Capsicum annuum L.
Local Name: GarhaMirch
Sindhi Name: GarhaMirch
English Name: Chillipeppers
Part Used: Whole plant
Capsicum annuum L. is a large perennial shrub.Flowers are single and offwhite in color.Stem is heavily branched andup to 60 cm high. Fruits are green, yellow,and red in color when riped1.
C. annuum is native to southern North America and northern South America1.
Paste of Capsicum annuumL.( Chillipeppers) in oil is applied on affected area for the treatment of scorpion bite in District Jacobabad (Sindh).
Ground C. annuumand wood of SalvadoraoleiodsDecne (Salvadora) is mixed with honey to form paste and applied for the treatment of wounds in District Sukkur (Sindh).
- Paste of C. annuum is applied for the treatment of dog bite in Districts Sukkur, NawabShah,Sanghar, and Kahairpur (Sindh).
- Paste of C. annuumin clarified butter is warmed and applied for the treatment of dog bite in District Sukkur (Sindh).
- Paste of C. annuum in honey is applied on affected area for the treatment of dog bite in District Sukkur (Sindh).
- C. annuum is bandaged on affected area for the treatment of dog bite in District Kamber-shadadkot (Sindh).
C. annuum cosists ofvitamin C and E, and provitamin A2,3.Capsaicinoidssuch as capsaicin, 6,7-
dihydrocapsaicin, nordihydrocapsaicin, homodihydrocapsaicin, and homocapsaicinwere isolated from fruit. Steroidal glycosides such as capsicoside A to D and furostanol.carotenoid pigments such ascapsanthin, cucurbitaxanthin A, luteine, carotene, capsorubrin, and zeaxanthinwere also found in this plant4.
Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies
Powder of C. annuum is used in colds, sores,cough, indolent ulcers, asthma, abscesses, and urinary catarrh. it is also applied topically on wounds for controlling bleeding It acts as stomachic, stimulant, antispasmodic, carminative, analgesic, astringent, and antiseptic. Capsaicin, an important constituent of C. annuum,is used in the preparation of cream and applied topicallyin arthritis pain and sorenessof general muscle. Oleoresins, one of the constituents of capsicum, is used in the form of spray results in eye pain and temporary blindness, burning and choking sensation, tear secretion, and sneezing. Italso effect locally on skin and causes rashes, vesicles,eczema,dermatitis, erythema, and blisters4.
Capsanthin, a carotenoid,showed anti-tumor-promoting activity5.Crude extract of C. annuum fruit showed hypoglycemic effect. Ethanol extract possessed larvicidal activity. Several other pharmacological properties of this plant include antineoplastic, analgesic, antiangiogenic, antiplatelet, antiparasitics, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, and antiobesity4.
- Palevitch, D., &Craker, L. E. (1996). Nutritional and medical importance of red pepper (Capsicum spp.). Journal of herbs, spices & medicinal plants,3(2), 55-83.
- Daood, H. G., Vinkler, M., Markus, F., Hebshi, E. A., &Biacs, P. A. (1996). Antioxidant vitamin content of spice red pepper (paprika) as affected by technological and varietal factors. Food Chemistry, 55(4), 365-372.
- Fathima, S. N. (2015). A Systemic Review on Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Activities of Capsicum annuum.International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Research, 4 (3), 51-68
- Daood, H. G., Vinkler, M., Markus, F., Hebshi, E. A., &Biacs, P. A. (1996). Antioxidant vitamin content of spice red pepper (paprika) as affected by technological and varietal factors.Food Chemistry, 55(4), 365-372.