Camellia sinensis (L.).Kuntze
Local Name: Chai
Sindhi Name: Chaan
Part Used: leaves
English Name: Black tea
Camellia sinens is (L.) Kuntzeis small tree or shrub about 15 m high.Leaves are oblong in shape and dark green with hairy base. Flowers are about 3 m crosswise, white,fragrant with yellow stamens, and present as a single or bunch of 2 or 4.Fruits are brownish green with 1 to 4 round or flattened seeds1,2.
C. sinensis is widely occur in tropical subtropical areas, Kenyan, South East Asia,chiefly in China, Japan, and India3,5.
Ethnomedicinal Uses in Skin Diseases
Boil Camellia sinens is (L.). Kuntze (Black tea),this water is used to wash affected area for the treatment of Otitis externa in District Badin (Sindh).
C. sinensis is mixed in Crow’s blood to make paste, this paste is applied topically on affected area for the treatment of alopecia in District Sukkur (Sindh).
- Leaves of C. sinens is are ground in water to make paste and applied on hairs for the treatment of hair loss in District Nawabshah (Sindh).
- Warmed black tea is bandaged on affected area for treatment of wounds in District Thatta (Sindh).
C. sinensis contain polyphenols, caffeine, amino acids, nitrogen, saponins, thearubigins, theaflavins, caffeine, flavonols, and flavonol glycosides4. Fresh leaves contain polyphenolic compounds like catechins including epigallocatechin-3-gallate, theaflavin-3,3′-digallate, theaflavin-3′-gallate, epicatechin and epicatechin gallate5,6,7.
Medicinal Uses and Pharmacology/Scientific Studies
C. sinensis is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of angina pectoris, asthma, peripheral vascular disease and coronary artery disease. It acts as a stimulant and astringent. It is used as a gargle or injection too. Infusion of leaves is used as antidote to insect bites. Leaves infusion is also recommended in digestive problems and for controlling sweating in fevers. Leaves are used homeopathically as a remedy inTamil Nadufor neuralgia,paralysis, nervousness, mania, and sleep lessness8.
C. sinensis is stated to have inhibitory effect against ultra violet B induced carcinogenesis in mice4. Polyphenols present in C. sinensis possess antioxidant and antimicrobial activities6,10.Anti-hyperglycemic activity of hot water extract has been reported9. Polyphenoliccompounds reduced the probability of different cancers and coronary heart diseases11,12,13. Plant also possessed antiparkinson, antistroke, anticancer, antidiabetic, anticaries, anti-inflammatory activities14.
- Paul, S., Wachira, F. N., Powell, W., and Waugh, R. (1997). Diversity and genetic differentiation among populations of Indian and Kenyan tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) revealed by AFLP markers. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 94(2), 255-263.
- Wang, Z. Y., Huang, M. T., Lou, Y. R., Xie, J. G., Reuhl, K. R., Newmark, H. L., andConney, A. H. (1994). Inhibitory effects of black tea, green tea, decaffeinated black tea, and decaffeinated green tea on ultraviolet B light-induced skin carcinogenesis in 7, 12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene-initiated SKH-1 mice. Cancer Research, 54(13), 3428-3435.
- Zielinski, A. A. F., Granato, D., Alberti, A., Nogueira, A., Demiate, I. M., andHaminiuk, C. W. I. (2015). Modelling the extraction of phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant activity of mixtures of green, white and black teas (Camellia sinensis Kuntze). Journal of Food Science and Technology,52(11), 6966-6977.
- Frei, B., and Higdon, J. V. (2003). Antioxidant activity of tea polyphenols in vivo: evidence from animal studies. The Journal of nutrition, 133(10), 3275S-3284S.
- Liang, Y., Lu, J., Zhang, L., Wu, S., and Wu, Y. (2003). Estimation of black tea quality by analysis of chemical composition and colour difference of tea infusions. Food Chemistry, 80(2), 283-290.
- Gomes, A., Vedasiromoni, J. R., Das, M., Sharma, R. M., andGanguly, D. K. (1995). Anti-hyperglycemic effect of black tea (Camellia sinensis) in rat.Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 45(3), 223-226.
- Almajano, M. P., Carbo, R., Jiménez, J. A. L., and Gordon, M. H. (2008). Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of tea infusions. Food chemistry, 108(1), 55-63.
- Mukhtar, H., and Ahmad, N. (2000). Tea polyphenols: prevention of cancer and optimizing health. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 71(6), 1698s-1702s.
- Katiyar, S., andMukhtar, H. A. S. A. N. (1996). Tea in chemoprevention of cancer. International journal of oncology, 8(2), 221-238.
- Dreosti, I. E., Wargovich, M. J., and Yang, C. S. (1997). Inhibition of carcinogenesis by tea: the evidence from experimental studies. Critical Reviews in Food Science & Nutrition, 37(8), 761-770.
- Namita, P., Mukesh, R., and Vijay, K. J. (2012). Camellia Sinensis (green tea): A review. Global Journal of Pharmacology, 6(2), 52-59.