Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl.

Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl.  

Classification:                       

Botanical Name:                  Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl.

Synonym:                              Laurus camphora L.Cinnamomum-camphora (1)

Kingdom:                              Plantae

Order:                                     Laurales

Family:                                   Lauraceae

Species:                                 C. camphora

Genus:                                   Cinnamomum

Sindhi Name:                       Kaphoor ji tikki

Local Name:                         Kaphoor

English Name:                     Camphor tree

Part Used:                             Leaves, flowers, and stem

 

Description:

Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl. is a tall and evergreen tree, with 30 m height, and 1.5-2.5 m girth. Bark is aromatic, rough from inside, and smooth from outside. Wood is yellowish-brown and strongly aromatic. Leaves are coriaceous, glaucous, aromatic, usually 3-veined, and 5-10 cm long. Flowers are small, unisexual, and yellow in color. Female flowers are usually larger than males. Fruit is globose, ovoid, and seated on more or less enlarged perianth. All parts of the plants possess special odour.1, 3

 

Occurrence:

C. camphora is native to Japan, China, Ryukas, Veitnam, and Taiwan. It is also planted in gardens up to 1219 m in north western Himalayas.1, 2, 3

 

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases:

C. camphora is mixed with mustard oil and applied topically once daily for the treatment of scabies in District Thatta (Sindh).

Constituents:

Stem and leaves of C. camphora contain an essential oil consisting of camphor. It also contains D-α-pinene, cineole, terpineol, caryophyllin, safrole, limonene, linalool, phellandrene, carvacrol, camphene, and azulene.1, 5, 6

 

Chemical Structures: 

 

Cinnamomum-camphora-st. (1)

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific studies:

C. camphora is sedative, anodyne, antiseptic, diaphoretic, anthelmintic, and carminative. Vapors of decoction are inhaled in cough and cold. A liniment, prepared by dissolving one part of camphor in four parts of olive oil, is used externally for the treatment of muscular strains and rheumatism. It also exhibited anti-inflammatory property.1 Camphor tree efficiently treats fever, gout, rheumatic fever, and carbuncles.2 It is also very useful for the treatment of bronchitis and pneumonia.4 It exhibited insecticidal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities.6,7,8,9

 

References:

  • Dhiman, A. K. (2006), Ayurvedic Drug Plants, p. 201-202, Daya Publishers, Delhi-110 035, India.
  • Joshi, S. G. (2000), Medicinal Plants, p. 236-237, Mohan Primlani Oxford & IBH Publishers Co. Pvt. Ltd.66 Janpath, New Delhi 110001, India.
  • Pullaiah, T. (2006), Encyclopedia of World Medicinal Plants, V. 2, p. 557, Regency Publishers, New Delhi, India.
  • Khare, C. P. (2007), Indian Medicinal Plants, p. 148-149, Springer Science Publishers, New Delhi-110058, India.
  • Frizzo, C. D., Santos, A. C., Paroul, N., Serafini, L. a., Dellacassa, E., Lorenzo, D., and Moyna, P. (2000). Essential oils of camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora nees & eberm) cultivated in Southern Brazil. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 43(3), 313–316.
  • Chen, H. P., Yang, K., You, C. X., Lei, N., Sun, R. Q., Geng, Z. F., and Deng, Z. W. (2014). Chemical constituents and insecticidal activities of the essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora leaves against Lasioderma serricorne. Journal of Chemistry, 2014(id:963729), 1–5.
  • Pragadheesh, V. S., Saroj, A., Yadav, A., Chanotiya, C. S., Alam, M., and Samad, A. (2013). Chemical characterization and antifungal activity of Cinnamomum camphora essential oil. Industrial Crops and Products, 49(2013), 628–633.
  • Ankita, S., Chandra, S. S., Suman, R., Sciences, N., Grease, S., and Sciences, N. (2014). Free radical scavanging activity of leaves of Cinnamomum camphor International Journal of Pharmacy, 4(1), 407–409.
  • Jianyu, Su., Chen, J., Liao, S., Lin L., Zhu, L., and Chen, L. (2012). Composition and biological activities of the essential oil extracted from a novel plant of Cinnamom camphora Chvar. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 6(18), 3487-3494.