area affected from ringworm for 2-3 days in Districts Mitiari, Kashmore,  Mirpurkhas, and Ghotki (Sindh).
  3. Paste of C. limon juice and fuller’s earth is used to cure ringworm in District Ghotki (Sindh).
  4. Powder of C. limon peel is mixed with the petroleum to make ointment and applied on the diseased area in District Tando Muhammad Khan (Sindh).

Dandruff

  1. Mix C. limon juice, sugar and Cocos nucifera L. (Coconut) oil. This oil is applied on the scalp daily to get rid of dandruff in District Jamshoro (Sindh).
  2. Paste of C. limon juice and fuller’s earth is applied on the scalp for 3-4 hours for the treatment of dandruff in District Mirpurkhas (Sindh).

Freckles/ Brown Spot

  1. Paste of Citrus sinensis L. (Orange) and dried peel of C. limon is applied twice a day for curing freckles in District Badin (Sindh).
  2. Paste of Citrus sinensis (Orange) and C.limon is applied for treatment of brown spot in District Kashmore (Sindh).
  3. C. limon (Lemon) juice is applied for the treatment of freckles in District Tando Muhammad Khan (Sindh).

Acne

  1. Mixture of C.limon juice, Citrus sinensis (Orange) juice and ground alum is used for curing acne in District Badin (Sindh).
  2. Paste of C. limon juice and fuller’s earth is used for the treatment of acne in Districts Nausheroferoz, Tando Jam, and Ghotki (Sindh). This paste is also used for the treatment of heat rashes in Ghotki (Sindh). This paste is also used to cure eczema in District Tando Jam(Sindh).
  3. Paste of honey and C. limon juice is applied on affected area for curing acne in District Nausheroferoz (Sindh).
  4. C. limon juice is mixed in mlik and then applied on the area affected of acne in the District Nausheroferoz (Sindh).
  5. Paste of fuller’s earth, C. limon juice and water of Rosa indica Linn. is applied for the cure of acne in Districts Thatta and Nawabshah (Sindh).
  6. C. limon juice is used for curing acne and eczema in Districts Nawabshah and Kamber Shahdad Kot (Sindh), while the peel of lemon is also used to get rid of acne in District Nawabshah. (Sindh).
  7. Paste of egg, honey and C. limon juice is used to treat acne in District Nawabshah (Sindh).
  8. Paste of potash alum and C. limon peel is made and applied for the treatment of acne in District Nawabshah (Sindh).

Heat rashes:

  1. Leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and C.limon juice is mixed in water and boiled, this water is used to treat heat rashes in Districts Badin, Nawabshah, and Kashmore (Sindh).
  2. Paste of fuller’s earth and C. limon juice is applied to cure heat rashes in District Nawabshah (Sindh).

Hair fall/ Hair loss:

  1. Paste of curds, eggs, Lawsonia inermis (Henna), C.limon juice is applied to scalp for the treatment of hair fall twice a week in District Nausheroferoz (Sindh).
  2. C.limon juice, eggs, and yogurt are mixed and applied for 5-10 days in District Nausheroferoz (Sindh).
  3. Paste of fuller’s earth, C. limon juice, and salt is mixed with oil of Brassica compestris L. (Mustard) and applied to the hair roots to control hair fall in District Sanghar(Sindh).

Scabies and Itiching

  1. Paste of C. limon juice and fuller’s earth is applied at the affected area and bath with Azadirachta indica (Neem) water is taken for curing scabies in District Nausheroferoz (Sindh).
  2. Massage of C. limon juice is taken for curing scabies in District Nausheroferoz (Sindh), and for curing itching in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
  3. It is advised to rub the paste of C. limon juice, fuller’s earth, and clay to the area affected from scabies in District Thatta (Sindh).
  4. C. limon juice, salt, sulfur are mixed with oil of Eruca sativa Mill. (Jamba oil ) and this oil is applied at the affected area of scabies in District Sanghar (Sindh).

Insect bite:

  1. Paste of Allium sativum (Garlic) and C. limon juice is applied on the affected site in District Nawabshah(Sindh).
  2. C. limon (Lemon) juice is applied on the affected site in District Jacobabad (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

C. limonum is rich in flavonoids, citric acid, vitamins A, B and C (ascorbic acid-þ dehidroascorbic acid), phenolic compounds, dietary fibers, and minerals3,4. Essential oilcontains α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, p-cymene, limonene, γ-terpinene, terpinolene, linalool, citronellal, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, citronellol5. Peel contain C-glucosylflavonesincluding 6,8-di-C-β-glucosyldiosmin and 6-C-β-glucosyldiosmin and flavonoids (eriodictyol, hesperidin and eriocitrin)5,6. Flavonoids in fruit include eriocitrin, diosmin, hesperidin and narirutin6.

Chemical Structure:

Citrus limonum R.st

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

Fruit of C. limonum possess antioxidant properties which make it useful as a preservative1.Essential oil regulates the oxidative stress hence prevent skin from diseases4. Lemon juice is used in the treatment of hypertension7. Vitamin C in lemon reduces the chances of cardiovascular diseases8. Fruit is used in treating teeth diseases and infections9.

C. limonum possess anti-aging activity5. Flavonoids of C. limonum are important in cancer treatment4, and possess antifungal, antiviral, antidiabetic and antibacterial activities10,11. Eriocitrin present in C. limonum is reported to have apoptotic activity against HL-60 cells12.Flavonoids (Hesperidin and diosmin) are found to be effective in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency, chronic haemorrhoid, and venous leg ulcer13.Peel extract of C. limonum reduced the risk of obesity14.C. limonum juice extract possessed anti bacterial activity15.

References

  1. Encyclopedia of life, http://eol.org/pages/582200/details
  2. Mohanapriya, M., Ramaswamy, D. L., and Rajendran, D. R. (2013). Health and Medicinal properties of Lemon (Citrus limonum). International Journal of Ayurvedic and Herbal Medicine3(1), 1095-1100.
  3. Gironés-Vilaplana, A., Valentão, P., Andrade, P. B., Ferreres, F., Moreno, D. A., and García-Viguera, C. (2012). Phytochemical profile of a blend of black chokeberry and lemon juice with cholinesterase inhibitory effect and antioxidant potential. Food chemistry134(4), 2090-2096.
  4. González-Molina, E., Domínguez-Perles, R., Moreno, D. A., and García-Viguera, C. (2010). Natural bioactive compounds of Citrus limon for food and health. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis51(2), 327-345.
  5. Bertuzzi, G., Tirillini, B., Angelini, P., and Venanzoni, R. (2013). Antioxidative action of Citrus limonum essential oil on skin. European Journal of Medicinal Plants3(1), 1.
  6. Miyake, Y., Yamamoto, K., Morimitsu, Y., and Osawa, T. (1997). Isolation of C-glucosylflavone from lemon peel and antioxidative activity of flavonoid compounds in lemon fruit. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry45(12), 4619-4623.
  7. Adibelli, Z., Dilek, M., and Akpolat, T. (2009). Lemon juice as an alternative therapy in hypertension in Turkey. International Journal of Cardiology135(2), e58-e59.
  8. Enstrom, J. E., Kanim, L. E., and Klein, M. A. (1992). Vitamin C intake and mortality among a sample of the United States population. Epidemiology,3(3), 194-202.
  9. Nisar, M. F., Ismail, S., Arshad, M., Majeed, A., and Arfan, M. (2011). Ethnomedicinal flora of District Mandi Bahaudin, Pakistan. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research9(2), 233-238.
  10. Burt, S. (2004). Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods—a review. International journal of food microbiology,94(3), 223-253.
  11. Ortuño, A., Báidez, A., Gómez, P., Arcas, M. C., Porras, I., García-Lidón, A., and Del Rio, J. A. (2006). Citrus paradisi and Citrus sinensis flavonoids: Their influence in the defence mechanism against Penicillium digitatum.Food Chemistry98(2), 351-358.
  12. Ogata, S., Miyake, Y., Yamamoto, K., Okumura, K., and Taguchi, H. (2000). Apoptosis induced by the flavonoid from lemon fruit (Citrus limon f.) and its metabolites in HL-60 cells. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry64(5), 1075-1078.
  13. Hitzenberger, G. (1996). Therapeutic effectiveness of flavonoids illustrated by daflon 500 mg. Wiener medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)147(18), 409-412.
  14. Ezekwesili-Ofili, J. O., and Gwacham, N. C. (2015). Comparative effects of peel extract from Nigerian grown citrus on body weight, liver weight and serum lipids in rats fed a high-fat diet. African Journal of Biochemistry Research9(9), 110-116.
  15. Okeke, M. I., Okoli, A. S., Eze, E. N., Ekwume, G. C., Okosa, E. U., and Iroegbu, C. U. (2015). Antibacterial activity of Citrus limonum fruit juice extract. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences28(5), 1567-1571.