Capsicum annuum L.

Capsicum annuum L.

Classification:Capsicum-annuum-L.

Botonical Name:   Capsicum annuum L.

Kingdom:              Plantae

Order:                   Solanales

Family:                 Solanaceae

Genus:                  Capsicum

Sindhi Name:       Garha march

Local Name:         Lal march

English Name:       Red chillies

Part of plant used:  Fruit

Description:

Capsicum annuum L. with cultivated as perennial herbaceous plant. It grows up to 75 cm (30 in) in cultivated and varieties, is often shrubby in appearance.  Leaves are white or occasionally purple, campanulate (bell-shaped), often with 5 lobes, and contain 5 bluish stamens. Flowers are (around 1.5 cm, or 1 in, in diameter), borne singly, rarely, in pairs in the axils. Fruits are many seeded berries, pod-like, but with no suture that vary considerably in size and shape, ripening and to green, yellow, orange, red, or purple.1

Occurrence:

Capsicum species (Solanaceae) are native to Central, and South America, Southern Mexico, Europe, Germany, Spain, Sweden and Pakistan.

Ethnomedicinal uses in Skin Diseases:

Seeds of Capsicum annum L. are used for the treatment of dog bite infection in Districts Sukkur, Ghotki, Nawabshah,Badin and Kashmor.

 Constituents:

The chemical composition of Capsicum species include fixed oil, capsaicinoids, volatile oil, capsaicin, capsaicinoids, carotenoid pigments, mostly capsanthins, capsaician, capsanthin, and capsorubin. Phenolic compounds, terpenoids, steroids and alkaloids. vitamin C, flavonoids, B-carotene, and capsaicinoids.2,3

Chemical Structures:

Capsicum-annuum-L.-st.

Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology / Scientific Studies:

Paprika is an extract of the fruits of the genus Capsicum. Capsicums are a widely consumed natural food stuff used as a vegetable, spice or colour.  It contains an anticoagulant that helps prevent the blood clots that can cause heart attacks.4,5  Capsicum annuum L. has actions against intestinal disorders such as diarrhea, dysentery, local erythema, burning, itching.  It has antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-mutagenic and anti-tumour activities. Topical capsaicin has been shown to have a safe analgesic effect against many painful conditions such as post-herpetic neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy, inflammation, hyperlipidemia, osteoarthritis and mouth sores.6, 7

References:

  1. Agrawal, S., Chandra, N., & Kothari, S. L. (1988). Shoot-tip culture of pepper for         micropropagation. International Journal of CurrentSciences, 57(2), 1347-1349.
  2. Anilkumar, M., & Nair, A.S. (2004). Multiple shoot induction in Capsicum annuum L. CV. Early California Wonder. Journal of Plant Cell Biotechnology & Molecular Biology, 5(3&4), 95-100.
  3. Mario, J., Simirgiotis, E., Ramirez, Guillermo, S., Hirschmann, E., & Kennelly , J. (2013). Bioactive coumarins and HPLC-PDA-ESI-ToF-MS metabolic profiling of edible queule fruits (Gomortega keule), an endangered endemic Chilean species. International journal of Food Research, 54(1), 532 -543.
  4. Antonious, G. F., & Jarret, R. L. (2006). Screening Capsicum Accessions for Capsaicinoids Content. Journal of Environment Sciences, 41 (5), 717–729.
  5. Barceloux, D.G. (2008), Pepper and Capsaicin (Capsicum and Piper Species) Medicaltoxicology o f natural substances, foods, fungi, medicinal herbs, plants and venomous animals. P. 71-73, Wiley, New Jersey.
  6. Brossi, A. (1984), the alkaloids, Vol. XXIII. P. 250-252, Academic Press, Inc,USA.
  7. Raghavan, S. (2007), Handbook of Spices, Seasonings, and Flavorings, p. 87-91, CRC Press USA.