Cassia fistula L.
Synonym: Cassia excelsa Kunth
Cassia rhombifolia Roxb.
Local Name: Amaltas
English Name: Golden shower
Part Used: Whole plant
Cassia fistula L. is a deciduous plant and10 mlong. Leaves are pinnate, alternate,and about 12-28 leaflets are present. Flowers are orange-yellow, long, and obtuse with oblong calyx. Fruit is cylindrical and pendulouscontaining 25-100 lenticular seeds1,3.
C. fistula is native to South-East Asia.
Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases
Cassia fistula Linn. (Golden shower) leaves are used for curing acne in District Sukkur (Sindh).
- Plant Cassia fistula Linn. (Golden shower) is soaked overnight in water and this water is taken orally for curing pyoderma in the District Sukkur (Sindh).
- C. fistula seeds, Berberis vulgaris L. (European Barberry), Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. (Bahera), Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) (Nutmeg), Withania coagulans Dun. (Stocks.) (Vegetable rennet) were boiled and one teaspoon of this water is taken daily for the treatment of pyoderma in the District Naushahroferoz (Sindh).
Paste of C. fistula seeds is applied on the affected area for curing athletes foot in the Districts Sajawal, Dadu, Kashmore, and Nawabshah (Sindh).
C. fistula seeds were soaked overnight and then ground to make a paste which is applied to the affected area for curing piles in the Districts Jacobabad, Thatta, and Tando Jam (Sindh).
Paste of C. fistula seeds and Tinospora cordifolia (DC.) Miers. (Tinospora) is used for the healing of lesion in district Thatta (Sindh).
- fistula contain varieties of chemical compound, includingtannins, saponins, gum, alkaloids,long chain hydrocarbon, terpene4, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, phenol5, palmitic acid, stearic acid, stigmatosterol, chrysophanol, and 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde6. Fruits are known to be a rich source of iron and manganese. Amino acids like aspartic acid, glutamic acid and lysine are also present in the plant7.
Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies
Roots are extensively used as astringent, febrifuge and tonic, and in cure of blood poisning, dysentery, chest pain, joint pain and migraine. Leaves are used for the treatment of jaundice, ulcers, piles, skin eruptions, eczema and ringworms8. Flower, pod, and root are used in heart diseases, fever, migraine, jointpain, and blood dysentery. Fruits are used for the treatment of asthma,chest complaints,eye diseases, diabetes, and liver complaints. Powder of seeds is used against amoebiasis9.
C. fistulais reported for several important biological activities including, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, purgative, hepatoprotective, antitussive, anti-inflammatory,and immunomodulatory5,10,11,12,13,14.
- Flora of Pakistan: http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspxflora_id=5&taxon_id=200011856.
- Gupta,, Mazumder, U. K., Rath, N. and Mukhopadhyay, D.K. (2000). Antitumor activity of methanolic extract of Cassia fistula L. seed against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma.Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 72(1-2), 151-156.
- Luximon-Ramma, A., Bahorun, T., Soobrattee, M. A., and Aruoma, O. I. (2002). Antioxidant activities of phenolic, proanthocyanidin, and flavonoid components in extracts of Cassia fistula.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50(18), 5042-5047.
- Lee,C. K., Lee, H., and Kuo, Y. H. (2001). The Chemical Constituents from the Aril ofCassia fistula L. Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society, 48(6), 1053-1058.
- Barthakur, N. N., Arnold, N. P., and Alli, I. (1995). The Indian laburnum (Cassia fistula) fruit: an analysis of its chemical constituents.Plant foods for human nutrition, 47(1), 55-62.
- Danish, M., Singh, P. Mishra, G., Srivastava, S., Jha, K. K. and Khosa, R.L. (2011). Cassia fistula (Amulthus)- An important medicinal plant: A review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties. Journal of Natural Products Plant Resources, 1(1), 101-118.
- Deshpande, H. A., and Bhalsing, S. R. (2013). Recent advances in the phytochemistry of some medicinally important Cassia species: A Review. International journal of pharma medicine and biological sciences, 2(3), 60-78.
- Manonmani,G., Bhavapriya, and Kalpana, S. (2005). Antioxidant activity of Cassia fistula (Linn.) flowers in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 97(1), 39-42.
- Duraipandiyan, V. and Ignacimuthu, S. (2007). Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Cassia fistula: An ethnomedicinal plant. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 112(3), 590-594.
- Govindarajan, M., Jebanesan, A. and Pushpanathan, T. (2008). Larvicidal and ovicidal activity of Cassia fistula leaf extract against filarial and malarial vector mosquitoes.Parasitology Research, 102(2), 289-292.
- The Wealth of India, First Supplement Series (Raw Materials), National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources, CSIR, 2007, Vol 3 (Ca-Ci), 340-342.
- Ali, N. H., Kazmi, S. U. and Faizi, S. (2008). Modulation of humoral immunity by Cassia fistula and amoxy-cassia. Pakistan Journal of Pharmacy and Science, Vol.21, No.1, pp.21-23.