Cassia fistula L.

Cassia fistula L.

Botanical Name:             Cassia fistula L. Plant of Cassia fistula L.

Synonym:                         Cassia excelsa Kunth

                                              Cassia fistuloides

                                              Cassia rhombifolia Roxb.

Kingdom:                         Plantae

Order:                                Fabales

Family:                              Fabaceace

Genus:                                Cassia

Local Name:                   Amaltas

English Name:               Golden shower

Part Used:                       Whole plant

 Description

Cassia fistula L. is a deciduous plant and10 mlong. Leaves are pinnate, alternate,and about 12-28 leaflets are present. Flowers are orange-yellow, long, and obtuse with oblong calyx. Fruit is cylindrical and pendulouscontaining 25-100 lenticular seeds1,3.

Occurrence

C. fistula is native to South-East Asia.

Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases

Acne

Cassia fistula Linn. (Golden shower) leaves are used for curing acne in District Sukkur (Sindh).

Pyoderma

  1. Plant Cassia fistula Linn. (Golden shower) is soaked overnight in water and this water is taken orally for curing pyoderma in the District Sukkur (Sindh).
  2. C. fistula seeds, Berberis vulgaris L. (European Barberry), Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. (Bahera), Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) (Nutmeg), Withania coagulans Dun. (Stocks.) (Vegetable rennet) were boiled and one teaspoon of this water is taken daily for the treatment of pyoderma in the District Naushahroferoz (Sindh).

Athletes foot

Paste of C. fistula seeds is applied on the affected area for curing  athletes foot in the Districts Sajawal, Dadu, Kashmore, and Nawabshah (Sindh).

Piles:

C. fistula seeds were soaked overnight and then ground to make a paste which is applied to the affected area for curing piles in the Districts Jacobabad, Thatta, and Tando Jam (Sindh).

Deep lesion:

Paste of C. fistula seeds and Tinospora cordifolia (DC.) Miers. (Tinospora) is used for the healing of lesion in district Thatta (Sindh).

Chemical Constituents

  1. fistula contain varieties of chemical compound, includingtannins, saponins, gum, alkaloids,long chain hydrocarbon, terpene4, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, phenol5, palmitic acid, stearic acid, stigmatosterol, chrysophanol, and 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde6. Fruits are known to be a rich source of iron and manganese. Amino acids like aspartic acid, glutamic acid and lysine are also present in the plant7.

Chemical Structure:

Cassia fistula L.st

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies

Roots are extensively used as astringent, febrifuge and tonic, and in cure of blood poisning, dysentery, chest pain, joint pain and migraine. Leaves are used for the treatment of jaundice, ulcers, piles, skin eruptions, eczema and ringworms8. Flower, pod, and root are used in heart diseases, fever, migraine, jointpain, and blood dysentery. Fruits are used for the treatment of asthma,chest complaints,eye diseases, diabetes, and liver complaints. Powder of seeds is used against amoebiasis9.

C. fistulais reported for several important biological activities including, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, purgative, hepatoprotective, antitussive, anti-inflammatory,and immunomodulatory5,10,11,12,13,14.

References

  1. Flora of Pakistan: http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspxflora_id=5&taxon_id=200011856.
  2. https://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Cassia_fistula.html.
  3. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/treedb/AFTPDFS/Cassia_fistula.PDF.
  4. Gupta,, Mazumder, U. K., Rath, N. and  Mukhopadhyay, D.K. (2000). Antitumor activity of methanolic extract of Cassia fistula L. seed against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma.Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 72(1-2), 151-156.
  5. Luximon-Ramma, A., Bahorun, T., Soobrattee, M. A., and Aruoma, O. I. (2002). Antioxidant activities of phenolic, proanthocyanidin, and flavonoid components in extracts of Cassia fistula.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry50(18), 5042-5047.
  6. Lee,C. K., Lee, H., and Kuo, Y. H. (2001). The Chemical Constituents from the Aril ofCassia fistula L. Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society, 48(6), 1053-1058.
  7. Barthakur, N. N., Arnold, N. P., and Alli, I. (1995). The Indian laburnum (Cassia fistula) fruit: an analysis of its chemical constituents.Plant foods for human nutrition47(1), 55-62.
  8. Danish, M., Singh, P. Mishra, G., Srivastava, S., Jha, K. K. and Khosa, R.L. (2011). Cassia fistula (Amulthus)- An important medicinal plant: A review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties. Journal of Natural Products Plant Resources, 1(1), 101-118.
  9. Deshpande, H. A., and Bhalsing, S. R. (2013). Recent advances in the phytochemistry of some medicinally important Cassia species: A Review. International journal of pharma medicine and biological sciences, 2(3), 60-78.
  10. Manonmani,G.,   Bhavapriya, and  Kalpana, S. (2005). Antioxidant activity of Cassia fistula (Linn.) flowers in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 97(1), 39-42.
  11. Duraipandiyan, V. and Ignacimuthu, S. (2007). Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Cassia fistula: An ethnomedicinal plant. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 112(3), 590-594.
  12. Govindarajan, M., Jebanesan, A. and Pushpanathan, T. (2008). Larvicidal and ovicidal activity of Cassia fistula leaf extract against filarial and malarial vector mosquitoes.Parasitology Research102(2), 289-292.
  13. The Wealth of India, First Supplement Series (Raw Materials), National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources, CSIR, 2007, Vol 3 (Ca-Ci), 340-342.
  14. Ali, N. H., Kazmi, S. U. and Faizi, S. (2008). Modulation of humoral immunity by Cassia fistula and amoxy-cassia. Pakistan Journal of Pharmacy and Science, Vol.21, No.1, pp.21-23.