Cassia angustifulia Mill.
Botanical Name: Cassia angustifulia Mill.
Local Name: Sena
Sindhi Name: Son makie
English Name: Cassia senna
Part Used: Wholeplant
Cassia angustifulia Mill.is aparrenial bush, with sticky texture, and up to 90 cm in height. Leaves are paripinnate. Pedicels are 3-4 cm long. Fruits are flat, grayish-brown, long, broad, and bearing 4-10 seeds1,2. Seeds are obovate to oblong, medium sized, and creamish to brown in color3.
C.angustifuliais widely distributed in Africa, Algeria, Arabia, Egypt, Eritrea, India,Kenya, Pakistan, Somali Republic, and Sudan.
Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases
- Paste of Cassia angustifolia Vahl. (Senna)leaves is applied on the affected area 2-3 times a day for curing scabies in the Districts Badin, Dadu, and Sajawal (Sindh).
- Plant C. angustifolia is soaked in water for overnight, and this water is taken (one cup) daily in morning for the treatment of scabies in Districts Nawabshah, Badin, and Sajawal (Sindh). This water is also used for the treatment of pustule and pyoderma in District Tando Muhammad Khan (Sindh).
- C. angustifolia , crystal suger, Amomum subulatum Roxb. (Black cardamom) are ground and mixed in the milk. Two teaspoon of this paste is taken for 5-6 days for curing prickly heat in District Tharparkar (Sindh).
- C. angustifolia , Withania coagulansDun. (Stocks.) (Vegetable rennet), and water of Rosa indica L. are mixed and this paste is applied on the area affected of prickly heat in District Nawabshah (Sindh). This same paste is heated and applied on affected area in District Sajawal (Sindh).
Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Neem), Withania coagulans (Vegetable rennet ), C. angustifolia are mixed in oil and this oil is applied on the measels in District Thatta (Sindh).
Seeds of C. angustifuliacontain galactomannans, consisting of (1,4)-linked β-D-mannopyranosyl unit as a main chain3. It also contains anthraquinones, mucins, maleic acid, tartaric acid, saponins, and tannins2,4. Polysaccharides, including D-galacturonic acid, D-galactose, L-arabinose and L-rhamnose are found in leaves5.CassiarinA, cassiarin B, chrobisiamoneA, siamchromones A-G, barakol,and sennosides A1 were some important constituents isolated from this plant6.
Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies
C. angustifuliais used for the treatment ofenlargement of spleen, amoebic dysentery,anemia, constipation, and cholera. It acts as febrifuge, stimulant, anthelmintic,and blood purifier11. Infusion isrecommended for the prevention of bronchitis, fevers, dysentery, andhemorrhoids.Leaves and pods have been used as purgative agents12,13.Roots are used in combination with other plants against snake bite and act as antidote. Decoction of root is recommended by herbalist in diabetes mellitus.Crushed roots are mixed with water and taken orally for curing sore throat. Root bark is used in the form of decoction and used orally for recovering from angina and malaria. Leaves decoction is taken orallyin constipation and hypertension, as well as inhaled in toothache6.C. angustifuliahas been reported for its laxative, cathartic7,8, diuretic7, hepatoprotective9, antioxidant10, and antimicrobial properties4.
- Flora of Pakistan: http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspxflora_id=5&taxon_id=200011856.
- Chaubey, M., and Kapoor, V. P. (2001). Structure of a galactomannan from the seeds of Cassia angustifolia Vahl. Carbohydrate Research, 332(4), 439-444.
- Viswanathan, S., and Nallamuthu, T. (2012). Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of Sennaalexandrina Mill. against human pathogens.International Journal of Current Science,2, 51-56.
- Muller, B. M., Kraus, J., and Franz, G. (1989). Chemical structure and biological activity of water-soluble polysaccharides from Cassia angustifolia PlantaMedica, 55(6), 536-539.
- Anton, R., and Haag-Berrurier, M. (1980). Therapeutic use of natural anthraquinone for other than laxative actions. Pharmacology, 20(1), 104-112.
- Chatterjee, A., and Pakrashi, S. C. (1991). The treatise on Indian medicinal plants: vol. 1. New Delhi: Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR 172p.-illus., col. illus. ISBN 8172360118 En Icones. Includes authentic Sanskrit slokas in both Devnagri and Roman scripts. Plant records. Geog, 6.
- Shanmugasundram, R., Devi, V. K., Tresina, P. S., Maruthupandian, A., and Mohan, V. R. (2010). hepatoprotective activity of ethanol extract of Clitoria ternatea and Cassia angustofolia vahl leafs against CCl4 induced liver toxicity in rats. International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 201-205.
- Dave, H., and Ledwani, L. (2012). A review on anthraquinones isolated from Cassia species and their applications. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, 3(3), 291-319.
- Deshpande, H. A., andBhalsing, S. R. (2013). Recent advances in the phytochemistry of some medicinally important Cassia species: A Review. International journal of pharma medicine and biological sciences, 2(3), 60-78.
- Siddique, I., and Anis, M. (2007). In vitro shoot multiplication and plantlet regeneration from nodal explants of Cassia angustifolia (Vahl.): a medicinal plant. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 29(3), 233-238.
- Wu, Q. P., Wang, Z. J., Tang, L. Y., Fu, M. H., & He, Y. (2009). A new flavonoid glucoside from Cassia angustifolia. Chinese Chemical Letters, 20(3), 320-321.