Cinnamomum camphora (Linn.) Presl.

Cinnamomum camphora (Linn.) Presl.

Botanical Name:        Cinnamomum camphora (Linn.) Presl.Cinnamomum camphora (Linn.) Presl.

Kingdom:                      Plantae

Order:                            Laurales

Family:                          Lauraceae

Genus:                           Cinnamomum

Species:                        C. camphora

Local Name:                Kafur, kaphoor

Sindhi Name:               Kaphor

English Name:             Camphorwood

Part Used:                     Whole plant

Description:

Cinnamomum camphora (Linn.) Presl. is a large tree.Branchlets are slender and glabrous.Terminal buds are large and perulate;outer bud scales are glabrous, and inner buds are sericeous. Leaves are arranged spirally, glabrous, chartaceous to sub-coriaceous,and base acute or tapered-cuneate. Both surfaces of leaves are minutely reticulate or above smooth with slender main nerves.Petiole is long and slender. Tepals are ovate, acutish, and fleshy. Fruit are globose, slightly fleshy, and are about 5-10 mm in diameter1.

Occurances:

C. camphora is cultivated all over the world. It is widely naturalized in Australia. This plant is distributed from China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and Asia.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases (Sindh):

Pyoderma

Cinnamomum camphora (Linn.) Presl. (Camphorwood) is mixed with dried Lawsonia inermis L. (Henna) are mixed together to make a paste. It is applied topically for the treatment of abscess in Districts Sukkur (Sindh).

Scabies:

C. camphora is mixed with oil to make a paste and applied topically on affected area for the treatment of scabies in Districts Sajawal and Nawabshah (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents:

4-hydroxysesamin, 3,3´-dihydroxy-4,4´-dimethoxytetrahydrofuran lignanoid, 3, 4-

methylenedioxyphenyl-3´,9-dihydroxy-4´-methoxy- tetrahydrofuran lignanoid, lyoniresinol ,

(+)-3 -(3, 4 – methylenedioxyphenyl)- 1,2- propanediol, isolariciresinol, taiwanin C, chinensinaphthol l, borneol, and daucosterol were isolated from C. camphora2.

Chemical Structure:

Cinnamomum camphora (Linn.) Presl.st.

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies:

C. camphora has been used as a cold remedy for the relief of chest congestion.The lpant is also used in the traetment of various inflammation related diseases such as rheumatism, sprains, bronchitis, asthma, and muscle pain3. Camphor oil applied topically on the skin and produces the feeling of coolness4. Camphor is used in the treatment of hysteria internally while used externally in liniments for treating joint and muscle pains, balms for chilblains, chapped lips, cold sores, and skin diseases. Wood and leaves are stimulant, analgesic, antispasmodic, odontalgic, and rubefacient. Infusion is inhaled in colds and lungs diseases. Essential oil is anthelmintic, antirheumatic, antispasmodic, cardiotonic, carminative, diaphoretic, sedative, and tonic, and also used in aromatherapy. It’s excessive used is prohibited, as it causes vomiting, palpitations, convulsions, and even death. It might be possible that camphora oil can be absorbed through the skin, causing systemic poisoning. It is used in the treatment of digestive complaints and depression5.

C. camphora has many pharmaceutical applications such as analgesic, antispasmodic, antipruritc, anti-inflammatory, rubefacient, contraceptive, antiseptic, mild expectorant, nasal decongestant, anti-infective, and cough suppressant. Studies revealed that C. camphora have suppressive and antimutagenic effect4.

References:

  1. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=200008697.
  2. Jin, L., Luo, Y., Zhang, L., Zhang, S., & Luo, Y. (2015). Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Cinnamomum camphora. Atlantis Press, 190-193.
  3. Salman, A. S., Farghaly, A. A., Donya, S. M., & Shata, F. (2012). Protective Effect of Cinnamomum Camphora Leaves Extract Against Atrazine Induced Genotoxicity and Biochemical Effect on Mice. Journal of American Science, 8(1), 190-6.
  4. Hamidpour, R., Hamidpour, S., Hamidpour, M., & Shahlari, M. (2013). Camphor (Cinnamomum camphora), a traditional remedy with the history of treating several diseases. International Journal of Case Reports and Images (IJCRI), 4(2), 86-89.
  5. Chelliah, A. (2008). Biological Activity Prediction of an Ethno Medicinal Plant Cinnamomum camphora Through Bio-informatics,Ethnobotanical Leaflets, 12, 181-190.